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Paleolithic (Other Keyword)

1-25 (31 Records)

The Antiquity of Hunter-Gatherers Revisited (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

One of the challenges of Paleoanthropology is developing coherent models for ancient social and economic systems that have no close analogues in the recent archaeological and historical records. Systematic observations of variability among recent foragers produced by Binford, Kelly and others, are vital tools for understanding early humans. They provide necessary frames of reference for predicting variation, and for understanding why observations may not fit predictions. In a 2001 paper we...


The ballistic performance of prehistoric weapons: first results of a comparative study. (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

Projectile points have recently taken a prominent position in debates on the complexity of Paleolithic human behavior. While the appearance of hunting weapons in the archaeological record was a central element in early discussions, the debate has shifted towards the appearance of specific projecting modes. Given that the organic propulsion tools (bow, spear-thrower) are only rarely preserved, energy has been invested in experiments to explore how the projecting mode can be identified based on...


Characterizing Ephemeral Paleolithic Occupations at Arma Veirana (Liguria, Italy) (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

This paper presents a description of recently studied assemblages from Middle and Upper Paleolithic levels at the site of Arma Veirana, a large cave located in the mountainous hinterland of Liguria. While one Mousterian level shows an intense occupation, all other levels indicate rather short-lived, low intensity occupations. Beyond technological and typological analyses of these assemblages undertaken to characterize them, we also report preliminary data on raw material procurement patterns...


A critical reappraisal of Middle Paleolithic diets (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

This paper examines dietary patterns amongst Middle Palaeolithic foragers in Europe and southwest Asia from ca 300 to 40 thousand years ago. In both regions, faunal studies show that a relatively narrow range of presumably high-ranked animal species—mostly medium- to large-sized ungulates—was hunted. The present review stresses the importance of considering fat procurement and the effects of transport constraints on faunal assemblages while assessing the diet composition of Middle Palaeolithic...


A Critical Review of the Meaning of Short-term Occupation in Early Prehistory (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

One of the main elements in prehistoric research is the study of settlement patterns. In the last five decades, stemming partially from Binford’s research on the topic, the idea of settlement is based on site typology, including the traditional residential and logistic concepts. The latter is certainly marked by the notion of short-term occupation. This concept, used freely by many archaeologists, tends to rely on two main ideas— that of an occupation lasting a short span of time, and...


The Earlier Stone Age Occupation of Wonderwerk Cave: Combining the Archaeology and Geology (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

The archaeology and geology of the Earlier Stone Age of Wondewerk Cave (Northern Cape Province, South Africa) present a paradoxical picture. On the one hand there is a record of hominin occupation spanning a period of at least one million year that includes multiple proxies indicating the use of fire. However, the micromorphological study of the sediment shows almost no anthropogenic signal and the density of artifacts is extraordinarily low. This paper presents an overview of the current...


The Earliest Architectural Remains in Anatolia (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

The occupation of man has played an important role on cultural innovation; at the same time this process has always been a requirement of daily life for generation continuity. Since the start of human life history, choosing of places for occupation species has had different features. For example, the cave or rock shelters were preferred by Paleolithic man and they have hot style caves and/or shelters due to the period; this developed in Pleistocene climatologic conditions that were cold because...


Evaluating lithic microwear traces in terms of settlement mobility patterns and raw mateiral distributions (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

The paper investigates concrete methods to evaluate lithic microwear data in conjunction with human mobility patterns and raw material distributions. Since the discovery of micro-polish variety reflecting different worked materials, use-wear analysts emphasized reconstruction of individual behavioral episodes at the site location. However, actual wear traces reveal highly complex patterns, partially attributable to combined factors of mobility and raw material selection. Conventional methods of...


Examining Sedimentation Rates, Find Densities, Raw Material Economies and Technological Solutions in Paleolithic Contexts (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

This paper examines low density Paleolithic sites from several geological contexts within a diachronic framework. The case studies consider what unifying elements and differences exist in Lower, Middle and Upper Paleolithic contexts and addresses their causes with regard to the nature of sedimentation, raw material availability and technological needs. Where preservation permits links will be made between assemblages of lithic, faunal and botanical artifacts at the contexts studied to help...


Explaining Diachronic Trends in Paleolithic Subsistence in Central Europe (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

This paper examines changing patterns of subsistence during the Lower, Middle and Upper Paleolithic of Central Europe. We present data on faunal assemblages from our excavations in Germany and look at the extent to which the selection and exploitation of prey reflects expectations from behavioral ecological models. We also consider how these faunal assemblages inform us about the evolution of social and economic behavior during the Middle and Late Pleistocene. SAA 2015 abstracts made available...


From Kebara to KwaZulu-Natal: Integrating Micromorphology and Mineralogical Analyses in the Study of Diagenesis in Combustion Features (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

Since the 1990’s, Paul Goldberg’s micromorphological analyses at Kebara and Hayonim Caves (Israel) as well as his collaborative efforts to understand chemical diagenesis in caves have served as benchmarks for the high-resolution study of Paleolithic combustion features. This paper highlights the results of micromorphology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and microscopic x-ray diffraction measurements, which were employed together order to understand different diagenetic...


From the Canyon to the Staircase: Expanding the Paleolithic Presence in the Arizona Strip (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

Evidence of Paleoindian and Paleo-Archaic occupation of the Arizona Strip, in northwest Arizona and southwest Utah, largely remains limited to isolated projectile points found lying on the modern ground surface, dispersed across large swaths of land. Building upon the few isolated finds, this presentation discusses the recent identification of multiple fluted and unfluted lanceolate and Great Basin Stemmed projectile points. In contrast to the few previously known finds, the various projectile...


Geometric morphometry versus traditional stone artefact typology in the Hoabinhian of northern Vietnam (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

Hoabinhian typologies dominate stone artifact analysis in discussions of late Pleistocene archaeology in mainland Southeast Asia. Although, the objective reality of the types in this system has been questioned, there has been little empirical work to test the usefulness of the commonly used types as discrete entities. We collect 3D scan models of 110 artifacts from Mau A, a recently excavated site in northern Vietnam, where the Hoabinhian was was first described. We derive semi-landmarks along...


Good Things Come in Small Packages: Acheulian Small Tool Assemblages from the Shishan Marsh site (Jordan). (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

Over the past century, prehistorians studying Acheulian assemblages have focused their energies largely on the handaxe arguing that its iconic symmetrical, tear drop shape can be a window onto the origins and evolution of modern cognition, sociality, language, teaching, skill acquisition, and even symbolic behavior. This focus on the handaxe, and by extension big game hunting, has largely been at the expense of Acheulian small tool and microlithic assemblages and their associated tasks. These...


Isotopic tracking of trophic relationships (predation, competition, commensalism) between paleolithic humans and predators (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

Predators are usually considered not so informative in zooarchaeological investigations, except when their bones carry cut-marks. They are more viewed as a disturbing factor for the bone assemblage. However, tracking their paleoecology using stable isotopes in their bones can yield valuable information on several key aspects of their relationships with paleolithic human populations. Especially carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic composition in bone collagen of predators compared to those of...


Measuring the complexity of lithic technology (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

Assessments of the complexity of lithic technologies coming from different time periods, regions, or hominid species are recurrent features of the literature on Paleolithic archaeology. Yet the notion of lithic complexity is often defined intuitively and qualitatively, which can easily lead to circular arguments and makes difficult the comparison of assemblages across different regions and time periods. Here we propose, in the spirit of Oswalt’s techno-units, that the complexity of lithic...


Middle Pleistocene Lifeways in the Azraq Oasis, Jordan (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

This introductory paper to the session on research underway at the Shishan Marsh I site in the Azraq Oasis, Jordan presents an overview of the results of our paleoenvironmental, faunal, lithic and site formation analyses. A model of targeted and repeated use of the marsh is suggested. These results are situated within their historic and regional contexts and their implications for understanding the capabilities of Middle Pleistocene hominins are also considered.


The Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition in southern Iberia: New dates from Lapa do Picareiro, Portugal (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

The transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic in western Eurasia remains a hotly debated and intensely researched archaeological problem. Recent developments in radiocarbon dating and genetics have permitted some refinements to our understanding of the spatiotemporal process but many issues remain unresolved. For the Iberian Peninsula, Zilhão’s ‘Ebro Frontier’ model of late Neanderthal survival and subsequent replacement by anatomically modern humans has held sway for over two decades....


A multi-proxy site formation analysis of a late Middle Pleistocene occupation in the Azraq wetlands of northeastern Jordan (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

The Azraq Marshes Archaeological and Paleoecological Project (AMAPP) aims to understand and evaluate the importance of the Azraq wetlands for Pleistocene hominin populations. Ongoing research since 2009 indicates that the northern wetland, the Druze Marsh, acted as a desert refugium for hominins throughout the Middle and Late Pleistocene. Excavations in the southern marsh—known as the Shishan Marsh—began in 2013 and uncovered a rich assemblage of bifaces, small tools, and flakes, along with...


Peopling of Jeju in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

Paleolithic sties in Jeju Island have been found in the Quaternary sediment layers that are related to volcanic activities. Accordingly, research has been closely related to the geological investigation on sediment formation and volcanic activities. This presentation focuses on two Paleolithic sites, Oeododong along the north coast and Sangsugae cave along the south coast. The Oedodong site contains choppers and is dated to 32,000 BP; the Sangsugae cave site represents the Terminal Pleistocene,...


Phytolith Analysis and Micromorphology of Neandertal Combustion Features at Roc de Marsal, SW France (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

Phytolith analysis can be used to investigate the relationship between hominins, plants, and environmental change. It has proven useful in understanding specific hominin behaviors (e.g., use of fire and fuel composition), and diachronic changes in plant species for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The integration of phytolith analysis with soil micromorphology allows for an identification of the ways phytoliths were deposited in archaeological sites, and addresses both site formation...


Rabbit remains analysis in the Upper Paleolithic in Portugal (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

Ongoing excavations and research at the cave site of Lapa do Picareiro in the Estremadura region of Portugal have recovered a large number of faunal remains, including thousands of rabbit bones. These remains have yielded new data and insight on human exploitation of small prey during the Upper Paleolithic. This poster focuses on the spatial and temporal distribution of rabbit remains within the cave and the taphonomic processes acting on these bones. The work builds upon previous research using...


The rapid generation and visualization of 3D timelapse reconstructions of the excavation at the Paleolithic site Arma Veirana in Italy. (2017)

Citation DOCUMENT

Arma Veirana is a Middle/Upper Paleolithic cave site of the Maritime Alps of Liguria, Italy, which has the potential to offer insight into the interaction between Modern Humans and the Neandertals. Preliminary excavations have shown a continuous occupation between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic time periods, yet the complexity of the cave morphology and geology have made it difficult to isolate erosion as well as environmental and non-natural factors to understand the full image of hominin...


Residue Analysis in Chinese Paleolithic Studies: Perspectives and Case Studies (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

Archaeological plant residue analysis has developed considerably in China during the last ten years. In terms of the Paleolithic, state of the art technology has been broadly and successfully applied by archaeologists at various sites. Issues about stone tool function, plant use, the origin of agriculture and the like can now be deeply discussed with the direct evidence of residues from stone artifacts. This is the case for either chipped stone or ground stone tools. However, this technology...


Simulating the past - The use of 3D technologies in archaeology (2015)

Citation DOCUMENT

To deal with the destructive nature of archaeological excavations, today’s archaeologists are using new technologies to create 3D records of not only the archaeological sites, but also the archaeological process. This project explores how photogrammetry and 3D modelling can support theoretical approaches to the phenomena and processes by which Palaeolithic out-of-context imagery, especially that which is engraved, is produced. Using 3D technologies can allow researchers to simulate a variety of...

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Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America