inequality (Other Keyword)

1-25 (32 Records)

The agroecology of inequality: Novel bioarchaeological approaches to early urbanization in western Asia and Europe (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Amy Bogaard. Valasia Isaakidou. Erika Nitsch. Amy Styring.

In this talk we use case studies to compare the agroecology of relatively egalitarian Neolithic communities (low ginis) with that of early urban societies featuring high levels of inequality (high ginis). We use a combination of novel archaeobotanical and -zoological approaches to investigate arable land management. Neolithic sequences in western Asia, the Aegean and central Europe present contrasting settings in which early farmers developed labour-intensive cropping strategies that buffered...


Archaeology and the Production of Capital in the 21st Century (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Sarah Kurnick.

Over the last two decades, archaeologists have increasingly debated whether and how archaeology can be used to promote public welfare and foster progressive social change. Some scholars have emphasized the methodological importance of praxis. Others have emphasized the pragmatic need for public intellectuals. And, still others have emphasized the ethical necessity of community engagement. In this paper, I maintain that archaeology can and should be an ally in the effort to understand, and...


The "Colored Dead": African American Burying Grounds in a Confederate Stronghold (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Alison Bell.

Some call Lexington, Virginia the place "where the South went to die": Generals Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee are buried there, along with countless Confederate soldiers. The extent to which the South truly expired is controversial, given for example the continuing, frequent presence of enthusiasts with gray uniforms and battle flags. How, in this context, have African Americans been memorialized? This paper considers marked and unmarked antebellum burials, Reconstruction-era graves, and...


Comparative Social Inequality and Class Structure in Ancient Cities (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jacqueline Fox.

Using the Gini index and associated Lorenz curve, ancient cities dispersed throughout several cultural areas and representing varied temporal periods will be compared by a representative measurement of wealth. Using residential house size in several sites where the complete extent of the residences are mapped, calculated area and volume will be used as the standard for comparison. The volume of each structure is a more representative measurement of wealth because it encompasses the cost of labor...


Complex but Equal: Developing an Archaeological Inequality Index to Investigate Social Inequality at the Bronze Age III site of Numayra, Jordan (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicholas Ames. Meredith Chesson. Ian Kuijt. Rahul Oka.

The origins, evolution, and variation of inequality comprise a central overarching theme within anthropological archaeology. Various ideas, including hierarchy and heterarchy and their material correlates, have been proffered to explain the origins and impact of inequality on past social, economic, and political organization. Within Economics and Development Studies, various indices and measures, e.g., Gini coefficient, Theil Index, HDI and GDP, and the Consumption Approach have been offered as...


Cooperation, Labor, Sharing, and Inequality in a Long-Lived Household, Bridge River Site, British Columbia (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Anna Prentiss. Thomas Foor. Kristen Barnett. Matthew Walsh.

Archaeological research at the Bridge River site, British Columbia, demonstrates that during the Bridge River 3 period (ca. 1300-1000 cal. B.P.) material wealth-based inequality developed on an inter-household basis during what appears to have been a Malthusian ceiling where populations were briefly very high and resource access weakened. While there is significant knowledge of village-wide socio-economic, demographic and political change at the site little work has been done to gain an...


The Development of Inequality in Middle Horizon Cusco: Entheogens and Ritual Ceremonies to the Rescue (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Véronique Bélisle.

The Andean and Amazonian regions are home to numerous plants that can be prepared to induce altered states of consciousness. During the pre-Inka period in the Cusco area, evidence from the village of Ak'awillay indicates the consumption of alcohol, coca, and hallucinogens in public ceremonies. Some of the rituals involving entheogens could have corresponded to healing sessions, but the paraphernalia uncovered at the site suggests that most hallucinogens were consumed to communicate with the...


Early expressions of persistent leadership and inequality in the Andean Preceramic (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Mark Aldenderfer.

Research over the past few decades in the Andean world has identified a number of preludes to sociopolitical complexity, persistent leadership, and emergent inequality that involve a diversity of social and cultural forms, including the control and manipulation of ritual or religious power, the mobilization of labor to construct a variety of forms of public architecture, the display of status or prestige items, and control over access to socially valued goods. In many archaeological contexts...


The Economics of Aztec Inequality or, the Inequality of the Aztec Economy (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Smith.

In discussions of Aztec society, the economy and inequality are typically treated as separate realms. The former is discussed in terms of production, exchange, and consumption, while the latter is framed around nobles versus commoners and various hierarchies. Although no one would claim that these two topics are unrelated, the full extent of their interconnection is rarely acknowledged. We cannot understand Aztec economic processes and institutions without reference to patterns of inequality,...


Everyone Was Black in the Mines: Exploring the Reasons for Relaxed Racial Tensions in Early West Virginia Coal Company Towns. (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Robert DeMuth.

While racial inequality was frequently the norm in many early 20th century communities, several historians have noted that many central Appalachian coal mining ‘company towns’ tended toward more equitable white/black race relations.  The progressive nature of these histories is opposed to our modern stereotypes of the region, and may provide and important outlet for positive narratives of Appalachia.  This paper draws largely on oral histories and documentary evidence to understand the processes...


Excavation of a Rural Middle Preclassic Maya Village: Investigations at Paso del Macho, Yucatán, México (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Evan Parker. George J. Bey III. Tomás Gallareta Negrón. Betsy Kohut.

Paso del Macho is a Middle Preclassic village settlement located in the eastern Puuc region of the Yucatán Peninsula. Excavations of mounded architecture, the main plaza, and ballcourt of the site have established a chronological range beginning in the early Middle Preclassic and ending by the Late Preclassic. The earliest architecture at the settlement includes at least three small raised platforms associated with Ek ceramics, the earliest pottery complex in Northern Yucatán. Following this,...


Gendered Cooperation and Competition: A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Floor Activity Patterns in Housepit 54 (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Katie Neal. Ashley Hampton. Anna Marie Prentiss. Thomas A. Foor.

Housepit 54 at the Bridge River site, British Columbia provides a unique look at the evolution of interpersonal dynamics within a single household over time. The sequence of 17 floors evinces a wide-range of activity patterns and spatial configurations reflecting performed labor. Current theories of intra-household dynamics posit that cooperative, complimentary work should underlie individual social interactions within a single household. However from late Bridge River 2 (ca. 1300-1500 cal BP)...


The Gilded Age in Eastern Yucatán, Mexico: the Age of Betrayal or the Rise of the Middle Class? (2015)
DOCUMENT Full-Text Rani Alexander.

The social transformations produced by rapid industrialization and expansion of henequen production in the late nineteenth century in western Yucatan were not what happened in Maya-speaking communities further to the east. The Gilded Age in eastern Yucatan was attenuated because communities suffered the protracted aftershocks of the Caste War of Yucatan (1847-1901), which may have repressed wealth disparities instead of heightening them. In this paper, I examine the archaeology of haciendas and...


Gini Coefficients and the Measurement of Inequality: An Introduction (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Tim Kohler. Katie Grundtisch.

We briefly explore the history and current use of Gini coefficients, emphasizing the relatively few studies previously completed in archaeology. Then we explore the behavior of this measure against a variety of theoretical distributions, showing that it makes a useful though imperfect statistical summary of interesting phenomena. Finally we present Gini coefficients for a variety of contexts drawn from prehispanic Pueblo societies. Archaeological thought on emerging inequality has tended to...


Heritage That Gives Back: Community Development and Heritage Preservation in Tihosuco, Mexico (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kasey Diserens. Tiffany Cain. Richard Leventhal.

The Heritage Preservation and Community Development Project in Tihosuco, Quintana Roo is a community based anthropological program that seeks to combat the visible economic and social inequality in the region. Such inequalities exist both between the tourists and laborers as well as between the larger economic centers and peripheral indigenous communities. While the project seeks to bridge some gaps by creating jobs and a small-scale tourism market, we also explore ways to have an impact upon...


Household Activities, Status, and Social Organization at Uxul, Campeche, Mexico (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Beniamino Volta.

The physical remains of ancient buildings and activity areas provide an important archaeological window into the lives and practices of past households. In the Maya region, patio groups composed of multiple structures housing extended families have long been recognized as the fundamental units of settlement. At a very basic level, patio groups were both the primary locus and one of the most tangible material outcomes of household activities. Variations in their size and spatial configuration can...


Housing and Society at Teotihuacan (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Smith.

Housing at Teotihuacan took several forms, including apartment compounds, nonroyal palaces, residential quarters within civic structures, and perishable houses. I describe several approaches and methods that have been, or could be, applied to the analysis Teotihuacan housing. These include quantitative measures of wealth inequality using the Gini index; typological analysis of the forms of rooms, spaces, and compounds; measures of architectural standardization; distributions of surface artifacts...


Housing Inequality in Premodern Cities (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Timothy Dennehy. Jacqueline Fox. Michael Smith.

We calculate Gini indices for house size in two samples of premodern cities. The first sample consists of several cities included in the transdisciplinary comparative project on spatial inequality called “Service Access in Premodern Cities.” That project examined the relationship between inequality and a set of systematically coded contextual variables – such as economic development and governance mode – in a sample of ancient and historical cities. The current study uses only those cities that...


Inter-Household Ceramic Motif Variation and its Implications for Halaf Social Inequality at Kazane Hoyuk, SE Turkey (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Sue Ann McCarty.

Inter-site motif variability is understudied in a systematic way to understand the complicated design vocabularies, paint colors, textures and vessel forms of ceramics from the Halaf cultural horizon (5,900-5,350 Cal. B.C.E./5,200-4,500 uncal. B.C.E.), a culture-historical entity in the Late Pottery Neolithic of Upper Mesopotamia (southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq). Together, these motifs create an almost music-like multidimensional symphony of pattern including naturalistic...


Letting the Gini Out of the Bottle: Hazards of Measuring Inequality Archaeologically (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christian Peterson. Robert Drennan.

Since the 1980s, archaeologists have measured economic inequality by borrowing the Gini index from economics, and applying it to the archaeological record in various ways. Burial assemblages were the earliest targets, and more recent efforts have expanded to house sizes, areas of agricultural fields, and household possessions. Each of these sources provides potentially enlightening information about the distribution of wealth within an ancient community. Each source has its advantages and...


Life after Sugar: an Archaeology of the First Generation Post-emancipation in St. Peter’s Parish, Montserrat (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Krysta Ryzewski. John F. Cherry. Laura McAtackney.

In the first generation after emancipation Montserrat and its residents experienced exceptional difficulties. As the society transitioned from a sugar-based economy, former slaves, estate owners, and colonial authorities collectively struggled with the devastating effects of man-made and natural disasters, including a major earthquake in 1843, and a wide range of social, economic, and legal problems. This paper examines archaeological and historical evidence from St Peter’s Parish, the...


Material elaboration and monumentality: Mortuary beads, pastoralists, and social innovation in northwest Kenya (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Carla Klehm.

Megalithic architecture appeared suddenly in northwest Kenya 5000 years ago in tandem with the earliest pastoralists in the region. As Lake Turkana’s levels dropped, these people built "pillar sites" – massive feats of labor and coordination that represent one of the earliest instances of monumentality in Africa – in a brief explosion of material and architectural elaboration. The burials associated with these pillar sites are highly ornamented, with thousands of beads made from stone, bone, and...


Measures of Inequality in the Mississippian Heartland (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Alleen Betzenhauser.

Cahokia, the earliest and largest Mississippian (A.D. 1050–1400) mound complex, is situated in the American Bottom of Illinois. It is widely considered to be the center of a regionally integrated polity complete with subsidiary centers, specialized settlements, and rural farmsteads. Investigations at Cahokia proper and in the surrounding countryside over the past 50 years have provided a wealth of data concerning settlement layout, structure size and shape, and the differential distribution of...


Measuring household wealth using mound accumulation rates in Skagafjörður, North Iceland (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Eric Johnson.

Characterizing inter-household inequalities has long been a fundamental task of archaeology, but a fine-tuned measure of household wealth is often troubled by the inability to account for time or demographics in the archaeological record. This project tests the ways that Iceland, settled by Norse populations between A.D. 870 and 930, provides a temporally-sensitive mode of measuring household wealth through average rates of midden and architectural accumulations while also providing a context...


Modeling Intra-site Spatial Structure Helps Identify Inequality Among Enslaved Households at Monticello Plantation. (2020)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Fraser Neiman.

This is a paper/report submission presented at the 2020 annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology. For decades archaeologists studying households occupied by enslaved people in North America and the Caribbean have attempted to identify swept yards using archaeological evidence. This paper builds on this work. I offer a model of how yard maintenance predicts spatial covariation between artifact density and size. I also offer a R-based workflow, available on Github, for identifying...