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andes (Other Keyword)

1-25 (85 Records)

Agriculture and Empire in the High-Altitude Atacama Desert (2015)

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Citation DOCUMENT Frances Hayashida. Andrés Troncoso. Diego Salazar. César Parcero-Oubiña. Pastor Fábrega-Álvarez.

[tDAR id: 396006] How did prehispanic farmers make a living in the hyperarid, high-altitude Atacama Desert, and how did their lives and landscapes change under different political regimes? In this paper, we discuss our ongoing project on irrigated landscapes in the interfluvial region between the Upper Loa and Salado rivers in northern Chile. Research has focused on two sites (Paniri and Topaín) with remarkably well preserved spring-fed canal and terrace systems and a residential and administrative center...


Agriculture is a state of mind- the Andean potato’s unending domestication (2015)

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Citation DOCUMENT Christine Hastorf.

[tDAR id: 395656] Most scholars agree that territoriality and commitment to a landscape participated in the domestication syndrome and agriculture. The geophyte Solanum, the potato, is a particularly engaging crop to study domestication origins, being a stem tuber, with wild species growing throughout the Andes of South America, it is only with recent genetic research that we know its likely location of domestication. Wild potatoes continue to be found in potato fields today, aiding the diverse varieties still...


Analogist Ontology at Chavín de Huantár (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Matthew Sayre. Nicco La Mattina.

[tDAR id: 402944] The ontological turn in Anthropology has revealed new possibilities for considering the relationships between humans, material things, and “other-than-human persons,” as well as reassessing the Western notion of a nature/culture dichotomy. One site where these insights have begun to be applied is Chavín de Huantár in Peru. The iconography of the site is well known for its mixed human/animal hybrids, a style that prompted John Rowe to consider the art figuratively as visual kennings, with certain...


Analyzing Skeletal Manifestations of Pre-Columbian Tuberculosis in the Northeastern highlands of Peru (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Jennifer Marla Toyne. Nathan Esplin.

[tDAR id: 405066] The current understanding of Pre-Columbian tuberculosis is unclear, and in several geographic areas very little is known. To date most knowledge of ancient tuberculosis comes from isolated case studies. These studies are informative as they consider the individual in question but they offer little insight into the demographic or social impact of tuberculosis. This population-based study describes osteological lesions consistent with possible tuberculosis in 15 individual skeletons excavated from...


Anchoring the Absolute to the Relative: Recent Chronological Research in the Virú Valley, Peru (2015)

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Citation DOCUMENT Jordan Downey. Jean-François Millaire.

[tDAR id: 396982] For decades north coast specialists worked within a paradigm that viewed the Moche as an expansionist state. Moche fine ware was regarded as a reliable indicator for dating this polity's imperialism over its neighbours, an idea that traces its roots to the Virú Valley Project of the 1940s. Extensive recent field research has led many to question this colonial model, however, and to propose other, more fragmented, geopolitical scenarios. This shift has both undermined the universal usefulness of...


Andean Foodways: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Pre-Columbian and Colonial Food and Culture (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT John Staller.

[tDAR id: 404804] Pre-Columbian Andean cultures have strong cultural and religious ties to plants and animals in their surrounding landscape. The preparation of food crops and cultigens that sustained life had strong cultural associations to ethnic identity, ritual, and religious practices in the annual cycle. Archaeologists have documented the biological complexity of the Andes and the social importance of feasting, rituals and rites in ancient and colonial societies. Indigenous perceptions and beliefs regarding...


An Archaeological and Historical Inquiry of Andagua, Peru, 1000-1800AD (2015)

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Citation DOCUMENT Alexander Menaker.

[tDAR id: 398120] This paper outlines developing dissertation research that integrates archaeological and historical evidence about the community of Andagua and the Ayo Valley in the Southern Peruvian Andes. Constructed as a Spanish colonial reducción, Andagua resides in a seldom-visited highland area, and today is merely considered a rural, provincial neighbor of Arequipa. Andagua, however, has a striking past evident in the substantial prehispanic remains that surround and lie buried beneath the contemporary...


The Archaeology of Rebellion and Resistance: Archaeological Investigations of the Neo-Inca State of Vilcabamba, Peru (2015)

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Citation DOCUMENT Emily Dean. Amelia Perez Trujillo.

[tDAR id: 397738] In 1536 Manco Inca, the ‘puppet’ ruler installed by Pizarro, threw off the shackles of colonial rule and led a rebellion against the Spanish. After failing to retake the former imperial capital of Cusco, Manco Inca and his followers established a Neo-Inca state in Vilcabamba, the remote region east of Cusco. Vilcabamba functioned as the seat of Inca resistance against the Spanish from A.D. 1536 to 1572. While the historic record from the 1600s and 1700s is rich, few records exist for the...


Beyond the Cultural Pale?: Contextualizing El Morro de Tulcán within Regional Earthen Mound Development in the Northern Andes (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Ryan Hechler. William Pratt. David Brown.

[tDAR id: 404685] El Morro de Tulcán is a massive earthen mound located near Popayán in southern Colombia. This structure towers over the surrounding landscape with a height of 50 meters at its highest point. This pyramid is an anomaly within the surrounding cultural vicinity, where tolas (i.e., earthen mounds) are a rare form of construction throughout much of Colombia. The closest region of tola development is in high concentrations in northern Ecuador, amongst the Caranquis and Yumbos. Research at El Morro de...


A Biocultural Assessment of Gene Flow, the Andes and the Himalayas (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Cecil Lewis. Christina Warinner.

[tDAR id: 404047] Anthropological population geneticists often attempt to explain the pattern and distribution of human genetic variation globally. Central to this pursuit is understanding the degree to which cultural, biological, and geographic variation impact migration of people, and the genetic traits (alleles) they bear. Gene flow, the transfer of alleles from one population to another, flows in the path of least resistance. All other things being equal, this means that topology creates resistance, and we...


Biography and Symbolism of Sicán Painted Textiles: First Approximation (2015)

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Citation DOCUMENT Amy Szumilewicz. Izumi Shimada. Carlos Elera Alvarado. César Samillán Torres.

[tDAR id: 398297] Simple cotton cloths primed as canvases and painted with complex imagery are the rarest group of fiber arts found in the Andes. Long-term excavations of Middle Sicán (900-1100 CE) elite cemeteries at the site of Sicán on the North Coast of Peru, however, have shown that high quantities of these paintings, often in polychrome and over 10m in length, decorated the interior surfaces of elite tombs. In this paper we present evidence for their manufacture and use, as well as approaches to preserving...


The bravery and beauty within: Skeletal analysis of the ancient Chachapoya people at Kuelap (2015)

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Citation DOCUMENT Jennifer Marla Toyne. J. Marla Toyne. L. Alfredo Narvaez.

[tDAR id: 395960] In early 17th century historical descriptions, Garcilaso de la Vega describes the Chachapoya people of Peru as "very brave", "the men well-formed and the women extremely beautiful". While the archaeological remains cannot address the veracity of these statements, the analysis of the skeletal remains from important Chachapoya complexes, such as Kuelap, provide the only direct means of reconstructing a biological profile of these ancient people, including aspects of their physical morphology,...


Characterizing the mortuary practices in Hualcayán, Ancash, Perú: Analysis of the content and distribution of artifacts in funerary contexts (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Elizabeth Cruzado Carranza.

[tDAR id: 405324] In prehistory, the Peruvian highlands contained a complex array of mortuary practices through space and time. In the Ancash region at the site of Hualcayán, several funerary contexts have been excavated since 2011 that demonstrate this variation in mortuary practices between 250 BC to AD 950. This paper presents the results of a study of the archaeological materials excavated from six tombs at Hualcayán, that include the analysis of decorated ceramics, botanical and faunal remains, lithics,...


The Chaupiyunga as an Eco-cultural Frontier: Inter-zonal exchange and negotiation in the Huanangue Valley during the Late Intermediate Period (1100-1470 CE) (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Kasia Szremski.

[tDAR id: 404518] As a region of high ethnic and ecological diversity, the ancient Andes can be viewed as a collection of ecological, cultural, and political frontiers. Studying the processes that occurred along these frontiers is vital to understanding the indigenous political and economic systems that developed throughout the region prior to Spanish contact. As a transitional zone between the coast and the highlands, as well as a geographic bottleneck through which people and goods had to pass, the...


Chimú Conquest and Administration at Talambo, Jequetepeque, Perú (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Kari Zobler.

[tDAR id: 405000] There are few communities in the Andes untouched by the legacies of empire. On the North Coast of Peru, the Chimú (900—1470 AD) formed the most extensive empire in the region prior to Inca conquest. Significant archaeological and ethnohistoric evidence from the Jequetepeque Valley—the first region to be incorporated by the Chimú— has illustrated the nature of this conquest and the varying impacts on local communities. The site of Talambo, located in the lower neck of the Jequetepeque Valley, has...


The "Coastal Cajamarca" Style Did Not Come from the Coast (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Howard Tsai.

[tDAR id: 404035] The "Coastal Cajamarca" style of painted bowls was first documented by Disselhoff in the 1950s at the site of San Jose de Moro (Lower Jequetepeque Valley, Peru). There are two competing hypotheses with regard to the origin of this ceramic style: (1) it originated from the coast or (2) it was produced in the middle valley or chaupiyunga zone, an intermediate area between the coast and the highlands. In this paper I present evidence from the site of Las Varas, located in the Middle Jequetepeque...


Coastal politics in Cajamarca: recent research in the middle Jequetepeque Valley (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Gabriela Cervantes. Robyn Cutright.

[tDAR id: 404027] Based on research at Ventanillas, a Late Intermediate Period community in the middle Jequetepeque Valley, Peru, this paper discusses the role of coastal polities and highland influence in a multiethnic middle valley context. Mapping, surface collection, and excavations in 2011 and 2013 focused on investigating the cultural and political affiliation of Ventanillas residents. Ventanillas’ imposing adobe platform mounds link the site visibly to coastal traditions; however, households used a mix of...


Cochasquí under the Inka: Reassessing the Inka presence in northern Ecuador (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT William Pratt. David Brown. Ryan Hechler.

[tDAR id: 405393] The archaeological site of Cochasquí exhibits some of Ecuador’s largest and most ornate earthen pyramids or Tolas. With long dirt ramps and truncated steps of cangahua blocks, the Cochasquí pyramids are some of the most recognizable in the country. It was at this site that the Inka first encountered and conquered one of the great polities of the Caranqui Confederation. Sometime after its conquest by the Inka, the Spanish arrive and, by all historic accounts, the location was abandoned by 1580...


Color and Q'iwa: Expecting the Unexpected in Andean Textile Design (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Rebecca Stone.

[tDAR id: 403316] Color is one of many key expressive modes for textiles in particular. Intense, communicative, and not always predictable, Andean textile coloration is a complex issue. Rather than submitting to a "cookbook" delineation of color symbolism (red means blood, etc.), the abstract mindset of ancient and modern Andean societies means that color has many more complex, even philosophical, roles to play in the fiber arts of this area. For instance, purposeful rupturing of regular color patterning...


Color patterns and aspects of significance in the Paracas Necropolis (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Ann Peters.

[tDAR id: 403319] Anne Paul (1998) observed that the Paracas Necropolis embroiderers seem to explore all possible color repeat patterns in their mantle design. At the same time, a few dominant color combinations recur throughout the assemblage. Like speech, color is a system of difference, hues perceived relationally through contrast with those adjacent. Dyed color is produced by chemical processes on natural fiber with pre-existing tones, and changes over time in diverse environmental conditions. These factors...


Conversion and Revitalization in a Taki Onqoy Center of Highland Peru (Chicha--Ayacucho) (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Scotti Norman.

[tDAR id: 404546] In the first generation after the Spanish conquest of Peru, indigenous Andeans and Spaniards entered into a period of change in which daily practices, traditions, and religion were negotiated and reshaped. A local response to Spanish attempts at Christian conversion was the cultural revitalization movement of Taki Onqoy (Quechua-dancing sickness). Primary sources suggest that this movement was practiced by local Andeans and manifested through the rejection of Spanish religious beliefs in favor...


Diet, Status, and Identity in Colonial Peru: Investigations at Carrizales (Zaña Valley, Peru) (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Sarah Kennedy. Parker VanValkenburgh. Katherine L. Chiou.

[tDAR id: 404212] Late 16th century Peru was a dynamic period associated with emerging Spanish colonial polices - forced resettlement and tribute extraction – coupled with general demographic decline. Spanish officials and indigenous communities alike had to make difficult choices on how they provided for their households and put food on the table. We examine the effects of this tumultuous period on Spanish and indigenous foodways at the reducción site of Carrizales, located in the lower Zaña Valley on the North...


Drinking power: Moche tombs as sites of subjectification (2015)

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Citation DOCUMENT Mary Weismantel.

[tDAR id: 396284] In the ethnohistoric record of the Andes, the bodies of the dead feature as key material objects through which living rulers claimed power over people and territory, especially irrigated land. This was true for the highland Inka, and also for coastal societies such as Chimu. In the archaeological record for earlier societies such as Moche, we see evidence for a similar complex of practices involving tombs, entombed bodies, and associated artifacts and offerings. These mortuary assemblages were...


Early expressions of persistent leadership and inequality in the Andean Preceramic (2016)

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Citation DOCUMENT Mark Aldenderfer.

[tDAR id: 402953] Research over the past few decades in the Andean world has identified a number of preludes to sociopolitical complexity, persistent leadership, and emergent inequality that involve a diversity of social and cultural forms, including the control and manipulation of ritual or religious power, the mobilization of labor to construct a variety of forms of public architecture, the display of status or prestige items, and control over access to socially valued goods. In many archaeological contexts...


The Earthly Production of Fleshy Subjects in the South-Central Andes (2015)

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Citation DOCUMENT John Janusek.

[tDAR id: 396289] A specific range of human subjects, or fully socialized, moral persons- rigorously categorized according to age, sex, kinship, and so forth -are, of course, the most critical ‘things’ that any society seeks to produce. I investigate the production of prehispanic human subjects in the Lake Titicaca Basin of the South American Andes. To understand the emergence of the Middle Horizon center of Tiwanaku at around AD 500, I investigate the deployment of innovative spatial, material, and...

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