North America: Arctic and Subarctic (Geographic Keyword)

1-25 (91 Records)

1000 Years of Small Bird Capture in NW Greenland (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Erika Ebel. Christyann Darwent. Genevieve LeMoine. John Darwent.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Excavations in 2012 and 2016 at Iita, located along the North Water Polynya in NW Greenland, revealed unmixed stratified deposits extending from Late Dorset habitation over 1000 years ago through Thule-Inughuit occupation and Inughuit contact with Arctic explorers ca. 1850–1917. Iita is unique in that a large dovekie colony breeds in this area annually, thus...


A 2000-Year-Old Family: Interpreting Site Structure and Human Behaviors at the Swan Point Site, Interior Alaska (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Gerad Smith.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. This paper seeks to interpret the spatial patterning of the Swan Point Locus 2 site, interpreted to be a seasonal residential site. The site, located on a hill overlooking a small northern tributary of the Tanana River, consists of several features in excellent preservation. The assemblage suggests a pattern of features and artifacts consistent with a...


2017 Excavations at McDonald Creek (FAI-2043), A Multicomponent, Open-Air Site in the Tanana Flats Training Area, Fort Wainwright, Central Alaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kelly Graf. Julie Esdale. Ted Goebel.

In 2013 our team began a 3-year testing project to assess the research potential of the recently-discovered McDonald Creek archaeological site (FAI-2043). The site is located in the Tanana Flats of Central Alaska south of Fairbanks. Site testing indicated a well-stratified and reasonably preserved multicomponent site situated in unconsolidated eolian sand and silt deposits atop an ancient alluvial landform. Three cultural components have been identified so far, dating to the early Allerød,...


Access to Information: The Case of Birch Island (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Julia Brenan.

This is an abstract from the "Capacity Building or Community Making? Training and Transitions in Digital Archaeology" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The recent archaeological project on Birch Island, Labrador, highlights questions of how digital data are used to gather and convey information to stakeholder communities, in particular, Indigenous groups with limited internet access in some remote locations. This paper questions if representing the...


Alaskan Legacy Collections Outside Alaska: Challenges, Opportunities and Potential (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Annalisa Hppner.

This is an abstract from the "SANNA v2.2: Case Studies in the Social Archaeology of the North and North Atlantic" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Alaskan "legacy collections" are housed at many American institutions outside of Alaska. These collections contain great potential for object-focused analysis, looking toward specific object classes, or even individual objects for in-depth review. This poster will present a summary of the locations of...


Ancient Alaskan Firewood Management Strategies and the Role of Selectivity: Preliminary Results (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Laura Crawford.

When historic Alaskans chose a settlement site, access to adequate fuel was as important as the availability of food and water. Despite its importance fuel use in the Arctic and Subarctic has received relatively little attention. Work currently underway aims to clarify the criteria used to select fuel in ancient Alaska by testing two hypotheses. The Efficiency Maximization hypothesis, derived from the prey choice model of human behavioral ecology, proposes that Alaskans ranked woody taxa...


Anna and the Sea: Reflections on Anna Kerttula's Influence on a Generation of North Pacific Archaeology (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Ben Fitzhugh. Catherine West. Sven Haakanson.

This is an abstract from the "Celebrating Anna Kerttula's Contributions to Northern Research" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Archaeological research in Alaska and the broader North Pacific Rim has revealed a long and complex history of human occupation, dynamic human-environmental interactions, and – above all - underscores the relevance of archaeology to people living across the region today. These developments span the nearly two decades of Dr....


Archaeology and NAGPRA in Alaska: Examples of Intentional Excavation (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rhea Hood. Rachel Mason.

This is an abstract from the "Beyond Collections: Federal Archaeology and "New Discoveries" under NAGPRA" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Intentional excavation of human remains and associated items subject to NAGPRA occurs rarely. Such excavations are only permitted under particular circumstances and only with approval of lineal descendants (as appropriate) and affiliated tribes. In Alaska, National Park Service staff have facilitated...


Arctic Heterotopias: Qariyit as Queer Spaces In Precontact Inuit Communities (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Peter Whitridge.

Gender and landscape have each proved to be such powerful archaeological tropes that thinking them together seems sure to yield interesting results. In the precontact Inuit world, gender and related dimensions of embodiment were key axes of spatial practice and place-based identification. Women’s and men’s activities were differently distributed across the landscape – in general, women occupying and managing domestic and near-community spaces, and men employing watercraft and dogs to operate...


Arctic Horizons: Forging Priorities for Arctic Social Sciences and NSF Funding (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Shelby Anderson. Colleen Strawhacker. Aaron Presnall. Arctic Horizons Steering Committee.

This is an abstract from the "Celebrating Anna Kerttula's Contributions to Northern Research" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Arctic Horizons – a multi-institution collaboration funded through NSF's Arctic Social Science program – brought together the Arctic social science research community to reassess goals, potentials, and needs affecting the diverse disciplinary and transdisciplinary currents of social science research in the circumpolar North...


Assessing Impacts of European Contact on Beothuk Projectile Point Technology (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Amanda Samuels. Christopher Wolff.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The lithic technology of the Beothuk has seldom been the focus of diachronic or regional comparative studies. Recently excavated Beothuk materials from Stock Cove, a site located in southeastern Newfoundland that has significant time depth, provide an excellent dataset to assess change through time and regional technological variation. The research presented...


Assessing Variability in Toolkit Functionality: Differential Wear Patterns on Projectile Technologies from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Interior Alaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Joshua Lynch.

Much of the early theoretical framework for our understanding of the colonization and occupation of interior Alaska has been established on technological variability in lithic assemblages of the region. This initial research has been limited in scope, focusing on the presence or absence of microblades. Recent research has sought to push beyond the significance of debatably diagnostic tool forms, microblades, in defining cultural complexes and has attempted to more fully address models of...


Beach Level Chronology and Paleodemography at Alarniq, Northern Foxe Basin, Arctic Canada (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Lesley Howse. James Savelle. Arthur Dyke.

In this paper we discuss beach level chronology and settlement at Alarniq—the ‘type-site’ for Dorset culture history and one of the largest Dorset archaeological sites in the Eastern Arctic. The Dorset occupation at the site extends approximately 3 km along a succession of raised gravel beach ridges, ranging in elevation between 8 to 24 m asl, and is almost entirely comprised of semi-subterranean structures that would have been occupied during the cold season. The number of houses varies across...


Beringian Landscapes and Human Responses in the Middle Tanana Valley, Alaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Joshua Reuther. Ben Potter. Nancy Bigelow. Charles Holmes. Francois Lanoe.

The middle Tanana Valley of interior Alaska, an unglaciated region of Eastern Beringia, holds a high-resolution record of human-environment interaction that extends over 14,000 years. The Late Glacial and early Holocene landscapes of this region were dynamic with considerable ecological restructuring. Aeolian deposits accumulated in lowland areas and adjacent foothills at relatively high rates, soils were relatively underdeveloped, river down-cutting prevailed across the valley, and wild fires...


Beyond Binaries: Queering the Archaeological Record of the Western Canadian Arctic (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rebecca Goodwin. Lisa Hodgetts.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Queer theory is often equated with sexuality research in archaeology (Blackmore 2011), but a queering of the archaeological record actually allows us to challenge all aspects of (hetero)normativity in archaeological practice (Croucher 2005; Blackmore 2011). Queer is "whatever is at odds with the normal, legitimate and the dominant" (Halperin 1995:62), and it...


Birnirk and Thule Pottery: Analysis of Arctic Ceramics from Inuigniq (Cape Espenberg), Alaska (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Patrick Reed. Shelby Anderson. Caelie Butler.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. We are conducting a multi-year (2009-2018), multi-disciplinary research project at Inuigniq (Cape Espenberg) to explore changing patterns of human occupation, culture change, and environmental conditions in Northwest Alaska. Our current focus is on the emergence of Birnirk archaeological culture ca. AD 1000, and the question of how Birnirk culture factored...


Bone Artifacts from Summer Bay, Unalaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kaitlin Stanley.

Situated in Alaska’s eastern Aleutian Islands on Unalaska Island, the Summer Bay site dates to 2,000 years BP. Over 700 osseous objects representing various manufacture and use stages have been recovered. Among these are harpoons, fish hooks, labrets, points, wedges, awls, and needles. These are primarily made from sea mammals and avifauna. Although Summer Bay represents one of the most secure dates of the Amaknak Phase (3,000 to 1,000 years BP), minimal research has been done to better...


Building a Database to Understand the Architecture of Arctic Wooden House Remains (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Remi Mereuze. T. Max Friesen.

Western Arctic archaeological sites hold the remains of wooden houses occupied during the second millennium AD by ancestors of the present Inuit people. Although the permafrost helps to maintain these features in excellent condition, the giant puzzle resulting from the collapse of the frame makes it hard to understand their original architecture. During the ArcticCHAR project, we excavated a house at Kuukpak (Northwest Territories, Canada) in 2014 and 2016. Facing the complexity of this feature,...


Centering Alluitsoq: The Potential for an Indigenous Archaeology in Greenland (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Cameron Turley.

Postcolonial and Indigenous archaeologies have changed the theoretical, methodological, and political landscapes of our discipline’s engagement with regions and peoples once conceptualized as peripheral to the European core. However, some regions, and the subjects that move within them, still occupy the conceptual margins. This paper considers the position of archaeological praxes in Greenland, a constituent of the Kingdom of Denmark, and the late arrival of the postcolonial critique to...


Clarifying Perceptions of Rock: Prehistoric Use of Common Toolstone in Tangle Lakes, Alaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Brooks Lawler.

Archaeologists have had difficulty agreeing upon uniform designations of certain kinds of toolstone that are not easily distinguishable visually. There are occasions when the archaeological definition of toolstone material and the geological definition of the same toolstone material do not match. A situation where this discrepancy might arise is when archaeologists give a more specific name to a cryptocrystalline silicate that is difficult to identify based on visual analysis. An understanding...


Cleaning up History: Historic preservation at Formally Used Defense Sites (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Forrest Kranda.

This is an abstract from the "U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: A National Perspective on CRM, Research, and Consultation" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Alaska District's Formally Used Defense Site (FUDS) program conducts environmental remediation of abandoned World War II and Cold War era military facilities owned by federal, state, and local parties. These FUDS properties, which are often in remote...


Clearing the Fog: Contributions to Central Aleutian Island Archaeology (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Diane Hanson.

This is an abstract from the "Celebrating Anna Kerttula's Contributions to Northern Research" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Archaeological survey and excavation on Adak Island, Aleutian archipelago, Alaska were funded by NSF through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The chance NSF and Anna Kerttula took on a small project in a remote location with a small crew had an unexpected and significant effect on the understanding of...


Climate Change and the Rapid Loss of Organic Deposits in West Greenland (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Hans Harmsen. Jørgen Hollesen. Henning Matthiesen. Bo Eberling. Christian Koch Madsen.

The REMAINS (REsearch and Management of Archaeological sites IN a changing environment and Society) of Greenland project has explored a number of factors that currently threaten Greenland’s archaeological landscape in the coming decades. This paper reviews recent work as well as the problems and threats to coastal and inland middens along the country’s West coast and adjacent inner fjord systems. Information gathered in recent years provides a baseline for "ground-truthing" predictive models of...


Comparing Archaeology and Oral Tradition at the Tlákw.aan (Old Town) Site, Yakutat Bay, Alaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Aron Crowell.

Southeast Alaskan oral narratives describe the epic migration of an Ahtna Raven clan from its interior Copper River territory over montane glaciers to the Pacific coast at Yakutat Bay, where the group founded the village of Tlákw.aan (Old Town) and intermarried with Eyak and Tlingit lineages. The multi-cultural origins of the residents are reflected in architecture and artifacts excavated at the site by Frederica de Laguna in the 1950s and during collaborative Smithsonian investigations in 2014....


Comparing Lithic Procurement and Use Within the Foxe Basin, Nunavut (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kyle Forsythe. Pierre Desrosiers. James Savelle. Arthur Dyke.

This paper presents a systematic review and update on the nature of stone tool use in the Foxe Basin region throughout the Paleo-Inuit period (2,500 BCE-1,600CE). The Foxe Basin was previously thought to have been a core area of ecological stability/predictability that supported an uninterrupted occupation throughout the Paleo-Inuit timespan. Given the untenability of the core area model and that populations fluctuated over time and space, a reevaluation of lithic technologies and their change...