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Central Arizona Project

Part of: USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office (PXAO)

The Bureau of Reclamation’s Central Arizona Project (CAP) collection presents results of the extensive cultural resource investigations conducted during the planning, construction, and maintenance of the project’s water delivery systems and associated infrastructure. The wide scope and expansive scale of CAP archaeology represent an impressive and now integral contribution to Southwestern archaeology, and much of the work changed and challenged many conceptions of Arizona’s prehistory. The collection’s materials are organized according to the CAP’s water delivery systems and other structures. Within each of these delivery system collections, materials are further divided into archaeological projects and tasks that were conducted to investigate cultural resources

The CAP is a multipurpose water resource development and management project that provides irrigation, municipal and industrial water, power, flood control, outdoor recreation, environmental enhancement and sediment control. The project also provides delivery of Tribal homeland water, partial settlement of Indian water rights claims, and economic benefits accruing from the leasing of Indian agricultural water rights to municipal entities. Water is provided to lands in Maricopa, Pinal and Pima counties, and to several communities, including the metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson. Authorization also was included for development of facilities to deliver water to Catron, Hidalgo, and Grant Counties in New Mexico. In addition to water delivery systems, the CAP includes power generation infrastructure, principally participation in the Navajo Generation Station and a transmission system to supply power to pumping plants and check structures of the Hayden-Rhodes, Fannin-McFarland and Tucson aqueducts

For administration and construction purposes, the CAP was divided into the Granite Reef, Orme, Salt-Gila, Gila River, Tucson, and the Indian and Non-Indian Distribution divisions. During project construction, the Orme Division was re-formulated and renamed the Regulatory Storage Division; it includes New Waddell Dam and Camp Dyer Diversion Dam. Upon completion, the Granite Reef Division was re-named the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, and the Salt-Gila Division was renamed the Fannin-McFarland Aqueduct.

The CAP was authorized by the Colorado River Basin Project Act of 1968. Construction of the project began in 1973 with the award of a contract for the Havasu Intake Channel Dike and excavation for the Havasu Pumping Plant (Mark Wilmer Pumping Plant) on the shores of Lake Havasu. Construction of the other project features followed. The backbone aqueduct system, which runs about 336 miles from Lake Havasu to a terminus southwest of Tucson, was declared substantially complete in 1993. The new and modified dams constructed as part of the project were declared substantially complete in 1994. All of the non-Indian agricultural water distribution systems were completed in the late 1980s, as were most of the municipal water delivery systems. Several Indian distribution systems are either under construction or remain to be built; it is estimated that full development of these systems could require another 20 years or longer.

When authorized, the plan included the construction of Hooker Dam and Buttes Dam on the Gila River to provide conservation storage, flood and sediment control, and recreation opportunities, and the construction of Orme Dam at the junction of the Salt and Verde Rivers to provide flood protection and water conservation. None of these facilities were built. Although authorized, Buttes Dam and Hooker Dam on the Gila River (in New Mexico) and Charleston Dam on the San Pedro River were not constructed because of cost considerations, a lack of demand for the water, lack of repayment capability by the users, and environmental constraints. To fulfill the authorized functions of Orme Dam, Plan 6 was developed. Plan 6 is the Regulatory Storage Division of the project and includes New Waddell Dam and Camp Dryer Diversion Dam located on the Agua Fria River, a tributary of the Gila River, and a modified Roosevelt and Stewart Mountain dams on the Salt River. These two dams predate the project and have been modified for safety and increased storage capacity.


Resources Inside This Collection

1-100 (319 Records)

Individual Resources

  1. A Cultural Inventory of the Proposed Granite Reef and Salt-Gila Aqueducts, Agua Fria River to Gila River, Arizona (1969)
    score:-1
  2. A Cultural Resource Survey of Wildlife Oases Monitoring Plots Located Along Reaches 6 and 9 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
    score:-1
  3. A Research Design and Work Plan for Cultural Resource Studies, Distribution Division, Central Arizona Project (1984)
    score:-1
  4. An Archaeological Analysis of the Proposed Florence Water Treatment Plant (1987)
    score:-1
  5. An Archaeological Investigation of Sites Located Along the Mead-Davis-Parker Transmission System (Granite Reef) (1976)
    score:-1
  6. An Archaeological Overview of the Middle Santa Cruz Basin: A Supplemental Class I Cultural Resource Survey for Reach 3 of the Central Arizona Project - Tucson Division (1981)
    score:-1
  7. An Archaeological Overview of the Middle and Lower Santa Cruz Basin: A Class I Cultural Resource Survey for the Central Arizona Project - Tucson Division (1979)
    score:-1
  8. An Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey of the Proposed Liberty-Parker 230 KV Transmission Line (1974)
    score:-1
  9. An Archaeological Resurvey and Assessment of 15 Previously Recorded Sites on the Bureau of Reclamation Right-of-Way Along the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project Canal, Located in La Paz County, Arizona (2015)
    score:-1
  10. An Archaeological Survey in the Blackwater Area, Volume 1: The History of Human Settlement in the Blackwater Area (1994)
    score:-1
  11. An Archaeological Survey in the Blackwater Area, Volume 2: Site Descriptions and Related Data (1994)
    score:-1
  12. An Archaeological Survey of a Portion of the Proposed Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona (1968)
    score:-1
  13. An Archaeological Survey of the Buckskin Mountain Tunnel Project (1972)
    score:-1
  14. An Archaeological Survey of the Granite-Reef Aqueduct (1972)
    score:-1
  15. An Archaeological Survey of the Mead-Davis-Parker 230 KV Transmission Line #2 (1973)
    score:-1
  16. An Archaeological Survey of the Salt-Gila Aqueduct (1973)
    score:-1
  17. An Archaeological Survey of the Tucson Aqueducts, Central Arizona Project (1969)
    score:-1
  18. Aravaipa Creek Fish Barrier Project: Archaeological Monitoring of Fence Installation at the Apache Burial Site (BOR-ARV98-l) and a Supplemental Cultural Resources Survey for Activities Associated with Fish Dam Construction on Aravaipa Creek (2000)
    score:-1
  19. Aravaipa Creek Fish Barrier Project: Survey and Mapping of an Apache Site along Aravaipa Creek, Pinal County, Arizona (1999)
    score:-1
  20. Archaeological Assessment of a Proposed Borrow Area Adjacent to Avra Valley Airport, Marana, Pima County, Arizona (1996)
    score:-1
  21. Archaeological Excavation of Three Historic Burials at Tonto Basin Ranger Station, Tonto National Forest, Gila County (1994)
    score:-1
  22. Archaeological Investigation of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Cave Creek Archaeological District, Arizona (1977)
    score:-1
  23. Archaeological Investigations at AZ U:6:2(ASU), An Historic Camp on the Banks of the Salt River, Maricopa County, Arizona (1978)
    score:-1
  24. Archaeological Survey and Testing of Lands Proposed for Agricultural Development on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (1992)
    score:-1
  25. Archaeological Survey in Districts 6 and 7, Gila River Indian Community (1997)
    score:-1
  26. Archaeological Test Excavations at Two Sites In the Vicinity of the Lake Pleasant Regional Park (1990)
    score:-1
  27. Archaeology in the Distribution Division of the Central Arizona Project: Thoughts on the History of the Hohokam Culture of Southern Arizona and on the Practice of Archaeology in the 1990s (1995)
    score:-1
  28. Archaeomagnetic Dates and the Hohokam Phase Sequence (1988)
    score:-1
  29. Archaic Occupation on the Santa Cruz Flats: The Tator Hills Archaeological Project (1993)
    score:-1
  30. Archeological Investigations Along the Salt-Gila Aqueduct (1979)
    score:-1
  31. Arizona U:5:13: A Short-Term Limited Activity Site (1974)
    score:-1
  32. Classic Period Occupation on the Santa Cruz Flats: The Santa Cruz Flats Archaeological Project, Part 1 (1993)
    score:-1
  33. Classic Period Occupation on the Santa Cruz Flats: The Santa Cruz Flats Archaeological Project, Part 2 (1993)
    score:-1
  34. Cultural Resources Overview for the Proposed Central Arizona Project Water Reallocation Plan (2000)
    score:-1
  35. Final Report for Plan 6 Supplemental Cultural Resource Surveys (1985)
    score:-1
  36. Geological Impacts to Archaeological Sites Located within the Tucson Aqueduct System Reliability Investigation (TASRI) and the Pascua Yaqui Farm Development Survey Areas (1993)
    score:-1
  37. Granite Reef: A Study in Desert Archaeology (1982)
    score:-1
  38. Historic American Engineering Record: Bartlett Dam, Maricopa County, Arizona (1990)
    score:-1
  39. Historic American Engineering Record: Horseshoe Dam (1991)
    score:-1
  40. Historic American Engineering Record: Theodore Roosevelt Dam (1992)
    score:-1
  41. Historic American Engineering Record: Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Power Plant (1996)
    score:-1
  42. Historic American Engineering Record: Waddell Dam, Maricopa County, Arizona (1988)
    score:-1
  43. Historic Cultural Resources in Relation to the Central Arizona Water Control Study (1983)
    score:-1
  44. Mitigation Plan for the Salt-Gila Aqueduct (1979)
    score:-1
  45. Poster: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation’s Long-Term Section 106 and 110 Survey and Public Outreach Efforts at Lake Pleasant Regional Park near Phoenix, Arizona: 26 Years of Research By Archaeological Consulting Services (2010)
    score:-1
  46. Research Design and Work Plan for Archaeological Survey on the Gila River Indian Community (1995)
    score:-1
  47. Research Design for the Investigation of Cultural Resources Along the Granite Reef Aqueduct and Transmission Lines, Central Arizona Project (1978)
    score:-1
  48. Settlement, Subsistence, and Specialization In the Northern Periphery: The Waddell Project. Vols. 1 and 2 (1989)
    score:-1
  49. Shelltown and The Hind Site: A Study of Two Hohokam Craftsman Communities in Southwestern Arizona, Volume 1, Part 1 (1993)
    score:-1
  50. Shelltown and the Hind Site: A Study of Two Hohokam Craftsman Communities in Southwestern Arizona, Volume 1 Part 2 (1993)
    score:-1
  51. Small Sites on the Santa Cruz Flats: The Results of the Investigations Along the Santa Rosa Canal in the Distribution Division of the Central Arizona Project (1993)
    score:-1
  52. The Archaeological Test Excavations of Five Sites in the Lake Pleasant Regional Park (1989)
    score:-1
  53. The Bartlett Dam Project: Archaeological Test Excavations at Fourteen Sites in the Lower Verde Valley, Maricopa County, Arizona (1991)
    score:-1
  54. The Bartlett Reservoir Cultural Resources Survey (1996)
    score:-1
  55. The Central Arizona Project Historic Preservation Program: Conserving the Past While Building for the Future (1986)
    score:-1
  56. The Digital Legacy of Public Archaeology in the Phoenix Basin, Arizona (2015)
    score:-1
  57. The Middle Gila Basin: An Archaeological and Historical Overview (1982)
    score:-1
  58. The Roosevelt Bajada Survey, Tonto Basin, Gila County, Central Arizona (1991)
    score:-1
  59. The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Class III Cultural Resources Survey, Maricopa County, Arizona (1991)
    score:-1

Ak-Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Data Recovery Project

  1. Ak-Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Data Recovery Project
    score:-1
  2. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: Material Cultural and Human Remains (1990)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: Research Design (1986)
    score:-1
  4. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: Subsistence Studies and Synthesis and Interpretation (1990)
    score:-1
  5. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: The Archaeological Data Recovery Program (1990)
    score:-1
  6. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: The Land and the People (1990)
    score:-1

Archaeological Assessment of 16 Sites at Lake Pleasant Regional Park

  1. Archaeological Assessment of 16 Sites at Lake Pleasant Regional Park
    score:-1
  2. Archaeological Assessment of 16 Sites at Lake Pleasant Regional Park: Photo Log (2008)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Assessment of 16 Sites at Lake Pleasant Regional Park: Select Photos (2008)
    score:-1

An Archaeological Reassessment and Evaluation of Eight Site Clusters Around Horseshoe Reservoir, Tonto National Forest

  1. An Archaeological Reassessment and Evaluation of Eight Site Clusters Around Horseshoe Reservoir, Tonto National Forest
    score:-1
  2. An Archaeological Reassessment and Evaluation of Eight Site Clusters Around Horseshoe Reservoir, Tonto National Forest (1993)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 1, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 1, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 1 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 1 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1980)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 10, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 10, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. An Archaeological Survey of the Reach 10 Realignment of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1976)
    score:-1
  3. Investigation of Archaeological Sites Along Reach 10, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona (1976)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 11, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 11, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 11 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 11 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 12, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 12, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 12 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 12 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1980)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 2, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 2, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. Archaeological Investigations of Cultural Resources Located Along Reach 2 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Survey Results from Reach 2 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 3, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 3, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 3 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 3 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 4, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 4, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 4, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 4 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5 Within a Borrow Area, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5 Within a Borrow Area, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. An Archaeological Clearance Survey of a Borrow Area Associated with Reach 5, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona (1976)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Investigations Within a Borrow Area Associated with Reach 5, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona (1976)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5A, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5A, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. An Archaeological Survey of the Floodwater Retention Basin, Reach 5A, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona (1976)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Investigations Within a Floodwater Detention Basin, Reach 5A, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona (1976)
    score:-1

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5B, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5B, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
    score:-1
  2. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 5B of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
    score:-1
  3. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 5B of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
    score:-1
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Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America