Shaw Air Force Base: Test Excavations at 20 Archaeological Sites on the Poinsett Electric Combat Range, Sumter County, South Carolina Vol. I
This report presents the results of Phase II archeological testing of 20 prehistoric sites on the Poinsett
Electronic Combat Range, Sumter County, South Carolina (i.e., 38SU51, 38SU52, and 38SU107, 38SU138/139, 38SU158, 38SU172, 38SUI73, 38SU178, 38SU179, 38SU180, 38SU181, 38SU182/208, 38SU203, 38SU206, 38SU207, 38SU215, 38SU218, and 38SU232). The sites are located in the Coastal Plain province and ring the edge of Big Bay, one of the largest Carolina bays in South Carolina. All of the sites are located on land owned by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the testing was conducted in order to assess each site's eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), in accordance with and in partial fulfillment of the obligation of the USAF under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended through 1992 (P.L. 89-665; 80 Stat. 915; 16 U.S.C. § 470 et seq.}, the Archeological and Historical Preservation Act of 1974, as amended (P.L. 93-291 ), the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRF A) of 1978, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) of 1990, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (P.L. 90-190), and Executive Order No. 11593, "Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment."
The 1997 Phase II excavations involved the hand excavation of 3,450 30-x-30-cm shovel tests and 141 1-x-1-m test units. Within the 20 sites, the full range of occupation periods was identified, ranging from
Paleo-Indian/Early Archaic to Mississippian. In addition, three cultural features were identified, including an elliptical, basin-shaped pit at site 38SU 178; a cluster of sandstone rocks at site 38SU 179; and a circular, basin-shaped pit at site 38SU232. The Phase II excavations resulted in the recovery of 9, I 00 lithic artifacts, 2,622 ceramic artifacts, 37 historic artifacts, 290 bone fragments, and 282 macrobotanical specimens. No Native American graves or mortuary features were identified at any of the tested sites.
Based on the Phase II results, II of the tested sites are recommended as being eligible for inclusion in the NRHP (i.e., 38SU51, 38SU52, 38SUJ07, 38SUJ78, 38SUJ79, 38SU180, 38SUJ81, 38SU182/208,
38SU203, 38SU215, and 38SU232). While the majority of the sites contain some level of research
potential, the recommended sites were chosen for a combination of the data sets present in the site deposits and specific components with good to excellent research potential. Some of these sites can yield important data pertaining to one component, others can yield data pertinent to multiple components. Taken together, these II sites contain data relevant to the full record of prehistoric occupation in the Big Bay area, from the Paleo-Indian/Early Archaic; through the Early, Middle, and Late Woodland; up to the Mississippian period. Based on previous investigations in the uplands of the Coastal Plain, it can be assumed that many of these components represent short-term residential or logistical occupations by small social groups involved in seasonal exploitation of the rich aquatic and terrestrial resources of Big Bay North and South. It is believed that coordinated investigation of these sites will provide a valuable source of data on diachronic variation in camp structure and settlement strategy throughout the entire prehistoric period in the Big Bay area.
Cite this Record
Shaw Air Force Base: Test Excavations at 20 Archaeological Sites on the Poinsett Electric Combat Range, Sumter County, South Carolina Vol. I. Headquarters Air Combat Command, Maynard B. Cliff, Gary A. Hebler, John S. Cable, Kenneth F. Styer, Leslie E. Raymer, Lisa O'Steen. U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command Series Report of Investigations ,Number 9. Fort Worth, Texas: Headquarters Air Combat Command. 1999 ( tDAR id: 377832) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8CN74TC
This Resource is Part of the Following Collections
min long: -80.539; min lat: 33.919 ; max long: -80.406; max lat: 34.017 ;
Individual & Institutional Roles
Contact(s): Shaw Air Force Base
Landowner(s): Shaw Air Force Base
Prepared By(s): Geo-Marine, Inc.
Submitted To(s): US Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District
NADB document id number(s): 4064958
Contract No.(s): DAWJ-96-D-0038
NADB citation id number(s): 000000264730
Redaction Note: If you would like access to the full document, you may request it from the following office: Office of the USAF Cultural Resource Subject Matter Expert AF Civil Engineer Center 2261 Hughes Ave JBSA Lackland, TX 78236-9853
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