North America: Canada (Geographic Keyword)

1-25 (41 Records)

Ancient DNA Analysis from Micro-fractures in Bridge River Stone Tools (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Clare Super. Meradeth Snow. Anna Prentiss. Ethan Ryan. Nathan Goodale.

There has been little research specifically designed to examine variability in how the porosity of lithic raw materials and micro-fractures from use-wear create environments that trap and preserve residues containing DNA on lithic tools. This study examines lithic tools made from a variety of raw materials to assess the effects of variability of raw material type, use-wear, and damage on preservation of ancient DNA (aDNA). aDNA analysis of stone tools can begin to address if the tools were used...


Applications of Microscopy and Thin Section Petrography in Iroquoian Ceramic Analysis (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Sarah Striker.

Iroquoian ceramic analysts typically focus on decorative style, in part because this approach maximizes the amount of information that can be obtained from an assemblage in a short amount of time. Decorative attributes can be rapidly identified and recorded, and a significant literature links patterns in decorative styles to social, temporal, and cultural trends. Characteristics of ceramic fabrics including clays and tempers are rarely examined, but adding these elements to the standard...


Archaeological Rat Diets Reflect Settlement Density: An Isotopic Investigation of Historical Rat Bones from Urban and Rural Sites in Upper Canada (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Eric Guiry.

Over the past 1000 years, rats have spread out globally to become among the most ubiquitous and prolific pests in the world. While the global success of rats is largely owed to their ability to exploit human societies for food, shelter, and transportation, there has been relatively little research exploring rat behavior in urban contexts, where rat populations have been most successful. In this study, I use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of archaeological rat (Rattus sp., n=87) bone...


Beading a Nation, Beading a People: The Role of Métis Women’s Beadwork in Crafting Culture (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Dawn Wambold. Eric Tebby. Kisha Supernant.

This is an abstract from the "Crafting Culture: Thingselves, Contexts, Meanings" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The embodied act of crafting can bring into being a physical representation of relations and ways of being in the world. In 1945, ethnologist John C. Ewers reported that the Sioux word for the Métis in Canada translates as "the flower beadwork people". With influences from their First Nations and settler ancestors, Métis beadwork has...


Between a Rock and a Coastal Place: Analysis of Archaic Raw Material Use at Stock Cove, Newfoundland (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Dana Yakabowskas. Christopher Wolff.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Maritime Archaic (ca. 8,000-3,200 BP) were the earliest peoples to inhabit the island of Newfoundland. As they settled the island around 6,000 years ago, their ability to maintain lithic traditions were key to their success. Finding new sources of lithic material would have been necessary and that process would have varied greatly across the island. In...


"The Chilly Climate Is Not Warming as the Old Guys Leave": Identity-Based Discrimination in Archaeology, an Example from Canada (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Catherine Jalbert.

This is an abstract from the "What Have You Done For Us Lately?: Discrimination, Harassment, and Chilly Climate in Archaeology" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Research that considers the ways current socio-political issues affect our understanding of the past and our interactions with each other in the present are not new to the field of archaeology. However, a renewed focus on ‘turning our gaze inward’ has revived the dialogue regarding...


Chipping Away through Space and Time: A Macroevolutionary Approach to Household Spatial Organization (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Ethan Ryan.

Archaeological investigations at Housepit 54 within the Bridge River site have exposed seventeen discreet floors primarily dating to ca. 1500-1000 cal. B.P. In this poster, we draw data from a subset of the site’s floors in order to address questions about the potential spatial and temporal relationships between the patterning of hearth-centered activity areas by primarily examining variability in lithic artifacts. Faunal remains and other features will also be included in analysis. Using the...


Confluences: Fluted Points in the Ice-Free Corridor (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only John W. Ives. Gabriel Yanicki. Courtney Lakevold. Kisha Supernant.

Widely assumed to be younger than Clovis forms, Corridor fluted points have been dated just once, at Tse’K’wa (Charlie Lake Cave). Given clear evidence of biotic habitability along the entire Corridor before 13,000 years ago, along with early hunting in its southern funnel, moderately dense fluted point clusters likely reflect both Clovis contemporaneous and later fluted point instances. These points were overwhelmingly fashioned on local toolstones, featuring a bimodal length distribution of...


Continuity or Change: A GIS Analysis of Artifact Distributions from Pre-colonial Housepit 54 (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kathryn Bobolinski. Ashley Hampton.

Housepit 54 at the Bridge River pithouse village in south-central British Columbia provides a glimpse into the complex cultural practices that occurred within this area in the past. This village, which includes approximately 80 semi-subterranean structures, was occupied during four time periods that together span from approximately 1800 – 45 cal. B.P., firmly placing the site within both a historic and a pre-Colonial context. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) will be used to explore the...


The Evolution of Public Communications in the Ontario CRM Industry (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Caitlin Coleman.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. In Ontario's Cultural Resource Management industry, we are experiencing a profound change in how we communicate with the public. Where once we relied on newspapers, academic journals, and museums to disseminate our knowledge, we can now communicate directly with the public through social media. This change has led to new questions about what information we...


Exploring Childhood Health Through Lead Trace Element and Isotope Analyses: A Case Study of Historic Populations in Newfoundland, Canada (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jessica Munkittrick. Vaughan Grimes.

Lead was ubiquitous throughout the cultural environments of the Atlantic World during the 18th and 19th centuries and can be toxic to humans, particularly children. There is a long history of examining human lead exposure using trace element and isotope data in archaeological remains, but most studies have sampled bone tissue, which is prone to diagenetic alteration. More recently, researchers are sampling tooth enamel, which is more likely to retain a biogenic record of lead exposure. Since...


Geographic and Temporal Variation in Canid Dietary Patterns from Five Huron-Wendat Village Sites in Ontario, Canada (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Bonnie Glencross. Taylor Smith. Gary Warrick. Tracy Prowse.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Stable isotope analysis of bone collagen in 48 dogs (Canis familaris) was conducted to investigate geographic and temporal variation in diet at five Huron-Wendat sites (A.D. 1250-1650) in southern Ontario, Canada. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate intra- and inter-site variation in dietary protein for these dogs, as well as temporal variation in diet...


Heritage, Healing, and Coming Home: An Archaeologist Encounters Her Ancestors (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kisha Supernant.

Archaeologists in the Americas rarely study their own history; rather, the bulk of archaeology in this region is done on Indigenous histories. Non-indigenous archaeologists studying Indigenous history can contribute to the erasure of Indigenous peoples from the accounting of their own past by centering the scientific study of material culture as the best or only way of knowing the truth. So what happens when an Indigenous archaeologist encounters her own ancestors in the archaeological record?...


The Indigenous Colonization of New France (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Allan Greer.

This is an abstract from the "Disentanglement: Reimagining Early Colonial Trajectories in the Americas" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. While the French were settling their colony of Canada in the 17th century, Iroquois, Wendat, Abenaki and other indigenous people also established villages in their midst along the St Lawrence River. Historians have considered these native enclaves very much from a European perspective, as markers of the success or...


Investigating the Sex Selectivity of Middle Iroquoian Salmonid Fisheries through Ancient DNA Analysis (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Thomas Royle. Eric Guiry. Trevor Orchard. Dongya Yang.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Lake Ontario once supported large populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). However, by the mid-19th century populations of these salmonid species had collapsed as a result of overharvesting and habitat alteration by European settlers. Prior to this collapse, it has been hypothesized Indigenous peoples were able to...


Is Archaeology Up to the Pepsi Challenge?: The Identification of Marginalized Populations in CRM Archaeology (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Matthew Beaudoin.

This is an abstract from the "Recognizing and Recording Post-1492 Indigenous Sites in North American Archaeology" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The determination of the ethnic or cultural affiliation of an archaeological site, Indigenous or otherwise, is often considered one of the primary starting points for the interpretation of 19th-century archaeological sites. This determination is a significant step in the archaeological process and...


Little Cabins on the Prairie: Preliminary Results from Geophysical Exploration and Archaeological Survey of the Chimney Coulee Métis Wintering Site, Canada (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only William Wadsworth. Kisha Supernant.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Applications of remote sensing in historical archaeology have typically been surveys designed to locate large structures and have been less focused on the identification of ephemeral structural remains resulting from short-term occupation sites. Our research uses remote sensing methods, specifically ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and magnetic gradiometry, to...


Lost Landscapes of the Kawarthas: Investigating Inundated Archaeological Sites Using Integrated Methods (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Obie.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Kawartha lakes region of south-central Ontario is a region dominated by water bodies and rivers, where humans are known to of lived at least since 12,000 years ago (only shortly after the retreat of glaciers from the region). Since this time, water levels within the region have changed dramatically as a result of various geophysical, climatological, and...


Micro-habitat Production in the Late Woodland Period (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christopher Ball.

This paper presents the results of recent statistical analyses focused on relative plant species distributions among six Princess Point sites in Late Woodland Southern Ontario and explores potential markers of micro-habitat production in the region.


Microanalytical Insights into Pigment Selection and Preparation in British Columbia Rock Art (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Brandi Lee MacDonald. David Stalla. Xiaoqing He. Tommi White.

Pictographs are important archaeological locales that can provide insight into histories of mineral use and pigment preparation. We present the results of a series of microanalytical explorations of a pictograph panel at Boling Point, Babine Lake, British Columbia. Examination by high-resolution microanalysis (SEM-EDS, TEM, FTIR, micro-Raman) has revealed evidence pertaining to source selection of the iron-oxides used to produce the pictographs, the weathering and condition of the panels, and...


Museums As Classrooms: Lessons in Applied Collaborative Digital Heritage (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Katherine Cook. Genevieve Hill.

Tech-centred courses in archaeology are becoming evermore present in university and college training programs, as demands for digital field recording, data management and analysis, and public engagement applications increase. Traditional classrooms and labs may be conducive to methodological training, however experiencing the complicated ethics, politics and logistics of applying these methods to heritage practice is limited in these settings. This paper reflects on a collaborative project that...


Names, Lineages, and Document Archaeology: Examining Traditions and Cultural Shifts in Jewish Personal Names (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Taylor Peacock.

While artifacts and grave goods remain an archaeologist’s primary tools for gathering information on past populations, document and historical archaeology increasingly look to census records, obituaries, and family records, not just to confirm information about recovered artifacts, but as artifacts themselves. This study analyzed census data, birth records, and obituaries associated with three missing individuals assumed to be buried in Victoria’s Congregation Emanu-El Jewish cemetery to...


Open Data, Indigenous Knowledge, and Archaeology: The need for community-driven open data projects (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kisha Supernant.

This is an abstract from the "Openness & Sensitivity: Practical Concerns in Taking Archaeological Data Online" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Over the past 20 years, much archaeological data has been digitized and made available online. With an increasing call for open data and open science models, driven largely by a desire to make research more accessible and reproduceable, archaeologists are exploring new ways to make these data available...


Persistent Places in the Prehistoric Wabanaki Homeland: Understanding the Role of Lithics in Interaction, Exchange, and Territoriality on the Maritime Peninsula (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kenneth Holyoke.

This paper will present a method for addressing questions of prehistoric Wabanaki territories and territoriality, human movement and exchange, and how persistent places in the prehistoric landscape of the Lower Saint John River (LSJR) shaped ancient Wabanaki ontology, and so too, the archaeological record. Persistent places like bedrock lithic sources may shape human movement; however, patterning in the distribution of stone tools may provide more than just settlement and exchange information....


Petroglyphs on the Periphery: Rock Art in the Canadian Maritimes (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Bryn Tapper.

Ongoing investigation of the Algonquian rock art of the Canadian Maritimes reveals that while some sites, such as Kejimkujik Lake, are well documented as a result of longstanding conservation strategies, these and other petroglyph sites have yet to be adequately and comprehensively framed within their archaeological, ethnohistorical and ethnographic contexts. Combining a landscape archaeology approach with theoretical positions emerging from the ‘ontological turn’ in archaeology, my research...