South America: Amazonia and Orinoco Basin (Geographic Keyword)

1-25 (39 Records)

Amazonia as a Perpetual Elsewhere: The Possible and the Permissible in "Natural" Landscapes (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Anna Browne Ribeiro.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Amazonia is the consummate, perpetual, wild jungle. Despite a century of archaeological research pointing to rich, complex, and culturally diverse ancient societies, and twenty years of mounting geoarchaeological evidence for densely settled Precolumbian towns, many people still imagine Amazonia as a pristine, primordial forest. In this paper, I dig deep into...


Ancient Landscapes of Amazonia: A Study of Pre-Colonial Processes and Contemporary Use at Macurany, Brazil (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Grace Ellis. Anna Browne Ribeiro. Filippo Stampanoni.

We analyze settlement organization and landscape modification at Macurany, a pre-Colonial terra preta site on the Middle Amazon River in Parintins, Brazil, within local and regional contexts. Pre-colonial land modifications dot the contemporary landscapes of Amazonia. Many such landscape features, such as anthrosols, elevated platforms, mounds, ramps, and riverine ports, are used today by contemporary inhabitants of Amazonia. New data gathered at Macurany reveals that ancient Amerindians altered...


Animism and Agency in the Amazonian Landscape: A Consideration of the Ontological Turn Utilizing Perspectives from Modern Runa Communities (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rachel Johnson.

Modern kichwa-speaking Runa peoples inhabit much of Ecuador’s Upper Amazon. Ethnographic study focusing on Runa communities of both the Pastaza and Napo Rivers indicate these groups share many of the views, collectively known as Amazonian Perspectivism, that characterize numerous lowland cultural groups. This paper will detail some of the ways in which Runa persons perceive and interact with their environment, focusing on relations with socially salient plants and animals thought to be persons,...


Anthropocene Amazonia, Beyond the Buzzword: Centennial-Scale Anthropogenic Influences on Southern Amazonian Forests, 1000-2000 CE (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Heckenberger. Wetherbee Dorshow.

The Anthropocene is defined here as the time when human-induced alterations of the environment become a driver of regional and global climate. The Amazon has very deep histories of human alterations of forest systems, but settled occupations that dramatically altered forest structure in regional systems of Late Holocene age, particularly following the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), ca. 900-1300 CE. Global population loss in the Old World, beginning in the 13th century, and the demographic...


Anthropogenic Landscapes of Amazonia: A Spatial Analysis of Landscape Modification and Settlement Organization at Macurany, Brazil (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Grace Ellis.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. I analyze anthropogenic landscape modification at Macurany, a pre-colonial terra preta site on the Middle Amazon River in Parintins, Brazil, in order to gain insight into settlement formation and organization. Settlement patterns and artificial landscapes are the result of human action, technological innovation and ingenuity. Understanding anthropogenic...


Between Enlightenment and Structuralism: Bororo and Kadiwéu Collections outside Brazil, 1791–1938 (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christian Feest. Viviane Luiza da Silva.

From the Philosophical Voyage to Brazil of Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira in 1791 to the Brazilian fieldwork of the young philosopher Claude Lévi-Strauss from 1936 to 1938, nearly 4000 Bororo artifacts and more than 300 Kadiwéu pots were collected for museums in Europe and the United States by naturalists, anthropologists, missionaries, artists, and adventurers. What began as part of the project of the Enlightenment to catalog the world based on the principles of Linnean taxonomy turned into a...


Climate Change and Culture in Late Pre-Columbian Amazonia (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jonas Gregorio De Souza.

This is an abstract from the "Global Perspectives on Climate-Human Population Dynamics During the Late Holocene" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Climate change has been linked to the reorganisation of past societies in different parts of the globe. However, until recently, the lack of archaeological and palaeoclimate data for the Amazon had prevented an evaluation of the relationship between climate change and cultural change in the largest...


Climate Change and Polyculture Agroforestry Systems: Examples from Amazonian Dark Earths (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jose Iriarte. Mark Robinson. Shira Maezumi. Daiana Travassos. Denise Schaan.

In this presentation, we discuss pre-Columbian Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) polyculture agroforestry systems and its implications for management and conservation efforts on Amazonian sustainable futures under current threat from climate change and development. We present and compare new multi-proxy paleoclimate, palaeoecological and archaeobotanical data from two mid to late Holocene records of land use history of ADE in Santarem (Lower Amazon) and the Itenez Forest Reserve (SW Amazonia). Our data...


Conspicuous Knowledge Transmission through Amazonian Cave Art (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christopher Davis.

Among large-scale societies, esoteric knowledge is often exploited for power, prestige, or status. In such a social framework, it becomes important to guard the transmission of esoteric knowledge, restricting access by exclusive mechanisms of indoctrination or co-option. When discovered, evidence of guarded knowledge often flags the attention of the archaeologist because of its often meticulous preservation. However, if the same knowledge were conspicuous, unguarded, and socially mundane,...


Determining the Provenance of Freshwater Sponge Spicule Inclusions in Pre-Columbian Amazonian Ceramics (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Aaron Cathers.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Decades of archaeological research in the Amazon Basin have shown that micron-sized freshwater sponge spicules (silliceous skeletal elements) feature prominently in many pre-Columbian ceramic traditions. This distinct technology allowed potters to craft fracture-resistant vessels and contributed to the stylistic particularities of their wares. Though several...


Donald Lathrap, the Tropical Forest, and Hemispheric Archaeology (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only John Walker. Neil Duncan.

Donald Lathrap was a visionary anthropologist and archaeologist. His contributions always reflected the "big picture": an understanding that all pre-Columbian culture history was intertwined, and that these connections went back through time to origins in the lowland tropics, or the Tropical Forest. He practiced an archaeology that gave equal weight to iconography and religious thought, and rim sherds and energetics. The most significant issues for Lathrap’s version of American Archaeology, is...


The Earthworks at Western of Amazon, Brazil: A Geoarchaeological Perspective (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Lilian Rebellato. Denise Paul Schann. Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira. Antônia Damasceno Barbosa. William Woods.

In this paper, we will bring a geoarchaeological perspective in order to identify settlement patterns in two geometric earthworks (geoglyphs) located in the eastern region of the state of Acre in the Brazilian Amazon. Physical and chemical soil analysis suggests how the past inhabitants on those sites affected the soils. The results show that the settlement pattern and the most important differences from the other regions we have looked at, for instance, in the várzea (floodplain) area. In...


Evidence of Pre-Columbian Polyculture and Agroforestry in the Eastern Amazon (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only S. Maezumi. Jose Iriarte. Diana Alves. Mark Robinson. Denise Schaan.

The scale of pre-Columbian impact on Amazonia is one of the most debated topics in archaeology and paleoecology. To address this issue, an interdisciplinary approach combining archaeological soil profiles and lake sediment cores from the lower Tapajos are used to investigate climate-human-ecosystem interactions over the past 8,000 years. Pollen and phytolith data indicate the presence of polyculture crops including Ipomea, Manihot, Zea mays, and Cucurbita. The presence of Theobroma,...


The Evolution of Domestication in Cassava Unraveled through Historical Genomics and Archaeobotany (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Logan Kistler. Fabio de Oliveira Freitas. Marcelo Simon. Robin Allaby.

This is an abstract from the "Frontiers of Plant Domestication" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Cassava (‘manioc' or ‘yuca' regionally) is a staple food for 800 million people worldwide. It was domesticated in the southwestern Amazon ~7,000 years ago, and archaeobotanical evidence suggests that it dispersed widely, including through Central America, shortly thereafter. In the present day, it is most widely grown in Brazil and throughout sub-Saharan...


Flood Regimes, Earthworks, and Water Management in the Domesticated Landscapes of The Bolivian Amazon (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Clark Erickson. Shimon Wdowinski. Jonathan Thayn. Rex Rowley. Jedidiah Dale.

Exploitation and control of wetland resources was a major strategy of early sedentary peoples in many areas of the world. In some cases, indigenous knowledge about flood pluses and water dynamics and anthropogenic transformation of waterscapes increased to the point where some wetlands were transformed into domesticated landscapes. Analysis and interpretations of relevant radar (TerraSAR-X, ALOS SAR-X, Sentinel-1), multispectral (Landsat ETM and ETM+, ASTER), DEMs (SRTM, ASTER) satellite and...


Flowers and Sherds: The Practice of Collecting Artifacts in Brazilian Amazon (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Marcia Bezerra Almeida. Clarice Bianchezzi.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. In this presentation we discuss the practice of collecting artifacts, considering the perspectives of the collectors and of the State in Brazil. We assume that collecting is an act that should be understood from a phenomenological approach. Our reflections take into account the affective relationships between the collectors and the artifacts, and also the...


From the Early Holocene to Amazonian Forest Groves (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Myrtle Shock. Mariana Franco Cassino. Laura Pereira Furquim. Francini Medeiros da Silva. Manoel Fabiano Silva Santos.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Ecological studies in the Amazon increasingly report groves of economically useful tree species thought to be legacies of past human occupation and management practices, in contrast to an inherent composition with high species diversity and low species concentration. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa – Lecythidaceae) trees occur in grove-type forest formations...


From the First to the Last Amazonian Dark Earths: The Longue-Durée of Landscape Management at the Teotônio Site, Upper Madeira River, SW Amazonia (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jennifer Watling. Myrtle Shock. Martín Torres Castro. Eduardo Góes Neves.

The Teotônio site, situated on the right bank of the Madeira river near Porto Velho, Rondônia, is a key location for understanding the deep history of human-environment interactions and landscape management in southwest Amazonia. Its archaeological record stretches back to the early-mid Holocene and includes vestiges of 6,000-year old Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) belonging to the Massangana Phase, hypothesised as marking the beginning of widespread landscape transformations in the Upper Madeira...


A History of Knowledge of the Amazonian Dark Earths (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Klaus Hilbert.

The anthropogenic origin of the Amazonian dark earths (Terra Pretas) has been a methodologically assured fact for 70 years. Especially during the last 30 years, Terra Preta have been scientifically investigated with increasing intensity and in an ever-widening context. Currently, the dominant concept guiding research is the idea of binding atmospheric carbon which artificially produced dark earths. The large-scale production of terra preta is said to be an efficient instrument to combat global...


Is There a Public Archaeology?: an approach from Brazil (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Marcia Bezerra.

This presentation aims to discuss Public Archaeology (PA) from a Brazilian approach. Based on a study that includes a bibliographical survey, and the analysis of the papers presented at scientific meetings in Brazil, I examined: a) the role of PA in the contemporary agenda of the archaeology in Brazil; b) the connections between PA, Heritage Education (HE), and the development projects, and c) its relationship with the decolonizing perspective of the discipline in Latin America. In addition, I...


Large Centralized Fired-Clay Cooking Stoves of Communal Households on Marajoara Mounds at the Mouth of the Amazon c. AD 400–1100 (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Anna Roosevelt.

Rarely does the New World a thropological literature mention the existence of large centralized, multi-unit fired clay cooking structures of some prehistoric or recent indigenous Amazonian households. Yet these large, highly patterned features have been informative for archaeology from several points of view. Their existence and common presence as permanent structures built into the floors of prehistoric mound sites on Marajo Island have demonstrated that the mounds they occur in had sizeable,...


Living Things in the Landscape: Gendered Perspectives from Amazonia (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Brenda Bowser.

Santos-Graneros writes about persistent places in Amazonia, places that have been used by generation after generation of people, because of their special qualities—waterfalls, mountains, caves. The current interest in the ontology of objects, inspired by the work of Ingold, Latour, Gell, and others has opened the door for archaeologists to consider how we can investigate the meanings of places and objects in these ways, as living things. Like objects, places are alive. The headwaters of the...


Materiality of Amerindian Human Bodies in the Mouth of the Amazon River: Life and Death at the Curiaú Mirim I Site, Around the Second Millennium AD (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Avelino Gambim Junior.

This is an abstract from the "From Individual Bodies to Bodies of Social Theory: Exploring Ontologies of the Americas" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. These paper aims to show an osteobiographical approach to read human bodies like a special kind of material culture which was inspired by the concepts of Amerindian ideas of construction of bodies and persons in the interpretation of the data analyzed. The Curiaú Mirim site is formed by funerary...


Mayo Chinchipe-Marañón Complex, the Unexpected Spirits of the Ceja (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Francisco Valdez.

The fringes of the eastern Andean slopes that conform Ecuador’s Ceja de Montaña are a steep transitional zone between the cordillera highlands and the Amazonian lowlands, where altitude varies from 1800 to ca.-400 masl, The ceja is covered by a dense humid tropical forest that has been traditionally seen as unfit for the development of social complexity. In spite of the apparent adverse ecological conditions this region became an important cultural area around 5000 years ago. A precocious...


Monte Castelo Shellmound and Early Ceramic Technologies in Amazon: A Perspective on Long-Term Landscape Management and the Origins of Pottery in the Americas (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Francisco Pugliese. Roberto Ventura Santos. Carlos Zimpel. Eduardo Neves.

Recent research has confirmed that the some of the oldest ceramics of the Americas are associated with Amazonian shellmounds. Excavations at Monte Castelo site produced a representative assemblage of these early technologies, and has also demonstrated a long history of ceramic production and use, with significant changes during the Middle Holocene that accompany the intensification of landscape management and the emergence of several other cultural innovations in that period. In this...