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Koster Site

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Summary

The Koster site is an important open-air, deeply stratified site located in Greene County, Illinois that contains deposits dating from approximately 9000 BP to the Historic period. Although twenty-five cultural horizons have been recognized, the most important part of the sequence is the well-preserved Archaic Period sequence divided as follows: Early Archaic 1 (ca. 9000 BP, Horizon 13), Early Archaic 2 ( 8700-8450 BP, Horizons 12 and 11), Middle Archaic 1 (8300-7600 BP, Horizons 10B-8E), Middle Archaic 2 (7300-6850 BP, Horizons 8D-8B), Middle Archaic 3 (5800-4900 BP, Horizons 7B-6A) and Late Archaic (3950-2950 BP, Horizon 4). There are also Woodland and Mississippian deposits at the Koster site and an early Historic period farmstead existed at this location as well.

The Koster site is located in Section 21, T 9 N, R 13 W Greene County in the lower Illinois Valley. The site was test excavated in the summer of 1969, under the direction of Stuart Struever of Northwestern University. Originally it was defined on the basis of debris from a Late Woodland occupation on a ridge top. The 1969 tests at Koster also identified possible older occupations beneath the Late Woodland occupation. Between 1969 and 1978 major excavations were conducted at the Koster site by Northwestern University, and significant interdisciplinary research was carried out at Koster into the 1980s. Significant data on Archaic period subsistence, settlement, technology and lifestyle were generated by this project. New research on Koster site faunal remains has been undertaken in the twenty-first century. Datasets included in tDAR are faunal in nature.

During the 1970s the Koster site excavations were a public attraction and thousands of people were introduced to archaeology by observing these excavations. The educational programs of the Center for American Archaeology (formerly the Foundation for Illinois Archaeology) based in Kampsville, IL originally grew in association with the Koster Project.


Cite this Record

Koster Site. ( tDAR id: 2970) ; doi:10.6067/XCV87P90SQ


Keywords

Geographic Keywords
Green County, Illinois

Temporal Keywords
Archaic


Temporal Coverage

Calendar Date: -7500 to 1200


Spatial Coverage

min long: -90.582; min lat: 39.173 ; max long: -90.495; max lat: 39.265 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Project Director(s): Sarah Neusius

Prepared By(s): Indiana University of Penn.


Notes

General Note: The Koster faunal databases loaded in tDAR were identified by several zooarchaeologists. Frederick C. Hill and his assistants identified much of the early material collected in test units dug in 1969 as well as materials from the excavation of Horizons 1-6. Hill's 1975 dissertation (see reference list associated with this project) is a primary source for this material. Sarah W. Neusius identified faunal remains from Horizons 8-10B as well as a small sample of materials from Horizon 11. Her 1982 dissertation as well as a 1986 article (see references) are the primary sources for this material. John Hewitt created the faunal file for Horizons 8-10B identifications in conjunction with his own 1982 dissertation (see references) Andrea L. Boon completed a MA thesis on a large sample of materials from Horizon 11 and reported on this research in her 2011 thesis (see references).


Source Collections

The Koster fauna remains are held by the Illinois State Museum, although some materials may remain with the Center for American Archaeology in Kampsville, IL.

Coding Sheets

  1. Boon Hor 11 Age (2010)
    score:-1
  2. Boon Hor 11 Animal Modification (2010)
    score:-1
  3. Boon Hor 11 Axiality (2010)
    score:-1
  4. Boon Hor 11 Breakage (2010)
    score:-1
  5. Boon Hor 11 Burning (2010)
    score:-1
  6. Boon Hor 11 Butcher Marks (2010)
    score:-1
  7. Boon Hor 11 Certainty (2010)
    score:-1
  8. Boon Hor 11 Completeness (2010)
    score:-1
  9. Boon Hor 11 Cultural Modification (2010)
    score:-1
  10. Boon Hor 11 Fracture Pattern (2010)
    score:-1
  11. Boon Hor 11 Laterality (2010)
    score:-1
  12. Boon Hor 11 Proximity (2010)
    score:-1
  13. Boon Hor 11 Side (2010)
    score:-1
  14. Boon hor 11 Structure (2010)
    score:-1
  15. Boon Hor 11 Weathering (2010)
    score:-1
  16. Coding sheet for Age (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
    score:-1
  17. Coding sheet for Animal Mod (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  18. Coding sheet for Burn (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
    score:-1
  19. Coding sheet for Burning Modification (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  20. Coding sheet for Butcher Mark (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  21. Coding sheet for Complt (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
    score:-1
  22. Coding sheet for Context (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  23. Coding sheet for CultMod (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  24. Coding sheet for Hor (Koster-N Horizons 8A-10B Micro) (2016)
    score:-1
  25. Coding sheet for Horizon (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
    score:-1
  26. Coding sheet for Horizon (Hill Horizon 11) (2016)
    score:-1
  27. Coding sheet for Horizon (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  28. Coding sheet for Horizon (Kos-N Priority Horizon Indet File) (2015)
    score:-1
  29. Coding sheet for Horizon (Koster - Hill Combined 4 and 6 Horizons) (2016)
    score:-1
  30. Coding sheet for Horizon (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
    score:-1
  31. Coding sheet for Horizon (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
    score:-1
  32. Coding sheet for HZ (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
    score:-1
  33. Coding sheet for HZ (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
    score:-1
  34. Coding sheet for Number of Items (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
    score:-1
  35. Coding sheet for ProvStat (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
    score:-1
  36. Coding sheet for Recov (Koster-N Horizons 8A-10B Micro) (2016)
    score:-1
  37. Coding sheet for Recovery (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
    score:-1
  38. Coding sheet for Recovery (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
    score:-1
  39. Coding sheet for Recovery (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
    score:-1
  40. Coding sheet for Recovery (Hor 11 Boon Flotation ) (2016)
    score:-1
  41. Coding sheet for Recovery (Hor 11 Boon Flotation ) (2016)
    score:-1
  42. Coding sheet for Recovery (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  43. Coding sheet for Recovery (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
    score:-1
  44. Coding sheet for Recovery (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
    score:-1
  45. Coding sheet for Species Eastern Taxa (KOS-N Priority Horizon Identified) (2016)
    score:-1
  46. Coding sheet for Taxon (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  47. Coding sheet for Taxon 1 (Kos-N Combined Hor 11 Dataset- Macro) (2016)
    score:-1
  48. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
    score:-1
  49. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
    score:-1
  50. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Hill Horizon 11) (2016)
    score:-1
  51. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Hor 11 Boon Flotation ) (2016)
    score:-1
  52. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
    score:-1
  53. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
    score:-1
  54. Coding sheet for Unit (Koster-N Horizon 11 Flotation ) (2016)
    score:-1
  55. Coding sheet for Unit (Koster-N Horizon 11 Macro) (2016)
    score:-1
  56. Coding sheet for Unit (Koster-N Horizons 8A-10B Micro) (2016)
    score:-1
  57. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  58. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Koster-N Hill Other Horizon (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
    score:-1
  59. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
    score:-1
  60. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
    score:-1
  61. Coding sheet for Weath (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
    score:-1
  62. Coding sheet for Weathering (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
    score:-1
  63. Horizon 11 Recovery Technique (1979)
    score:-1
  64. IUP Cult Modification (2016)
    score:-1
  65. IUP ELEMENT CODING SHEET (2010)
    score:-1
  66. IUP TAXON CODING SHEET (2010)
    score:-1
  67. Kos-N Priority Ident Portion Coding (2016)
    score:-1
  68. Koster Burning test2
    score:-1
  69. Koster Horizon 11 Abnormality (1979)
    score:-1
  70. Koster Horizon 11 Axiality (1979)
    score:-1
  71. Koster Horizon 11 Burning (1979)
    score:-1
  72. Koster Horizon 11 Burning Location (1979)
    score:-1
  73. Koster Horizon 11 class (1979)
    score:-1
  74. Koster Horizon 11 Completeness (1979)
    score:-1
  75. Koster Horizon 11 Deliberate Modification (1979)
    score:-1
  76. Koster Horizon 11 Element (1979)
    score:-1
  77. Koster Horizon 11 Element Digestion (1979)
    score:-1
  78. Koster Horizon 11 Element Preservation (1979)
    score:-1
  79. Koster Horizon 11 Element Symmetry (1979)
    score:-1
  80. Koster Horizon 11 Food Processing Mark Location (1979)
    score:-1
  81. Koster Horizon 11 Food Processing Marks (1979)
    score:-1
  82. Koster Horizon 11 Fracture Age (1979)
    score:-1
  83. Koster Horizon 11 Gnawing (1979)
    score:-1
  84. Koster Horizon 11 Portion Proximity (1979)
    score:-1
  85. Koster Horizon 11 Reliability (1979)
    score:-1
  86. Koster Horizon 11 Taxon (1979)
    score:-1
  87. Koster Site Fauna Analyst Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  88. Koster Site Fauna Burning Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  89. Koster Site Fauna Certainty Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  90. Koster Site Fauna Element Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  91. Koster Site Fauna Feature/Midden Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  92. Koster Site Fauna Horizon Feature/Midden Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  93. Koster Site Fauna Integrity Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  94. Koster Site Fauna Other Info Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  95. Koster Site Fauna Portion Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  96. Koster Site Fauna Side Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  97. Koster Site Species Coding Sheet (2008)
    score:-1
  98. Taxon Coding sheet for Resource Type (2016)
    score:-1

Documents

  1. Aquatic Exploitation in the Lower Illinois River Valley: The Role of Paleoecological Change (1986)
    score:-1
  2. EARLY-MIDDLE ARCHAIC SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES: CHANGES IN FAUNAL EXPLOITATION AT THE KOSTER SITE (1982)
    score:-1