Europe: Western Europe (Geographic Keyword)

1-25 (167 Records)

Acculturation and Its Discontents: Rethinking Models of Interpopulation Interaction during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic Transition (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Julien Riel-Salvatore. Allison Parrish.

Given how large the topic of acculturation looms in discussions of the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition, it is surprising how little attention has been paid to defining it in order to develop operational concepts that can be tested against the archaeological record. In the specific context of the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition, the notion of acculturation has usually been considered as a unidirectional, one-size-fits-all social mechanism to explain both the appearance of transitional...


Acts of God? Causation and Agency in Disease History (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Sarah Inskip. John Robb.

Epidemics are often understood both by historians and by ancient people as "acts of God" which structure human lives but originate outside systemic causation, and are simply caused by the advent of pathogens. But no simple model of unidirectional causation, whether by natural agents or humans, really does justice to the situation. Disease responds to social and biological environments (for instance, settlement distributions affecting contagion, and poverty and malnutrition compromising the...


Adaptive Pastoralism and Climate Change in the Irish Chalcolithic – Early Bronze Age: Adding Evidence from Termon, Co. Clare (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Deanna Keegan.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Burren, a karstic region located in Western Ireland, has seen intensive farming practices since the Neolithic. Local proxies throughout the west coast of Ireland have indicated periods where the environment shifted to colder and wetter conditions in two key phases during the late 3rd and early 2nd millennia BC. A comparison of the archaeological record at...


The Agricultural Lexicon of Western Indo-European: Crop Names (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Weiss.

This is an abstract from the "Wheels, Horses, Babies and Bathwaters: Celebrating the Impact of David W. Anthony on the Study of Prehistory" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The first speakers of Indo-European languages who entered Europe brought with them a fairly coherent agro-technological package. This is clear from the significant agreements that can be shown to exist in the lexicon describing the ard and its subparts among the Western...


Agriculture and Resource Procurement for the Castro Settlements of NW Iberia: Examination of Floatation Samples for the Castro Site of Bagunte (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Patricia Neuhoff-Malorzo.

Collection and examination of botanical remains has led to evidence of the development of agriculture in conjunction with the collection or procurement of wild resources at a number of Castro sites across the NW of Portugal and Galicia. Evidence procured to date from a number of such sites stretching from the Galician Region of Spain to the site of Monte Mozinho near the municipality of Penafiel in Portugal covers a span of time from Early Bronze Age to Roman Period and exhibits a combination...


All in the Family: Using Archeology and Genealogy to Construct a Historical Narrative (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rebekah Mills.

Excavations during 2017 for Ballintober Castle in Roscommon, Ireland have uncovered the base of a wall structure and curtain wall for the early fourteenth century castle. As excavations continue to deepen, the structure of the castle reveals a complicated occupational history with cobbled floor occupation levels along with what may be a wall structure appearing underneath this area. The castle excavations can show the Anglo-Norman and Irish ownership of the castle with each owner using different...


Application of Multi-Isotopic Analysis (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) to Examine Mobility and Movement of People and Animals within an Iron Age British Society (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Derek Hamilton. Kerry Sayle. Colin Haselgrove. Gordon Cook.

The middle of the Iron Age in southern central Britain (c. 400–200 cal BC) is a period that is often seen as becoming regionally inward-looking. A primary focus of the mixed agriculturalists is on building and maintaining massive hillforts. There is very little long-distance exchange or trade noted in the archaeological record, and the metalwork at the time takes on insular forms (e.g. involuted brooches) that separate it from the Continental connections observable in both the Early and Late...


Applications of Behavioral Economics: Understanding the Effects of Roman Conquest on Late Iron Age Castro Culture Ceramic Production (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Elizabeth De Marigny.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Through a comparative analysis of ceramic materials from three archaeological sites, including Bracara Augusta, the Citânia de Briteiros, and the Cividade de Bagunte, this research explores the effects of Romanization on the production and use of ceramic materials from the Castro Culture of northwest Portugal. This research applies several principles from...


Archaeology of High-Mountain Pastoral Campsites in the High-Pyrenees (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Arnau Garcia. Héctor A. Orengo. Tania Polonio. Josep M. Palet.

This is an abstract from the "Empirical Approaches to Mobile Pastoralist Households" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. European high-mountain landscapes are nowadays characterized by the presence of pastures and grasslands. Archaeological and palaeoenvironmental research conducted during the last decades are picturing these environments as long-term cultural productions, resulting from complex environment-society interactions. Since prehistory,...


Assessing the Spatial Patterning of Middle Paleolithic Human Settlement in Westernmost Iberia (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Joao Cascalheira. Celia Goncalves. Nuno Bicho.

This is an abstract from the "Peninsular Southern Europe Refugia during the Middle Paleolithic" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Currently available data on the Pleistocene human occupation of the westernmost territories of Iberia attests the presence of Middle Paleolithic industries from c. 240 ka cal BP until c. 38 ka cal BP. Previous studies focusing on this timeframe have suggested that Middle Paleolithic populations were highly mobile and...


Back to Basics: Next Generation Experimental Archaeology (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Annelou Van Gijn.

Experimental archaeology plays a critical role in the development of new ideas and techniques within the discipline, for example, within studies of artifact manufacture and use, butchery practices, taphonomy, etc. Despite a difference in the nature of ‘controls,’ out-of-the-lab experiments play a crucial role in scientific archaeology because they often shed new and different light on a range of complex issues, as demonstrated by recent house building experiments conducted with the assistance of...


Beyond Newgrange: The Late Neolithic Complex at Brú na Bóinne, Co. Meath in Light of Recent Discoveries (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Steve Davis. Knut Rassmann.

This is an abstract from the "On the Periphery or the Leading Edge? Research in Prehistoric Ireland" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Brú na Bóinne World Heritage Site is known globally for its middle Neolithic passage tombs, in particular the 'megatombs' of Knowth, Dowth and Newgrange. However, the area also possesses one of the highest densities of late Neolithic monuments in the henge tradition anywhere in the world. These comprise a variety...


Bioarchaeology of Madness: A biocultural perspective on transgression, strangeness, folly, and delirium in the past (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Gwen Robbins Schug. Nicola Carrara. Cinzia Scaggion.

This is an abstract from the "The Future of Bioarchaeology in Archaeology" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The invention of the Ospedale (hospital) in fourteenth-century Italy marked a turning point in human relations. The othering process of medicalization began as an attempt to provide respite for incurable strangeness, delirium, or transgressive and foolish behavior, particularly for those without family to care for them. The disordered mind...


Bodiam Castle: Lived Experience and Political Ecology (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Matthew Johnson.

This is an abstract from the "The State of the Art in Medieval European Archaeology: New Discoveries, Future Directions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. This paper discussed the results of buildings and landscape survey at Bodiam Castle, SE England, 2010-2015. Bodiam is a much discussed site, a classic case study in the 'defense versus status' debate in castle studies. Our project moved beyond this false and misleading binary framing of a tired...


"British", "Irish" and "Continentish": Practising Comparative in the Later Prehistory of North-Western Europe (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Marc Vander Linden.

Projecting back notions of "British", "Irish" or "European" back into prehistory does not go without problems as, explicitly or not, these concepts are closely associated with the rise of nation-states, and still echoed in yesterday's and today's turbulent politics. And yet, even advocating a simple geographic meaning for these terms does not prevent any problems, as it raises theoretical and methodological issues regarding the choice of location and scale of case-studies to be analysed. In the...


Built Environments in the Middle and Early Upper Paleolithic (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Amy Clark.

This is an abstract from the "More Than Shelter from the Storm: Hunter-Gatherer Houses and the Built Environment" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Hunter-gatherers are mobile because their resources shift based on season or by ecological zone. This mobility means that their built environments are ephemeral and their mark on the land is light. Many of the traces of structures or land modifications are therefore invisible within the archaeological...


Burial at the Black Friary in Trim, Ireland: 700 Years of Friary-Town Relations (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rachel Scott. Finola O'Carroll.

This is an abstract from the "The State of the Art in Medieval European Archaeology: New Discoveries, Future Directions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Lord of Trim, Geoffrey de Geneville, established a Dominican friary to the north of the town in AD 1263. Ongoing excavations at the Black Friary since 2010 have documented a sequence of burials that date from the 13th through the early 20th centuries. Despite this continuity in the use of the...


Can we define a British Iron Age? (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Ian Armit.

The Iron Age in Britain has traditionally been seen as a period of hierarchical, warrior-based, Celtic societies, characterised by hillforts, defended settlements and elaborate weaponry. The dominant interpretive models have emanated from Wessex – that area of central southern England where the largest and most impressive hillforts are found. In recent decades, however, archaeologists have increasingly recognised the marked regional differences inherent in Iron Age societies across different...


Castle Ballintober, County Roscommon, Ireland: The Castles in Communities Project (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Samuel Connell. Niall Brady. Kathryn Maurer. Daniel Cearley.

This is an abstract from the "Exploring the Gaelic Social Order through Castle Archaeology" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Castles in Communities program at Ballintober Castle in County Roscommon, Ireland has been studying the construction sequence of the castle and the newly discovered deserted medieval village in the hinterlands. As we work with the community of Ballintober we are faced with a conundrum of how best to present our results as...


Castles in Communities Ireland Field Program (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Samuel Connell. Kathryn Maurer. Chad Gifford. Niall Brady.

[HOW CAN I REQUEST AFTER HOURS POSTER SESSION -- MYSELF ALONG WITH 2 or 3 other posters from this Ireland project would like to join] The 200 pound pig slowly turns on the spit for hours while a few feet away students from California trowel through excavations at Ballintober Castle. A marquee is set up as villagers busily prepare for Heritage Weekend, which they pushed up to mid July to accommodate the field school and 70 people staying in the village. In the next few days there will be story...


Certainty about Uncertainty: Lessons Learned from Modeling Human Land Use and Decision Making (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Marieka Brouwer Burg.

A cornerstone of William Lovis’ career has been the investigation of human land use dynamics, with strong emphasis on methodological rigor and statistical analysis. He has led a generation of students to consider these issues in the Great Lakes and beyond. The modeling of past human decision making is useful as a heuristic for exploring goals and motivations, about which there is certainly a tremendous amount of uncertainty. Instead, modeling past behavior is inherently an exercise in balancing...


Changing Times, Changing Ways? Evidence for Metallurgy at the Cividade de Bagunte (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nadya Prociuk.

The Iberian Peninsula has been a rich source of metallic ores for millennia, and the quest for control of those resources has profoundly impacted the history of the Peninsula. Iberia has followed a unique trajectory in the development of metallurgy, with a case for the independent invention of copper smelting in the southwest, and small-scale production of bronze and other metals across the Peninsula until Roman occupation. The advent of Roman imperial control of labour and mines constituted a...


Choosing Building Materials: Multi-scalar Construction of Identities and Heritage Following Disaster (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Katherine Shakour.

Scholars and communities have been discussing ownership of the past for the last few decades, and they have explored ways in which social and political movements empowered communities to reclaim ownership of their heritage. These communities use archaeology and material culture to construct their heritage. However, few scholars have discussed how communities are constructing heritage with respect to disasters and social upheaval. This paper explores the multi-scalar construction of heritage and...


The Cividade de Bagunte and the Problems of Castro Architecture (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only John Duncan Hurt.

It is generally accepted that the Castro Culture in northwestern Portugal exhibits a fairly consistent architectural tradition, characterized by the presence of certain construction techniques, structural forms, and organizational schemes. Despite this consensus, there is a pressing need for further research on the topic. Publications dedicated to the study of castro architecture are few, and they have mostly taken a broad approach that focuses on apparent commonalities between sites from across...


The Cividade de Bagunte Archaeological Project (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Pedro Brochado De Almeida.

The Cividade de Bagunte is the most publicized archaeological site of the Municipality of Vila do Conde and is classified as a Portuguese National Monument. Located on a mound with great visibility over the territories to the north and south of the Ave River, approximately 30km north of Oporto city, it called the attention and interest of various archaeologists such as Ricardo Severo and Martins Sarmento, in the end of the 19th century, and F. Russell Cortez in the 1940s. F. Russell Cortez...