Society for American Archaeology 80th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (2015)

Part of: Society for American Archaeology

This collection contains the abstracts from the 2015 annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Most files in this collection contain the abstract only. The Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology provides a forum for the dissemination of knowledge and discussion. The 80th Annual Meeting was held in San Francisco, California from April 15-19, 2015.


Resources Inside This Collection (Viewing 3,601-3,697 of 3,697)


  • Prehistoric Mobility and Population Movements in Palau: New Data from aDNA and Stable Isotope (Sr, Pb) Analysis (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Scott Fitzpatrick. Jessica Stone. Justin Tackney. John Krigbaum. Greg Nelson.

    Ongoing research at the Chelechol ra Orrak rockshelter in Palau, Micronesia, has revealed the presence of one of the oldest (ca. 3000-1700 BP) and most demographically diverse cemeteries in the Pacific. Archaeological excavation of only a small portion of the site indicates that dozens of individuals were buried here for more than a millennia. Subsequent osteological analysis coupled with recent attempts to extract ancient DNA and stable isotopes (Sr and Pb) have shed new light on genetic...

  • Islamic Trade and Entrepots in the Second Millennium Philippines Archipelago (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only John Peterson.

    The spread of Islamic influence throughout Island Southeast Asia and into the Philippines Archipelago was rapid and extremely effective in the second millennium AD. This model of colonization utilized down-the-line and proxy trading through Taosug and Iranun raiders as well as by the establishment of entrepôts established through intermarriage and local exchange. Power flowing through horizontal networks cemented regional networks and exported an extensive power structure into an otherwise...

  • Negotiating Power at the Spanish-Philippine Frontier: What Evidence of Indigenous Prestige Economies Reveals about Indigenous-Colonial Interaction (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Cecilia Smith.

    Historical documents provide most of what is currently known regarding Spain’s subjugation of the Philippine archipelago. However, in this paper I discuss how archaeological evidence of indigenous prestige economies enriches our understanding of the interaction between the encroaching Spanish colonizers with indigenous polities. My study of imported ceramics found in the Malangwa watershed, Negros Oriental indicate that, contrary to Spanish records, indigenous access to foreign prestige goods...

  • Investigating Social Practices, Community and Interaction in the Philippine Islands during the Metal Age (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Sandy De Leon.

    Investigations of social interaction and notions of community among island societies of Southeast Asia during the Metal Age (500 BC-AD 800) are very limited, especially in the Philippines. This general lack of well-documented settlement, household and burial data, and underdeveloped theoretical frameworks interpreting the archaeological remains, impede our understanding of social organization in the period and fail to contextualize the appearance socially stratified and politically centralized...

  • Rice Terraces as Defensive Structures: Landscape Modeling in Hapao, Ifugao (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Wolfgang Alders. Jared Koller.

    This paper investigates the potential defensive functions of rice terrace construction in Ifugao, Philippines, through an exploration of how landscape analysis and 3D modeling might contribute to established archaeological and ethnographic understandings of the region. While still under debate, a growing body of archaeological evidence suggests that the settlement of the Ifugao highlands and the development of intensive rice terrace farming may have been a strategy for avoiding political...

  • In search of Southeast Asia’s trade network: Comparative ceramic analysis (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Jared Koller. Kaoru Ueda.

    Southeast Asia is a region whose inhabitants have long been engaged in long-distance trade connected through ocean and river systems. This paper presents the preliminary results of a petrographic study on earthenware samples from archaeological sites in Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand in order to scientifically investigate the putative trade networks. The preliminary results show a complex picture of local production and imported ceramics, one that changes depending on the location and the...

  • Infant Health and Burial Practices in Late Prehistoric and Contact Period Kiyyangan, Ifugao (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Adam Lauer. Alexandra McDougle.

    Infant death in Ifugao villages has only been viewed through a lens of modern ethnography. Recent excavations at the Old Kiyyangan Village site have revealed new information on the resource base, trade networks and impact of outside groups on the prehistoric and early historic Ifugao. This work has produced a small sample (16) of individuals who died at, or around, full term to the age of two years. The age, health, and mortuary profiles of these skeletons will be presented and placed into...

  • Ending the Antiquity Debates: The "Short History" Model of the Ifugao Rice Terraces, Philippines (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Mikhail Echavarri. Stephen Acabado.

    Local wisdom and nationalist sentiments would have us uphold the long-held belief in the age of the Ifugao Rice Terraces, espoused by pioneer anthropologists of the Philippines, Roy F. Barton and Henry Otley Beyer. Recent findings by the Ifugao Archaeological Project (IAP), however, have provided new information which have driven us to rethink this proposed date, primarily because of the dearth of archaeological data to support the "long-history" model. Evidence is now pointing to a relatively...

  • Masters of the Sea? Examining the Role of Southeast Asians in Fifteenth Century CE Southeast Asian Maritime Trade (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Bobby Orillaneda.

    Current historical and archaeological evidence portrays fifteenth century CE maritime trade in Southeast Asia as a complex and multi-layered landscape. A main argument centers on the factors that shaped the development of this intra-regional trade. Some scholars consider foreign entities (e.g. China and some Indian states) as the primary instruments that heavily influenced Southeast Asian socio-political and economic affairs while others promote Southeast Asian agency and contends that it is the...

  • Early Spanish Colonialism in Manila: A Historical Archaeology Viewpoint (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Ellen Hsieh.

    The establishment of Spanish Manila in 1571 marked a turning point in global history. Historians have extolled the roles of Manila as a hub of global trade networks and a key locus of cultural exchange between the East and the West. Nevertheless, the power relationships that defined colonial life in the Manila area were taken for granted by scholars. The major ethnolingustic groups of colonial Manila - the Spaniards, the indigenous Tagalog, and the Chinese - formed a specific urban landscape...

  • A chronology of generations? A site-based study from the 6-5th Mill. settlement and cemetery of Alsónyék, South Western Hungary (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Eszter Banffy. Anett Osztás. Alex Bayliss. Alasdair Whittle.

    The Alsónyék Neolithic site was found in the course of a motorway project. The earliest occupants were the first farmers arriving from the North Balkans. After a short gap two later Neolithic occupations were followed by an immense settlement and cemetery of the Lengyel culture: 120 robust houses and in sum 2400 burials could be excavated alone on the motorway track, and this size, completed with geomagnetic surveys, is left without any parallels in Central European Neolithic. In this key area,...

  • British Iron Age settlement chronologies: a view from Danebury hillfort (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Derek Hamilton. Colin Haselgrove. Chris Gosden.

    Traditional approaches to the Iron Age have constructed complex chronologies based on artifact typologies, mainly pottery and metal, with radiocarbon long being neglected. Such views are now untenable, with recent Iron Age research showing that typological dating produces sequences that are regularly too late. Furthermore, regional syntheses anchored by chrono-typologies fail to provide a robust analytical methodology for better understanding the nuances of the settlement landscape and social...

  • Modelling the chronology of Neolithic ceramics in eastern France (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Seren Griffiths.

    The associations of decorative motifs on Neolithic pots from the Alsace region of the upper Rhine valley, eastern France, have been rigorously studied by Philippe Lefranc and Anthony Denaire using correspondence analysis. Separate sequences are available for the Early (LBK) Neolithic pottery and for a series of related Middle Neolithic ceramic styles, running from the later sixth to later fifth millennia cal BC. Within the ‘Times of Their Lives’ project, the absolute chronology of this cultural...

  • Early farmers’ house and household. Interpreting a Bayesian chronology for the Anatolian and Central European Neolithic (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Arkadiusz Marciniak.

    Anatolian and Central European Neolithic reveal some striking parallels in social developments. Different communal arrangements appear to be predominant in the Early Neolithic and autonomous household occupying discrete residences and performing most domestic activities in the house became clearly bonded entity only towards the end of this period and beyond. Recently conducted Bayesian analysis of a large number of AMS radiocarbon dates from both areas allow the pace of changes of the domestic...

  • Approaches for Producing Precise Archaeological Chronologies (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Alex Bayliss.

    For the fortunate few, dendrochronology allows an annual window into the archaeological record. Over the past 20 years, however, Bayesian chronological modelling has brought chronologies precise to within the scale of past lifetimes and generations within the reach of all archaeologists. Explicit statistical modelling allows radiocarbon dates to be interpreted within the framework of existing knowledge provided by associated archaeological evidence, providing more precise dating and thus...

  • Of Braudel & Beams: How Tree-ring Dating Enables the Study of Transformative Social Changes in the Ancient Southwest U.S. (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Randall McGuire. Ruth Van Dyke.

    Fernand Braudel said, "History may be divided into three movements: what moves rapidly, what moves slowly and what appears not to move at all." Archaeologists gravitate towards the longue durée–cultural continuities and traditions–but our most important questions have traditionally focused on transformative changes such as the rise of the state, the collapse of empires, or the origins of agriculture. Armed with imprecise dating methods, archaeologists have tended to view transformative changes...

  • A History of Convergences: Timescales, Temporalities, and Mississippian Beginnings (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Timothy Pauketat. Thomas Emerson.

    An early Mississippian world came about at and around Cahokia in the eleventh century CE owing to the convergences of people with other organisms, celestial objects, atmospheric conditions, landforms, and elements, each with their own distinctive temporalities and affects. Understanding those convergences historically entails grappling with timing and duration, and we offer a Bayesian reading of the latest radiocarbon datasets considered against the backdrop of the suspected periodicities of the...

  • Uniform Probability Density Analysis and Population History in the Tewa Basin, New Mexico (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Scott Ortman.

    One of the basic challenges facing archaeology is translating surface evidence into population estimates with sufficient chronological resolution for demographic analysis. The problem is especially acute when one is working with sites inhabited across multiple chronological periods. In this paper I present a Bayesian method that deals with this situation. This method combines uniform distributions derived from a local pottery chronology with pottery assemblage data to reconstruct the population...

  • The long and short of it: timescales for cultural change and transmission in the Vinca complex of SE Europe (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Alasdair Whittle. Nenad Tasic. Wolfram Schier. Eszter Banffy. Alex Bayliss.

    The Times of Their Lives project has produced modelled date estimates for the major phases of the Vinca complex in SE Europe, spanning the later sixth to mid-fifth millennium cal BC. That is a considerable advance in our understanding of the broad rate of cultural change. But site-specific date estimates within the complex also allow detailed comparisons of the timing of the introduction of novel material forms, especially in pottery, down to a much more precise scale. Examples from the...

  • The effects of temporal coarse-graining on inferred networks of human movement (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Tim Kohler. Stefani Crabtree. R. Kyle Bocinsky.

    Analyses using tree-ring dates provide an attractive test-bed for examining effects of temporal coarse-graining in archaeological contexts, due to the high-resolution of dendrochronology. After compiling a database of every known tree-ring date in the U.S. Southwest, we use tree-ring-date counts and locations as proxies for gridded human population estimates in the upland portions of the SW US. Grid-squares that lose dates are connected to nearby grid squares that gain dates as we move from one...

  • Locating Events in Process: A Multiscalar Examination of Early Pottery in the Southeastern U.S. Using Bayesian Statistics (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Zackary Gilmore. Asa Randall. Kenneth Sassaman.

    One of archaeology’s unique strengths is the ability to construct cultural histories that span vast spatiotemporal scales. It is imperative, however, that these so-called "big histories" be balanced with consideration of the actual events through which they were experienced and contributed to by real people occupying diverse contexts. In the southeastern U.S., the initial adoption of pottery technology has been variously portrayed as either a protracted diffusionary process with few discernable...

  • Patch choice model predictions for jackrabbit processing at Antelope Cave, Arizona (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Jacob Fisher.

    Zooarchaeological research conducted under the conceptual realm of behavioral ecology has generally focused on the decision-making processes made during and immediately after hunting activities, at the cost of studies that explicitly attempt to predict culinary processing according to ecological or social conditions. It is critical that archaeologists develop tools for predicting and identifying culinary processing methods if our goal is to fully understand prehistoric foraging decisions. Since...

  • DNA Identification of Prehistoric Puebloan Quids (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Terence Murphy. Karen R. Adams. Keith L Johnson.

    Quids are small wads of fiber that were chewed or sucked by prehistoric Native Americans and then spit out. To identify the plants used for making a selection of quids from Antelope Cave, we extracted DNA from 10 quids, used polymerase chain reaction to amplify a 250-base section near the chloroplast trnL gene, and determined the sequence of the amplified fragment. DNAs from the 10 quids had identical base sequences, and these matched corresponding sequences from authentic samples of Yucca ...

  • Parasites in Antelope Cave (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Adauto Araujo. Karl Reinhard.

    Human and animal coprolites revealed an interesting group of parasites, some of which have never been found before in archaeological context. The Rocky Mountain Wood Tick, Dermacentor andersoni, were found in two human coprolites. These were probably crushed and ingested. Acanthocephalan eggs found in the human coprolites were consistent with Macracanthorhynchus ingens. This is the first well-documented infection among Ancestral Puebloans and suggests that people at Antelope Cave had different...

  • The Setting: Location, Environment and Excavation History (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Keith Johnson.

    Antelope Cave is a large limestone cavern sunk beneath the rolling hills of the Uinkaret Plateau in northwestern Arizona. Native Americans lived in the cave intermittently for 4000 years during the Archaic and Puebloan periods. Environmental conditions over those thousands of years appear to have changed little. This paper addresses the variety and abundance of local resources available to the cave's inhabitants who lived in this semi-arid region north of the Grand Canyon. Flora in the vicinity...

  • Quids with Wild Tobacco (Nicotiana) Flowering Stems Inside (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Karen Adams.

    Unburned yucca (Yucca) quids with wild tobacco (Nicotiana) contents have preserved within Antelope Cave in northwestern Arizona. Although the cave was visited during the Archaic, Southern Paiute, and Euro-American periods, material culture remains and radiocarbon dates indicate heaviest use by the Virgin Anasazi (A.D. 1 - 1000). Quids are wads of fiber twisted or knotted into a ball for insertion into the mouth. Ten of the quids examined were clearly made from the fibers of Yucca plants, based...

  • Dietary Reconstruction Based on Coprolites from Antelope Cave (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Karl Reinhard. Isabel Teixeira-Santos.

    Results of 20 Antelope Cave coprolites show both consistencies and inconsistencies with other Ancestral Pueblo coprolite analyses. Most of the human coprolites appear to be late summer and early fall depositions. Four principle plant foods were ground to a fine flour: maize kernels, dropseed caryopses, sunflower achenes, and cheno-am seeds. Maize and dropseed were found in six coprolites each and they did not co-occur. Microscopically, maize starch occurred in seven coprolites. Thus, maize was...

  • Antelope Cave and Far Western Anasazi Lifeways of the Virgin River Region (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Joel Janetski.

    The dry deposits of Antelope Cave on the Uinkaret Plateau in northwestern Arizona have yielded a rich artifact assemblage and abundant faunal and botanical remains dating to the late Archaic, Basketmaker II, and especially late Pueblo I/early Pueblo II times,. The collections recovered through archaeological work provide especially useful insights into Ancestral Puebloan life in this region. These activities include rabbit drives for food and the production of rabbit skin textiles, sandal repair...

  • Ritual and Divination in Ancient Maya Dice Games (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only John Walden.

    In this presentation I examine the dice games played by the ancient Maya and investigate the interpretation proposed by several Mayanists that these games were used primarily for divinatory purposes. I examine the archaeological contexts of these ‘patolli’ boards and review the substantial body of ethno-historical and ethnographic material from broader Mesoamerican contexts in order to scrutinize the interpretation that these games served as divinatory devices and to offer other interpretations...

  • Acrobatic Games of Mesoamerica (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Gerardo Gutierrez.

    In this paper I examine the context and performance of acrobatic games in Mesoamerica using archaeological, ethnohistorical, and ethnographic representations of contorsionists, tightrope walkers, equilibrists, dancers on stilts, jugglers, and participants in rotational devices, like the Palo Volador and the Huahua. I underline the importance of acrobatic games in ritual festivities and secular events where improvisational and professional performers staged spectacles and played tricks designed...

  • In the Fields of the Thunder Lord, Playing the Apalachee Ball Game: Archaeological and Ideological Evidence for Its Antiquity (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only John Stauffer. Kent Reilly.

    This presentation examines the archaeology, folklore, and iconography attesting to the antiquity of the Apalachee Ball Game. We will examine the "Apalachee Ball Game Myth" as recorded by Friar Juan Paina in 1670 as well as several Mississippian carved shell objects (ca. AD 1350, Craig Mound, Spiro, Okla.) that thematically express episodes in this myth. From the evidence gleaned from these several sources we can demonstrate that the ideology underlying the Apalachees’ Ball Game dates from at...

  • Mobility, Exchange, and the Fluency of Games: Promontory in a Broader Sociodemographic Setting (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only John Ives. Gabriel Yanicki.

    We are currently undertaking new investigations of the Promontory Cave 1 and 2 (Great Salt Lake, Utah) collections Julian Steward excavated in the 1930s along with renewed excavations in both caves to explore Steward’s suspicion that these AD 13th century assemblages were created by migrating ancestral Apacheans. Artifacts for gaming are richly represented, including a ball, hoops, feathered darts, cane, wooden, and beaver tooth dice, and markers or counting sticks; a guessing game using buried...

  • "He must die unless the whole country shall play crosse:" the Role of Gaming in Great Lakes Indigenous Societies (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Ronald Williamson. Martin Cooper.

    Lacrosse, Canada’s national sport, originated with the pre-contact racket and ball games of the Iroquoian and Anishinaabeg peoples of northeastern North America. Like many traditional Indigenous games, racket and snow snake events represented much more than sport, involving aspects of physical prowess, warfare, prestige, gambling, dreaming, curing, mourning and shamanism. Gambling, in particular, was an important cultural activity that according to seventeenth century accounts, resulted in...

  • Ethnographer Stewart Culin and "Games of the North American Indians" (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Barbara Voorhies.

    This talk appraises the contribution of Stewart Culin, a self-taught ethnographer, to the study of games of indigenous North Americans. His exhaustive survey, published in 1907 by the Bureau of American Ethnology, remains the single comprehensive resource for archaeologists seeking to examine games in the prehistoric record and as such is well exemplified by the presentations in this symposium. Culin’s study, initiated in collaboration with Frank Hamilton Cushing, began in 1891 in connection...

  • It's Alive: Gambling, Animatism, and Divination Among the Aztecs (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Susan Evans.

    Gambling and divination both pit the hopes of the petitioner against an uncertain future outcome. Popular for millennia, they seem to inhabit distinct spheres of interest, secular and spiritual, but overlap as the individual tries to assess the odds and garner available forces of knowledge, luck, or patronage of the spirits. In Aztec culture, this overlap linked the spiritual realm of divination and the base entertainment presented by gambling (which they regarded as dissolute, though common). ...

  • Reinventing the Wheel Game: Intergroup Trade on the Plains/Plateau Frontier (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Gabriel Yanicki.

    In Piikáni oral tradition, the namesake of southern Alberta’s Oldman River is a place in the Rocky Mountains where Napi, or Old Man, taught the various nations how to play itsewah (lit. ‘wheel game’) as a way of making peace. In the centuries since, travellers, adventurers, and scholars have recorded several accounts of Old Man’s Playing Ground and of the hoop-and-arrow game that was played there; this gaming tradition is shared by peoples on either side of the continental divide, with gambling...

  • Influences of Gaming on Mi'kmaq Culture During the Late Woodland Period (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Kevin Leonard.

    About A.D. 1320, the bones of ten people were cremated in an ossuary on Canada's east coast. Grave offerings recovered from the eroding site in 1990-91 included fragments of tiny, calcined bone rods and charred plum pits with smoothed surfaces. They are interpreted as parts of a gaming set that probably included a shallow wooden bowl and a small bag to hold the dice, still used by members of the Mi’kmaq First Nation to play waltes. Although game sets were traditionally a woman’s property, 17th...

  • Rock and Roles: The Chunkey Experience in the Mississippian World (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Thomas Zych.

    Games have the ability to change the course of relationships between people, whether through direct engagement as participants or spectators. This paper explores the peripatetic nature of the pre-contact Chunkey game and its role in the initial and sustained spread of Middle Mississippian lifeways from the greater Cahokia region near modern day St. Louis, beginning around A.D. 1050. While Middle Mississippian culture quickly spread throughout the midcontinent at this time, the Chunkey game...

  • Sport and Ritual as Social Bonding: The Communal Nature of Mesoamerican Ballgames (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only David S. Anderson. Marijke Stoll.

    For over a century, the Mesoamerican ballgame has received copious attention in the academic literature. Much of this attention, however, has focused on either the control and promulgation of the game by elite actors, or the game’s interconnections with indigenous cosmogonies. Because of this intense focus on the game as elite and/or ritual practice, we often lose sight of the communal role it may have held. Anthropological research into the cultural role of sport suggests that while sport...

  • The Biggest Losers: Gambling and Enslavement in Native North America (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Catherine Cameron. Lindsay Johansson.

    This paper explores an apparently common outcome of gambling among the indigenous inhabitants of North America – the enslavement of individuals who wagered themselves (or their family members) and lost. Archaeologists are becoming increasingly aware that slavery was not a post-contact phenomenon, but existed prehistorically in societies operating at a variety of socio-political scales from bands to states (Cameron 2008, 2011, in prep., Kohler and Turner 2006, Koziol 2012). Most captives were...

  • Plant food consumption among modern foragers informs Paleolithic dietary ecology (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Domingo Carlos Salazar-García. Chelsea A. Leonard. Robert C. Power. Stephanie L. Schnorr. Amanda G. Henry.

    Reconstructing hominin diets is hindered by biases in the methods used to recover dietary information, and by our narrow interpretations of modern forager behavior. A better understanding of these limitations necessitates re-examination of dietary evidence in the archaeological record. Zooarchaeological and stable isotope data suggest that medium and large game dominated the diets of Middle and Upper Paleolithic foragers, and environmental reconstructions indicate that energetic returns from...

  • The Nutritional Context of the Pueblo III Depopulation of the Northern San Juan: Too much maize? (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only R. Matson.

    The abandonment of the Four Corners area is a longstanding problem in archaeology. Recent work has shown that the terminal occupation was concentrated into a limited number of large defensive sites. This resulted in an extreme emphasis on maize, which was untenable because of maize's low amounts of Lysine and Tryptophan. I describe the processes that led to this settlement pattern and the evidence for this diet. I then explain how the combination of the settlement pattern and the...

  • Diet, Sex, and Fitness: The Nutritional Potential of the Fish Slough Cave Diet Revisited (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Wendy Nelson.

    Archaeological investigations conducted in the late 1980s at Fish Slough Cave, Owens Valley, California recovered over 300 well-preserved human coprolites. When the nutritional profile of the diet inferred from coprolite analysis was compared against optimal foraging model predictions, based on energetic returns, the diet was considered to be deficient. However, when the same data were considered from a nutritional ecological perspective using macronutrients (e.g., water, protein, fat and...

  • An extant example of warm-climate forager gastrophagy and its implications for extinct hominin diets. (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Laura Buck. J. Colette Berbesque. Brian Wood. Chris Stringer.

    Accounts of gastrophagy (consumption of prey stomach material) are widespread in ethnography. The practice is recorded from different latitudes, subsistence strategies and with a wide variety of prey; however, many such reports are anecdotal. Conversely, where recent authors mention gastrophagy it is typically marginal to their main research. Little is therefore known about the frequency, seasonality, demographic factors, species composition, and relative dietary contribution of gastrophagy and...

  • Shellfish and Nutrition in San Francisco Bay: Clues from Seasonality Studies (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Jelmer Eerkens. Robert Bettinger. Ryan Nesbit.

    Shells are especially visible in the archaeological record of Central California. They comprise much of the midden in the large shellmounds that once lined San Francisco Bay. However, shells are also present in many inland sites, though they were collected from the Bay and hauled many kilometers inland. Seasonality reconstructions using oxygen stable isotopes show that shells on the Bay were typically harvested in two seasons, winter and summer, but inland sites contain shells from just winter....

  • PaleoNutrition, Coprolites, and Hemachromatisis: What is the Connection? (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Barbara Klontz. Linda Scott Cummings.

    Evidence of cribra orbitalia in the physical anthropology record has long been interpreted to represent in adequate sources of iron in the diet. Pairing coprolites with naturally mummified bodies from Nubia allowed examination of the diet and correlation with physical evidence retained by the bones at both the population and individual levels. Although the diet included foods sufficiently rich in iron that iron deficiency anemia should not have been a problem, it also contained foods heavy in...

  • Don’t Drink the Water: Differential Diagnosis of a Pathological Process Present at the Ray Site and Discussion of Environmental Context. (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Elizabeth Nelson. Christine Halling.

    In environments with naturally high or anthropogenically increased fluoride levels (>1.5mg/l), communities are at risk for toxic exposure to fluoride. Groups exposed to toxic levels of fluoride have higher incidence of maladies of the musculoskeletal, reproductive, and neurological systems. With chronic exposure individuals may develop skeletal fluorosis, a condition characterized by osteosclerotic activity evidenced by the ossification of ligamentous and tendinous attachments, along with an...

  • The Birth of Economic Woman (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Liam Frink. Celeste Giordano.

    Modern humans have been living in the Arctic for over 30,000 years and their ability to adapt to the ecological limitations and challenges is relevant to questions of human adaptation and evolution. However, we know very little about the actual technologies and nutritional implications that were necessary to develop in the northern latitudes. Here we focus on two aspects of Arctic dietary practices that are little understood in the literature and yet would have been essential to successful...

  • Can epigenetic mechanisms illuminate dietary ancestry in populations? (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only M. J. Mosher.

    Illuminating genetic and environmental factors underlying complex traits is a daunting task. Dietary nutrients provide continuous and evolving influence on gene expression, thus affecting individual growth and development and adaptive capacities over the life course. Metabolic traits represent the culmination of many gene-by-nutrient interactions. Genes set parameters for susceptibility to environmental factors, variation in both internal and external environmental dynamics mediating the...

  • Paleoethnobotany at LSP-1 Rockshelter, Lake County, OR: Assessing the dietary diversity of plant foods in Holocene diet (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Jaime Dexter Kennedy. Geoffrey M. Smith.

    Over the past five field seasons, collaborative research at the LSP-1 rockshelter in Oregon’s Warner Valley conducted by the University of Nevada, Reno archaeological field school and Bureau of Land Management has revealed a record of human occupation spanning the Holocene. While faunal remains are prominent in the deposits, nutritional information can also be derived from pollen and seed data at LSP-1. This paper presents the results of paleoethnobotanical analysis with respect to diet breadth...

  • The Nutritional Ecology of Human Obesity (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only David Raubenheimer.

    Nutrition has exerted a powerful influence on human evolution and history, and continues to play a central role in global challenges such as food security and obesity. However, the complexity of nutrition presents considerable challenges for researchers to unravel its grip on human affairs. In this talk I will introduce an approach called nutritional geometry that has been developed to aid this process. Nutritional geometry differs from conventional nutritional models in acknowledging that...

  • Analysis of food remains in human coprolites from Furna do Estrago prehistoric site, Pernambuco State, Brazil. (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Isabel Dos Santos. Luciana Sianto. Sheila Mendonça de Souza. Adauto Araújo. Sérgio de Miranda Chaves.

    The identification of human food remains from archaeological sites contributes to paleonutrition and paleoepidemiology studies, shedding light on key aspects of human biological evolution and cultural changes.In the present study,macroscopic and microscopic food remains were recovered from human coprolites from Furna do Estrago,Pernambuco State,Brazil.The remains are dated between 1860 +/- 50 (BETA 145954) and 1,610 +/- 70 (BETA 145955) years BP (before present).The region may have been...

  • Childhood Diet and Foraging in Prehistoric Central California (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Alexandra Greenwald. Jelmer Eerkens. Eric Bartelink.

    Ethnographic evidence demonstrates that hunter-gatherer children may forage effectively, where ecology, subsistence strategies, and social organization are conducive to juvenile participation. We hypothesize that, in easily navigated environments with food items accessible to children, juveniles will engage in assistive or independent foraging after a period of exclusive post-weaning parental provisioning, and that differences in male and female diets will reflect the sexual division of labor...

  • The Nutritional Value of Pacific Herring: an Ancient Cultural Keystone Species on the Northwest Coast of North America (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Madonna Moss.

    Pacific herring play a special ecological role in North Pacific marine ecosystems by converting phytoplankton into energy consumable by a variety of animals, including humans. Northwest Coast peoples have been consuming herring since the early Holocene, and patterns of usage likely changed over time. Herring are available in different forms during different times of the year. This paper will evaluate the nutritional value of herring and seasonal herring products vis à vis other Northwest...

  • Primitive Economic Man: R.I.P. (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Bryan Hockett.

    Primitive Economic Man (PEM) paradigms have been popularly applied in economics, nutrition science, sociology, psychology, and anthropology to explain human behavior for almost two centuries. PEM contains two general assumptions: (1) that most humans make cost-benefit decisions to further their own personal economic or political condition; and (2) Darwinian selection favors these cost-benefit trade-offs; in other words, the children of selfish, cost-benefit oriented individuals differentially...

  • Human Ecology and the Economy: Illogical Responses to Resource Risk in Southern Nevada (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Tim Ferguson.

    Research in the Virgin Branch Puebloan region indicates that during the middle Pueblo II Period there were strong socio-economic mechanisms linking the lowlands in southern Nevada to the uplands on the Arizona Strip. Ties between these areas are demonstrated by the presence of large numbers of ceramics produced in the uplands that have been recovered from lowland sites. Traditional ecological and economic models suggest that these trade networks may have been a way to reduce risk by...

  • James F. O’Connell and Great Basin Archaeology (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Robert Elston.

    Jim O’Connell began his professional career in anthropology as a Berkeley graduate student under Robert Heizer, conducting his dissertation (1971) research on the prehistory of Surprise Valley in NE California. A teaching position at UC Riverside (1970-72) was soon supplanted by a research fellowship (1973-78) in Prehistory at Australian National University during which he pursued ethnoarchaeological research among the Alyawara. In 1978, he joined the Anthropology Department at the University of...

  • A View on Late Pleistocene Megafauna Extinction in Sahul: An Emu Hunt Revisited (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Judith Field.

    The extinction of megafauna across the globe generates lively and sometimes heated discussion on timing and cause. In the case of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea), the debate is divided into two distinct camps – those that hold a firm belief that humans were responsible, and those that consider the current datasets to thin to provide any definitive answer. These big picture issues are reliant on the acquisition of data from individual sites and data on megafauna comes predominantly from...

  • The Faces of Intensification: An Application of Selection Thinking (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Steven Simms. Andrew Ugan.

    The application of HBE and selection thinking can shed light on the study of intensification. This vantage treats intensification as a process, not a threshold, and treats behavior not as normative cultural forms (e.g., "intensive farmers"), but as fluctuating frequencies among alternative adaptive strategies comprising a behavioral mix that may be culturally encoded. There are many ways to work hard. Here we employ case studies from Mendoza, Argentina, and the Great Basin, Southwest, and...

  • OFT and EVO-DEVO: Antithetical or mutually beneficial? (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Mary Stiner. Steven Kuhn.

    Short-term constraints that motivate people are an important part of the process social and economic change. Proximate decision (optimality or satisficing) models are particularly useful in archaeology because they play upon basic resource needs and costs in situations where behavior cannot be observed directly. These models are not enough, however, to account for the larger processes by which repeated interactions change the nature of the co-evolving species and the conditions of selection...

  • A Kangaroo Hunt (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Douglas Bird.

    O’Connell is best known for championing an approach to exploring the evolution of human behavior and its attendant archaeological patterns through the distinctive lens of human behavioral ecology. His contributions in developing ways to operationalize theory for generating testable hypotheses about big questions in the human experience have indelibly shifted the trajectory of empirically bent studies of subsistence. However, far less appreciated are his keen ethnographic descriptions of the...

  • Is Bigger Always Better? Body-Size, Prey Rank, and Hunting Technology (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Dave Schmitt. Karen Lupo.

    Zooarchaeological applications of rationale derived from the Prey Choice Model (PCM) are based on the assumption that prey body-size is a robust proxy for prey rank and post-encounter return rate. The PCM predicts dietary expansion and contraction in response to the encounter rates with large-sized and highly ranked game. In zooarchaeological assemblages, co-variation in the abundances of large and small-sized prey are often viewed as reflecting changes in foraging efficiency and are usually...

  • Ethnoarchaeology: More than cautionary tales (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Peter White.

    Rather than being just a set of warnings, ethnoarchaeology has made major contributions to a range of archaeological endeavours, especially in Papua New Guinea and Australia. These include broadening our view of stone and wood technologies, of site formation processes and of human-environment relations. SAA 2015 abstracts made available in tDAR courtesy of the Society for American Archaeology and Center for Digital Antiquity Collaborative Program to improve digital data in archaeology. If you...

  • A cross-cultural analysis of the impact of diet breadth on subsistence toolkit richness and complexity (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Mark Collard.

    Identifying the causes of spatiotemporal variation in technological richness and complexity is an important task for archaeology. James O’Connell has proposed that diet breadth can be expected to affect investment in subsistence technology and therefore the number and intricacy of subsistence tools. Narrower diets, he suggests, will be associated with lower investment and therefore fewer and/or less complex tools, while broader diets will be associated with higher investment and therefore more...

  • Archaeological Shellfish Size and Later Human Evolution in Africa (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Richard Klein.

    About 50,000 years ago, modern humans expanded from Africa to Eurasia. Significant behavioral change accompanied this expansion, and archaeologists commonly seek its roots in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) before 50,000 years ago. Easily recognizable art objects and "jewelry" become common only in sites that postdate the MSA in Africa and Eurasia, but some MSA sites contain possible precursors. Population growth is the most popular explanation for these precursors and for the post-MSA...

  • Overpaid, Over-Sexed and Over Here: O'Connell in Australia (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Jim Allen.

    Jim O'Connell arrived in Australia in 1973 to take up a five year research fellowship at the Australian National University in Canberra. Although he returned to the US in 1978, O'Connell has not only maintained diverse interests in Australia and its archaeological record but has also returned there perhaps 25 times to carry out fieldwork, present papers at conferences and to interact with colleagues. It is clear that some of O'Connell's major contributions to world anthropology have been...

  • What if the restaurant isn’t at the end of the universe but in a much nicer place? (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only David Meltzer.

    In their 2012 paper, 'The restaurant at the end of the universe,' O’Connell and Allen developed a speculative and far-reaching model for the colonization of Sahul, one that sees initial populations as small, spatially concentrated in scattered ‘sweet’ spots, and which exhibited only occasional growth spurts and geographic expansion along extant coastlines. Although granting the obvious differences between the environmental stage and historical conditions under which the Pleistocene colonization...

  • Ethnoarchaeology plus a theory of behavior: Jim O’Connell’s Hadza work (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Kristen Hawkes.

    O’Connell’s Hadza work shows how combining behavioral ecology with ethnoarchaeology magnifies the power of ethnography to help interpret the past. O’Connell’s systematic observations and analyses of Hadza hunting and treatment of big game gave us robust falsification of received notions about our ancestral past, including ideas about scavenging, variation in faunal assemblages, and prey transport. His vision as both an archaeologist and ethnographer extracted the richest kind of evolutionary...

  • OFT, BSR, and JOC: James O’Connell’s Contributions to Understanding Broad Spectrum Economies Using Foraging Theory (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only David Zeanah. Brian F. Codding. Douglas W. Bird. Rebecca Bliege Bird.

    O’Connell (JOC) was among the first to recognize the potential of optimal foraging theory (OFT) as a research strategy for investigating the Broad Spectrum Revolution (BSR). His work in Australia carried profound implications for the BSR that stimulated research particularly in the Great Basin and Australia. Although testing predictions in the archaeological record has proved challenging, these studies revealed aspects of the BSR not anticipated by simple foraging models. Recently, the...

  • Integrating archaeological and genetic data (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only K. Ann Horsburgh.

    Over the span of his career, Jim O’Connell has shown us by example how advances in genetics can help us better model prehistory when considered alongside archaeological evidence. In this paper I reflect on his career to highlight the way in which science currently considers genetic and archaeological evidence together to (1) create or refine culture historical models of population movement and demography, and (2) to develop insight in to the relationship between hunter-gatherers and their food...

  • Walls Speak: Architectural "Neighborhoods" in Late Intermediate Period Peru (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Anna Harkey.

    In the Yanamarka Valley in central Peru, the Late Intermediate Period saw dramatic changes. Whole villages moved from the valley floors to dense, defensible hilltop settlements, and were still living there when the Incas colonized this region a century later. The remote locations of many of these sites – both those forcibly abandoned under Inca rule, and those which continued on into the early Colonial Period – mean that numerous domestic round houses, storage spaces, patio walls and pathways...

  • Neighborhood to National Network: Pyramid Settlements of Giza (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Mark Lehner.

    A twenty hectare swath of Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty settlement that began with the building of the Pyramids at the low southeastern base of the Giza Plateau shows distinct components that must have functioned as neighborhoods in the sense of geographically localized social networks within the larger conurbation. Correlation between architectural patterns and builders’ graffiti with district signs suggests links to larger national networks. Flanking the major Nile port of its time, community...

  • The Preclassic Maya Site of Noh K'uh: A Network of Communities (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Santiago Juarez.

    In many societies around the world, the concept of community plays a central role in the formation of individual identities. Communities are subject to change and the focus on community identity provides a theoretical approach in which the individual can be situated in a broader sphere of social interaction. I research community through spatial analyses of human constructions at the Preclassic site of Noh K'uh in Chiapas, Mexico. My findings revealed that house-mounds clustered on hill-tops...

  • Elements of Cahokian Neighborhoods (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Alleen Betzenhauser. Timothy Pauketat.

    American Indian neighborhoods were very much under construction during the late-eleventh century at Cahokia. A social order that transcends pre-Mississippian village life may now be defined based on large-scale excavations at East St. Louis and Cahokia proper. Architectural patterns and craft production debris within the greater central complex indicate possible religious if not political or ethnic divisions that did not form organically. The central problems of a Mississippian analysis,...

  • Urban Planning, Neighborhoods, and the Organization of Residential Space at the Early Horizon Center of Caylán, Coastal Ancash, Peru (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Ashley Whitten. David Chicoine.

    This paper examines and compares the spatial organization of residential compounds in order to reconstruct patterns of neighborhood and urban life at the Early Horizon of Caylán (800-1 BC), Nepeña Valley, north-central coast of Peru. Systematic surface mapping combined with limited horizontal excavations indicate that the urban core of the ancient city was composed of more than 40 residential complexes articulated through a series of streets and corridors. Detailed first-hand mapping of streets...

  • Intermediate Scale Socio-Spatial Units, Collective Action, and the State in Cross-Cultural Perspective (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Ricardo Antorcha Pedemonte. Lane F. Fargher. Richard E. Blanton.

    Collective Action Theory posits that states are the outcome of bargaining among the individuals, groups, and factions that make up the political community. Thus, the nature of intermediate scale socio-spatial units or social organizations that exist hierarchically between individual households and the state (e.g., corporate groups, clans, neighborhoods, communities, patron-client networks, etc.) plays a key role in determining the political-economic strategies employed by the architects of the...

  • Creating a Community in Confinement: The Development of Neighborhoods in Amache, a WWII Japanese American Internment Camp (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only April Kamp-Whittaker. Bonnie J. Clark.

    In 1942 Japanese Americans from the west coast of the United States were forcibly relocated to incarceration camps scattered across the interior of the country. Constructed by the Army Corp of Engineers and designed to house around 10,000 individuals, these centers followed a rigid, gridded layout that allowed for the rapid construction of what were ostensibly cities. Residential sections were laid out in blocks, each containing twelve "apartment" buildings to which internees were assigned on...

  • Neighborhood organizational and interactional variation in comparative perspective (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Juliana Novic.

    The degree to which the residents of neighborhoods form integrated communities with uniform social, political, and economic conditions is highly variable. I define neighborhoods, in agreement with most earlier definitions, as based on place and presence in an urbanized environment. The forms and functions of neighborhoods, and their relationships to larger socio-political urban processes, is not well understood for preindustrial societies. Are neighborhoods fully integrated communities or are...

  • Rethinking the Urban Microcosm in the Ancient Andes: The extended neighborhoods of the North Coast of Peru (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Edward Swenson.

    Anthropologists have argued that early urban neighborhoods were equivalent to small villages that maintained kinship relations and economic dependencies characteristic of the rural sphere. Other scholars have noted that different urban centers (including in Mesoamerica, Angkor, and New Kingdom Egypt) were similarly configured as "sociograms" of larger territorial and ethnic boundaries. The political landscape of the North Coast of Peru offers important comparative data by which to assess the...

  • Opening and Orienting Comments: Theorizing and Excavating Neighborhoods (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only David Pacifico. Lise Truex.

    Dr. Pacifico and Dr. Truex provide opening reflections and orienting comments regarding the diverse perspectives and case studies presented in this symposium on excavating and theorizing neighborhoods. SAA 2015 abstracts made available in tDAR courtesy of the Society for American Archaeology and Center for Digital Antiquity Collaborative Program to improve digital data in archaeology. If you are the author of this presentation you may upload your paper, poster, presentation, or associated data ...

  • Explaining Diachronic Trends in Paleolithic Subsistence in Central Europe (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicholas Conard. Britt Starkovich.

    This paper examines changing patterns of subsistence during the Lower, Middle and Upper Paleolithic of Central Europe. We present data on faunal assemblages from our excavations in Germany and look at the extent to which the selection and exploitation of prey reflects expectations from behavioral ecological models. We also consider how these faunal assemblages inform us about the evolution of social and economic behavior during the Middle and Late Pleistocene. SAA 2015 abstracts made available...

  • Beyond the Shadow of a Desert: Illuminating Southern Africa’s Foraging Spectra (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Brian Stewart. Peter Mitchell.

    There is arguably nowhere more susceptible to the tyranny of the ethnographic record than southern Africa. From Man the Hunter’s quintessential foragers to the revisionists’ marginalized proletariat, Kalahari hunter-gatherers cast shadows far longer than those created by the desert sun. There is no denying that this extraordinary record – central to both economic and social approaches to southern African prehistory – has greatly enriched our picture of the past. Unsurprisingly, however, the...

  • The Antiquity of Hunter-Gatherers Revisited (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Steven Kuhn. Mary Stiner.

    One of the challenges of Paleoanthropology is developing coherent models for ancient social and economic systems that have no close analogues in the recent archaeological and historical records. Systematic observations of variability among recent foragers produced by Binford, Kelly and others, are vital tools for understanding early humans. They provide necessary frames of reference for predicting variation, and for understanding why observations may not fit predictions. In a 2001 paper we...

  • Forager Mobility, Landscape Learning, and the Colonization of the Americas (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Mike Cannon. David Meltzer.

    Among the many important contributions that Robert Kelly has made to the archaeological and anthropological literature are 1) an elegant theoretical model of forager residential movement, presented in his book The Foraging Spectrum, 2) a very influential argument about the Paleoindian colonization of the Americas, which he developed along with Lawrence Todd, and 3) insightful discussions of landscape learning by hunter-gatherers. Here, we explore these issues further by expanding Kelly’s...

  • Cultural Transmission and Diversity Among Hunter-Gatherers of the Subarctic and Subantarctic (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Raven Garvey. Robert Bettinger.

    The behavioral ecological approach Kelly champions in the Foraging Spectrum has clearly enhanced our understanding of hunter-gatherer diversity. Still, despite important developments in modeling and comparative analysis in the twenty years since first publication, occasional stark contrasts between groups living in similar environments suggest that ecological factors and adaptive behaviors cannot alone account for the impressive record of ethnographic and archaeological diversity. We consider...

  • Myths about the Tropical Rainforest Hunter-Gatherers: A reappraisal from South America (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Gustavo Politis.

    Twenty years ago the Foraging Spectrum highlighted the variability in forager behavior around the world and generated several models to reconstruct the lifeways of these kind of societies in the past. However, contemporary tropical rainforest hunter-gatherers of South America are still underrepresented in the current debate and they are rarely used as a source of analogy to interpret prehistoric foragers. This is partially due to the existence of several myths about them that still persist in...

  • Hunter-Gatherers and Prehistory (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Ashley Lemke.

    Robert Kelly’s seminal work, The Foraging Spectrum, cataloged diversity among ethnographic foragers to demonstrate the tremendous range of cultural, economic, demographic, and political systems within the broad category, "hunter-gatherer." While we have a clear understanding that ethnographic foragers are diverse, archaeological interpretations of prehistoric hunter-gatherers still tend to be seen through the lens of ethnographic analogy. The creative and critical use of ethnographic data is...

  • The Island and the Mainland: Connections between Maya Communities on Ambergris Caye and North-Central Belize (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Scott Simmons. Elizabeth Graham.

    Ancient Maya occupation on Ambergris Caye has been documented from Preclassic through Postclassic times. Work at the site of Marco Gonzalez has concentrated on several structures in which we have found solid evidence for connections to Maya polities in northern Belize and beyond. Nonetheless, relationships with mainland communities changed substantially over time. Although the northern location of the caye makes it seem logical that its closest connections were with north-central Belize...

  • The Production and Exchange of Early Postclassic Elite Wares in the Eastern Maya Lowlands (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Carmen Ting.

    This paper investigates the role played by Marco Gonzalez in the production and exchange of elite wares, as represented by the Zakpah ceramics, during the Early Postclassic period. Located in Ambergris Caye off the coast of northern Belize, Marco Gonzalez was occupied continuously throughout the Classic to Postclassic transition, with strong Early Postclassic (ca. AD950/1000–1200/1250) evidence yielding one of the largest Zakpah ceramic assemblages alongside Lamanai. By using various...

  • The Same, but Different (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Anne Pyburn.

    Variations in the architecture, settlement patterns, local environmental context, and occupational history of Maya archaeological sites are difficult to assess. Which differences are culturally meaningful? Which similarities indicate social relationships, and if so what sort of relationships? Which differences are simply a result of local climate and available building materials? In this paper I will examine some of the similarities and differences among the three Maya sites in North-Central...

  • "A Mischief that is Past and Gone": Situating Ka’Kabish in the Larger Ancient Maya Political (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Helen Haines. Sagebiel Kerry.

    Discussions of ancient socio-political interactions are most productive when site-specific archaeological data is incorporated into a multi-scalar analysis that includes centres of different distinction. The ability to integrate centres into a nuanced landscape is a luxury derived from a long legacy of archaeological work by different researchers. This work draws upon the increasing large corpus of data created for north-central Belize over the last 50 years. In this paper, we present a...

  • Place Making, Authority, and Ancestors: New Evidence of Developing Middle Formative Socio-Political Complexity from Ka’Kabish, Northern Belize (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Joshuah Lockett-Harris. Helen Haines. Kerry Sagebiel.

    Northern Belize during the Middle Formative Period (1000-300 B.C.E.) has increasing become recognized as a critical locus in the development of Lowland Maya socio-political complexity. This period witnessed the founding of numerous ceremonial centers, substantial material cultural innovation, and the advent of mortuary practices indicating developing social differentiation in Northern Belize. Recent excavations at the site of Ka’Kabish in Northern Belize have uncovered evidence significantly...

  • Of Watery Rocks and Slumbering Crocs: A reappraisal of the Middle Preclassic at Altun Ha and Lamanai (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Sherman Horn. Terry Powis. David Pendergast.

    A half-century of targeted excavations in northern Belize has generated one of the most detailed databases of Middle Preclassic (900 – 350 B.C.) settlement in the Maya Lowlands. Information from sites such as Cuello, K’axob, and Colha has provided the basis for economic and political models of Preclassic development in northern Belize and the eastern Maya Lowlands in general. The comparatively modest Classic-period architecture at these sites permitted extensive exposures of early occupations,...

  • "Forth from this Dark and Lonely Hiding Place": Chultun Excavations at Ka'Kabish (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Toni Gonzalez. Helen R. Haines.

    During three field seasons, chultuns were investigated at three small groups representing the settlement zone, public space, and core near the main plaza of Ka’Kabish. Puleston asserted that chultuns must have a utilitarian function because they are overwhelmingly found in rural, domestic contexts. This very processualist logic denies the possibility of domestic ritual that is so prevalent in Maya ethnography. Furthermore, at Ka’Kabish, Uaxactun, Nakum and other sites, chultuns are regularly...

  • Recent Historical-Archaeological Study of the Late-Colonial Period at Lamanai, Belize (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Sarah Wolff. Tracie Mayfield.

    Very few studies have focused on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Northwestern Belize and to this end, the relationships between people, space, and objects operating within this region during the late colonial period are poorly understood. Previous archaeological investigations at Lamanai recovered data that clearly indicated the presence of materials associated with day-to-day behaviors generally linked to late-colonial industrial and residential activities; such as cooking and eating,...

  • Recent Excavations in the ‘Ottawa’ Plaza N10[3] Palace Group at Lamanai (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Karen Pierce. Claude Belanger. Elizabeth Graham.

    Individual structures of the ‘Ottawa’ Plaza N10[3] Palace Group at Lamanai have been the focus of excavation at various times since Pendergast’s first investigations there in 1981. The time of inception of construction remains unknown, but the group is notable in that its structures were altered, added to, and occupied into the Early Postclassic period. Recent excavations of Str. N10-15 have yielded information on a flurry of activity in the Late and Terminal Classic. Results will be discussed...

  • Dragons through a Ceramic Lens: Evidence for a North-Central Belize Ceramic (Sub)-Sphere (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Kerry Sagebiel.

    As viewed through a ceramic lens, it is becoming evident that North-Central Belize was distinct from surrounding areas. Starting in the Middle Preclassic, the ceramics of the Swasey/Bladen Sphere of North-Central Belize are notably different than those of adjacent areas of the Belize Valley, Peten, and Yucatan. The extent of the Middle Preclassic Swasey/Bladen Sphere is becoming clearer with work at Ka’Kabish and the surrounding area. Similarly, the Terminal Classic/Early Postclassic ceramics...