Paleolithic (Other Keyword)

1-25 (248 Records)

2017 Excavations at McDonald Creek (FAI-2043), A Multicomponent, Open-Air Site in the Tanana Flats Training Area, Fort Wainwright, Central Alaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kelly Graf. Julie Esdale. Ted Goebel.

In 2013 our team began a 3-year testing project to assess the research potential of the recently-discovered McDonald Creek archaeological site (FAI-2043). The site is located in the Tanana Flats of Central Alaska south of Fairbanks. Site testing indicated a well-stratified and reasonably preserved multicomponent site situated in unconsolidated eolian sand and silt deposits atop an ancient alluvial landform. Three cultural components have been identified so far, dating to the early Allerød,...


Acculturation and Its Discontents: Rethinking Models of Interpopulation Interaction during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic Transition (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Julien Riel-Salvatore. Allison Parrish.

Given how large the topic of acculturation looms in discussions of the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition, it is surprising how little attention has been paid to defining it in order to develop operational concepts that can be tested against the archaeological record. In the specific context of the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition, the notion of acculturation has usually been considered as a unidirectional, one-size-fits-all social mechanism to explain both the appearance of transitional...


Acheulean Hominins and Out of Africa Dispersals: Challenges and Advances (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Petraglia.

The dispersal of Acheulean hominins outside of Africa is one of the most important research areas in human evolutionary studies, having been the topic of paleoanthropologists and archaeologists for many decades. Yet, precise knowledge about the timing and geographic movement of archaic hominins across Eurasia is still in its infancy. The aim of this presentation is to discuss what we currently know about the distribution of Acheulean hominins, and to report on new field work findings in southern...


Across Boundaries: Origin of Microblade Technology in NE Asia under a Macroecological Approach (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Meng Zhang.

This is an abstract from the "Archaeology on the Edge(s): Transitions, Boundaries, Changes, and Causes" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The spread of microblade technology has been explained using human migration and cultural transmission under the culture-historical paradigm of a "refugium model" that illustrates movements of foraging societies from Transbaikal eastward to the Paleo-Sakhalin-Hokkaido-Kurile (PSHK) Peninsula and to North China in...


Analysis of Settlement Patterns Near the Big Burro Mountains (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Taylor Picard. Evan Giomi.

This poster presents the results of an archaeological survey of Pitchfork Ranch, located near the Big Burro Mountains in southeastern New Mexico. The survey was conducted by staff and students of the Archaeology Southwest Upper Gila Preservation Archaeology (UGPA) field school from 2015 to 2017. There is evidence on the ranch of human activity ranging from possible Paleolithic and early Archaic sites up to 20th century sites. Using GIS and geospatial data collected during this survey it is...


Ancient DNA Analysis of Microbes Preserved in Dental Calculus: Challenges And Opportunities (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Laura Weyrich. Alan Cooper. Keith Dobney.

Sequencing ancient microorganisms using next generation sequencing approaches have truly revolutionized our view of the past. While past paleomicrobiological research was largely restricted to coprolites and sediments, the recent analyses of ancient calcified dental plaque has provided novel insights into ancient human diets, disease, behaviors, and lifestyles. Despite the benefits, obtaining DNA from diverse microbial communities is difficult and is fraught with issues for first time...


Ancient Dog Genome Preserved in Tumor Provides Novel Insights into the Domestication of Dogs (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Laurent Frantz.

Transmissible cancers are mostly known from Tasmanian devils, soft shell clams and dogs. In dogs, the Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumors (CTVT) manifests as genital tumors and spreads between dogs (usually during mating) by the transfer of living cancer cells. This tumour first originated in the cells of an individual dog, up to 11,000 years ago, and possesses the genome of that founder dog. As such, CTVT cells contain an ancient living genome (the founder’s dog genome) that was passed along...


The Antiquity of Hunter-Gatherers Revisited (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Steven Kuhn. Mary Stiner.

One of the challenges of Paleoanthropology is developing coherent models for ancient social and economic systems that have no close analogues in the recent archaeological and historical records. Systematic observations of variability among recent foragers produced by Binford, Kelly and others, are vital tools for understanding early humans. They provide necessary frames of reference for predicting variation, and for understanding why observations may not fit predictions. In a 2001 paper we...


Aquatic Neanderthals and Paleolithic Seafaring: Myth or Reality? Examples from the Mediterranean (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Alan Simmons.

It long has been assumed that most of the world’s islands, especially remote ones, were first visited or colonized by fully modern humans. With few exceptions, these events occurred late, during the Neolithic or later, with an implied assumption that most islands could not support hunters and gatherers. We know that this scenario is no longer viable, with examples from Australia and southeastern Asia, such as Flores and Sulawesi, suggesting considerable antiquity extending prior to the...


Archaeological Science or Scientific Archaeology: Where Does "Science" Lie in Stone Artefact Research? (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Sam Lin.

Archaeological science is defined as the use of scientific techniques, typically derived from the natural sciences, in archaeology. In lithic research, archaeological science studies have investigated topics ranging from identifying raw material sources, assessing artefact function and technology, to modelling socio-cultural and evolutionary changes. However, this method-centred definition of archaeological science has also led to a focus on the "sciency" appeal of techniques over basic...


Archaeology in the Age of the Anthropocene: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only David Wright.

The 2016 decision by the Working Group on the Anthropocene of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) to designate an Epoch based on a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) fixed at AD1950 is significant for managing global ecological systems moving forward. There is no serious scientific debate on whether humans have impacted the global ecology, but regardless of the ICS decision to anchor the so-called "Golden Spike" to the advent of the nuclear age, humans are known...


Assemblages of Stone Artifacts in the Region of Shuiyang River, South China: LCTs and Model 2 (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Zhe Dong.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Most scholars supported that there were only choppers or chopping tools in East Asia among Paleolithic time, while in the west side of the old continent the innovation of technology is obvious. In China, archaeologists have already found some important regions which are characterized with large cutting tools such as handaxes, cleavers, picks, and knives during...


Assessing the Potential for Raw Material Profiling Studies in Modelling Neanderthal Behavioural Complexity (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Josie Mills.

Raw material studies are becoming increasingly popular as the development of technical and methodological advances adds to the macroscopic and geological study of stone tools. In turn this improves our capability to create a link between a stone tool’s archaeological context and geological area of origin. This connection is often discussed in terms of hominin behaviour, such as organisation of subsistence, adaptation to environment, and forward planning. However, the growing body of data...


Assessing the Spatial Patterning of Middle Paleolithic Human Settlement in Westernmost Iberia (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Joao Cascalheira. Celia Goncalves. Nuno Bicho.

This is an abstract from the "Peninsular Southern Europe Refugia during the Middle Paleolithic" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Currently available data on the Pleistocene human occupation of the westernmost territories of Iberia attests the presence of Middle Paleolithic industries from c. 240 ka cal BP until c. 38 ka cal BP. Previous studies focusing on this timeframe have suggested that Middle Paleolithic populations were highly mobile and...


An Assessment of the Intrinsic Water Content to Understanding Obsidian Hydration: A Case Study of Paleolithic Obsidian from the Shirataki Region in Hokkaido, Japan (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Yuichi Nakazawa. Kyohei Sano.

This is an abstract from the "Advances in Obsidian Studies of the Old and New Worlds" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Among the various factors that potentially affect the obsidian hydration rates, intrinsic water content of obsidian has been considered a significant factor. Despite this understanding, variation in water content even within the geochemically identical provenance of obsidian makes us difficult to evaluate the effect of water content...


Aurignacian Projectile Points Do Not Represent a Proxy for the Initial Dispersal of Homo sapiens into Europe: Insights from Geometric Morphometrics (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Luc Doyon.

It has been argued that Aurignacian projectile points made of antler, bone, or ivory represent a proxy for the initial dispersal of Homo sapiens into Europe. Our research reassesses this claim by using geometric morphometric analysis to study 547 Aurignacian osseous implements recovered from 49 European sites. This approach allowed the identification of eight volumetric templates reproduced by Aurignacian artisans during the manufacture of split-based points. Two templates were identified for...


The ballistic performance of prehistoric weapons: first results of a comparative study. (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Justin Coppe. Veerle Rots. Marc Pirlot. Valérian Clarenne.

Projectile points have recently taken a prominent position in debates on the complexity of Paleolithic human behavior. While the appearance of hunting weapons in the archaeological record was a central element in early discussions, the debate has shifted towards the appearance of specific projecting modes. Given that the organic propulsion tools (bow, spear-thrower) are only rarely preserved, energy has been invested in experiments to explore how the projecting mode can be identified based on...


Becoming Neolithic or Being a Hunter-Gatherer? Reframing the Origins of Agriculture through a Longue Durée Perspective (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Lisa Maher. Danielle Macdonald.

Searching for the origin points of major cultural revolutions and transitions has long been a driver of archaeological research, yet led to research focused on perceived boundaries, rather than continuity. Research into the origins of so-called modern human behavior, the origins of social complexity, the earliest domesticates, among others, all focus on defining moments of change that may be undetectable in the archaeological record. Perhaps some of the most enduring archaeological questions...


Behavioral Modernity (or Lack Thereof) and Its Reflection in Lithic Assemblages (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Radu Iovita.

One of the most important methodological issues facing modern paleoanthropology is the so far failed matching of archaeological material with specific hominins, at least at the metapopulation level. Due largely to the plethora of scenarios produced by genetic and genomic data in the last few years, the demand for archaeological confirmation or refutation of diverse dispersal scenarios has increased. Yet our understanding of lithic assemblages is not sufficiently nuanced to answer these...


Bone Preservation, Specimen Identifiability, and Outcrop Shape – A Preliminary Investigation of Early Pleistocene Taphonomy at Koobi Fora, Kenya (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Stephen Merritt. Monica Avilez. Jonathan Reeves.

Fossil bone surface assemblages include differential specimen preservation (weathering stage, cortical surface exfoliation, polish, roundedness, fracture type) and identifiability (taxonomic or anatomical precision). Three 1x1 meter inventory squares placed on steep, moderate, and minimally sloping areas of a fossiliferous outcrop test whether outcrop shape is a megabias that influences assemblage attributes. A digital elevation model created from drone-captured aerial imagery describes outcrop...


Building Expectations to understand the Evolutionary Significance of Archaeological Assemblages (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only David Braun. Tyler Faith. Benjamin Davies. Mitchell Power. Matthew Douglass.

This is an abstract from the "The Extended Evolutionary Synthesis and Human Origins: Archaeological Perspectives" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Although the past thirty years has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of the geographic and temporal scope of the Paleolithic record, we still know remarkably little about the evolutionary and ecological consequences of changes in human behavior. Are there events in human evolution that...


Built Environments in the Middle and Early Upper Paleolithic (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Amy Clark.

This is an abstract from the "More Than Shelter from the Storm: Hunter-Gatherer Houses and the Built Environment" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Hunter-gatherers are mobile because their resources shift based on season or by ecological zone. This mobility means that their built environments are ephemeral and their mark on the land is light. Many of the traces of structures or land modifications are therefore invisible within the archaeological...


Built Environments of Epipalaeolithic Southwest Asia: A Life History of Place (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Lisa Maher. Danielle Macdonald.

This is an abstract from the "More Than Shelter from the Storm: Hunter-Gatherer Houses and the Built Environment" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. A place is structured and given meaning through human experiences at both individual and group levels. Places are created through repeated human action and made tangible in the landscape by material culture. These places become part of a built environment, marked by daily routines or habitus. At the...


Calibrating the Chronology of Late Pleistocene Climate Change and Archaeology with Geochemical Isochrons (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Stanley Ambrose.

This is an abstract from the "Recent Advances and Debates in the Pleistocene Archaeology of Africa" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Chronometric dating of Late Pleistocene environmental changes and archaeological sites can be refined by correlations with precisely dated volcanic isochrons, stalagmites, and marine isotope stages (MIS). Lake Malawi cores have volcanic ash from the Toba super-eruption, dated ~74 ka at levels previously dated to ~62.5...


Can HBE Help Explain Variation in the Presence of Blue Duiker (Philantomba monticola) throughout the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu Cave (South Africa)? (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jamie Clark.

This is an abstract from the "Do Good Things Come in Small Packages? Human Behavioral Ecology and Small Game Exploitation" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Blue duiker (Philantomba monticola) is a small, forest dwelling bovid present throughout Central and southern Africa. The species remains an important source of bushmeat in Central Africa, and in southern Africa, its exploitation dates at least as far back as 77,000 years ago. At the Middle Stone...