Archaeometry & Materials Analysis: XRF/pXRF (Other Keyword)

1-25 (91 Records)

12,500 Years of Altitude (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Elizabeth Pintar. María Fernanda Rodríguez.

The earliest occupations in the Salt Puna —a high elevation desert in the Andes Mountains — date to the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary and are relevant to the discussion of the timing of the first exploration and colonization of South American elevations above 3500m, as well as the relationship between mountain environments and other ecological areas. The wooden shafts used in the extractive technologies of the earliest hunter-gatherers originated outside the Puna, in the eastern lowlands....


Applying pXRF Technology to Repatriation at the National Museum of Natural History (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Meredith Luze.

The Anthropology collections at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) have a long history of treatment with pesticides and contact with other materials that contain potentially hazardous elements. When the NMNH Repatriation Office began to use portable x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) technology, it focused on identifying potentially hazardous elements on archaeology, ethnology, and physical anthropology collections. If identified, the Repatriation Office attempted to determine the source of...


Archaeometric Analysis of Mural Paintings at Pachacamac, Peru (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Peter Eeckhout. Kusi Colonna-Preti.

This is an abstract from the "From Materials to Materiality: Analysis and Interpretation of Archaeological and Historical Artifacts Using Non-destructive and Micro/Nano-sampling Scientific Methods" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. From 2014 to 2018, we excavated Building B15, a small temple decorated with mural paintings at the archaeological site of Pachacamac. These are the first paintings discovered on the site since 1938. On the walls, as on...


Archaic Period Obsidian Use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: The 48PA551 Assemblage in Regional Context (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Lawrence Todd. Rachel Reckin.

This is an abstract from the "New Multidisciplinary Research at 48PA551: A Middle Archaic (McKean Complex) Site in Northwest Wyoming" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. In comparison to other Archaic sites in the eastern portions of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), the Dead Indian Creek site (48PA551) has an unusually high number of obsidian projectile points (N=29). Geochemical source characterization of 23 of the 48PA551 obsidian points...


Assessing Food-Based Trade and Mobility in the Chincha Valley (Peru) Using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christine Bergmann. Robert H. Tykot.

Peru is commonly known for having the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, but comparatively little is known about the subsistence practices of the pre-Inca communities that existed in the inland valley of Chincha during the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1476). The Chinchas formed a powerful socio-economic entity within the Chincha Kingdom in part of the southern region of Peru nearest to the Pacific Ocean. Our research tests the hypothesis that individuals relied more heavily on a...


Assessing the Potential for ED-XRF in Archaeometric Studies: A Focus on Data Sharing and Bulk Chemical Analysis (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jeffrey R. Ferguson.

This is an abstract from the "Advances in Obsidian Studies of the Old and New Worlds" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Over the past few decades, the increasing use of compositional studies of archaeological materials has dramatically enhanced our knowledge of the past, but as the diversity and availability of analytical techniques increases it is necessary to understand all of the variables involved in the choice of analytical method. In this...


Beads and Bohr Models: Using XRF to Discuss Choctaw Identity Formation (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kevin Wright.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. This paper presents the results of a study that uses x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to examine European glass trade beads from the Chickasawhay Creek Sites (22KE630 & 22KE718) in Kemper County, Mississippi. Together, these two sites present a unique opportunity to examine Choctaw ethnogenesis. Although a combination of archaeological and ethnohistorical research has...


Beyond the Technical Revolution: Epistemological Shifts in Archaeological XRF (or: "The World of XRF Will Never Be the Same Again") (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Ellery Frahm.

This is an abstract from the "2019 Fryxell Award Symposium: Papers in Honor of M. Steven Shackley" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. In 1983, an advertisement for a Tracor X-ray spectrometer proclaimed that "the world of XRF will never be the same again" thanks to an integrated microcomputer that "takes the confusion out of instrumental analysis." It was an exaggeration that this model offered "mistake-proof" XRF, but the point is that this...


A Change of Hearth: Stages of Production in Hot-Rock Technology at a Late Woodland Rockshelter (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Luke Stroth. Rebekah Truhan. Jacob Foubert.

This paper applies the chaîne opératoire analytical framework to hearth maintenance behavior. There are distinct phases of production involved in creating and maintaining a hearth, as new hearthstones are introduced, exhausted, and discarded. These stages may be identified through spatial distribution of new and exhausted hearthstones. The authors argue that these stages may also be identified geochemically. We use pXRF to compare a series of experimental burnings to those from a hearth feature...


Chemical Analyses of Obsidian from Classic Maya Paynes Creek Salt Works, Belize (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only E. Cory Sills. Heather McKillop.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Paynes Creek Salt Works were an ancient Maya Classic Period (A.D. 300-900) salt industry located in a shallow salt water lagoon in southern Belize. The rise of the Paynes Creek Salt Works mirrored the growth in population at inland communities during the Late Classic Period (A. D. 600-900) where salt—a basic biological necessity—was scarce. The demand for...


Chemical Composition of Maya Slips: Analysis and Interpretation of Preclassic Sherds from Holtun, Guatemala Using pXRF Technology (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Anna Kebler. Michael Callaghan. Brigitte Kovacevich.

Slip, a fluid suspension of clay that is applied to the surface of a piece of ceramic, allows for increased control over the functional and aesthetic properties of the finished vessel. The potter can select a slip to provide a more appealing color, texture, and/or luster to the vessel’s surface, while maintaining the favorable functional qualities of the paste.While slip color has long been used as an attribute for classification in the Maya lowlands, only recently have the raw materials of...


Chemical Indices as a Key to Context: The Use of pXRF to Reassemble Maya Mural Fragments from San Bartolo, Guatemala (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Heather Hurst.

This is an abstract from the "From Materials to Materiality: Analysis and Interpretation of Archaeological and Historical Artifacts Using Non-destructive and Micro/Nano-sampling Scientific Methods" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The dissemination of wall paintings from the Late Preclassic period Maya site of San Bartolo, Guatemala, have focused on the in situ north and west walls of the buried chamber named Sub-1A. In contrast to their excellent...


Chronological Composition Variation of White Glass Beads from Plains and Midwest Sites (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kendra McCabe. William Billeck.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Small drawn white beads are ubiquitous throughout archaeological sites in the United States but historically provided little chronological information due to their uniform appearance. Portable X-ray fluorescence provides a nondestructive means of determining relative amounts of elements used in glass bead opacifying agents. This study tested the chemical...


Clarifying Perceptions of Rock: Prehistoric Use of Common Toolstone in Tangle Lakes, Alaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Brooks Lawler.

Archaeologists have had difficulty agreeing upon uniform designations of certain kinds of toolstone that are not easily distinguishable visually. There are occasions when the archaeological definition of toolstone material and the geological definition of the same toolstone material do not match. A situation where this discrepancy might arise is when archaeologists give a more specific name to a cryptocrystalline silicate that is difficult to identify based on visual analysis. An understanding...


Clovis Use of Obsidian in the Southwest (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Bruce Huckell.

This is an abstract from the "2019 Fryxell Award Symposium: Papers in Honor of M. Steven Shackley" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The role of obsidian in Clovis technological organization in the US Southwest and northwestern Mexico is investigated. The distribution and typology of obsidian artifacts from excavated sites as well as surface contexts is reviewed. Projectile points appear to be the principal, and nearly only, tool for which obsidian...


Color Me Red: A Preliminary Examination of Pigments in the Moquegua Valley, Peru (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Cyrus Banikazemi.

This is an abstract from the "Exploring Culture Contact and Diversity in Southern Peru" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. This preliminary study explores how pigments were sourced and manufactured in the Moquegua valley of southern Peru. The ethnohistoric and archaeological records provide ample evidence of the economic, religious, and social significance of colors and pigments in the pre-Columbian Andean world; however, there currently exists little...


Comparison of Slip Colors from Andean Styles (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Emilee Witte. Emily Schach. Donna Nash.

This is an abstract from the "Exploring Culture Contact and Diversity in Southern Peru" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Rescue excavations conducted at the Terminal Terrestre site in Moquegua, Peru recovered a diverse collection of complete ceramic vessels representing several styles dating to Terminal Middle Horizon (900-1100 CE), Late Intermediate period (1100-1400 CE), and Late Horizon (1400-1532 CE). Through the use of portable X-Ray...


A Comparison of XRF and Visual Sourcing Methods in the Identification of Guadalupe Victoria Obsidian at Matacanela, Sierra de los Tuxtlas (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Marcie Venter. Sean Carr. Shayna Lindquist.

Several Pre-Classic assemblages in the Mesoamerican Gulf lowlands are characterized by obsidian from the Guadalupe Victoria source. Tools produced are characterized by flake-core reduction strategies. The combined visual characteristics of the source material and technology employed are important chronological indicators. But, general similarities in the appearance of the raw material and factors such as variable thickness create the potential for overlap with other sources, such as Pico de...


Contacts before "Contact". Comments about the interaction between nomads and sedentary societies in Northern Mexico desert Highlands (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Juan Ignacio Macias Quintero.

This is an abstract from the "Journeying to the South, from Mimbres (New Mexico) to Malpaso (Zacatecas) and Beyond: Papers in Honor of Ben A. Nelson" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. This paper presents an analysis of the contacts process between sedentary farmers and nomadic groups who inhabited the Mesoamerican Northern Frontier, before the XVI Century. Archaeological previous research suggested that villages standing on the northern mesoamerican...


Convergence Zone Politics and Cultural Affiliations at the Archaeological Site of Ucanal, Peten, Guatemala (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christina Halperin. Jose Luis Garrido Lopez. Miriam Salas. Jean Baptiste LeMoine.

This is an abstract from the "Making and Breaking Boundaries in the Maya Lowlands: Alliance and Conflict across the Guatemala–Belize Border" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Maya archaeological site of Ucanal is located in Peten, Guatemala, close to the contemporary border with Belize. In Pre-Columbian times, the site also sat at the borders of some of the largest political centers, such as Caracol (Belize) and Naranjo (Peten, Guatemala)....


Cotzumalguapa's Lithic Industry: Procurement, Production, and Distribution of Obsidian Artifacts of a Late Classic Mesoamerican Polity (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only David McCormick.

Procurement, production, and distribution of raw materials loom large in discussions of prehistoric economies. Over the past three decades surface survey and excavations in and around the Late Classic polity of Cotzumalguapa revealed the presence of several obsidian dumps, the result of a large-scale lithic industry. These deposits contain production debitage from most phases of blade-core reduction but no nodules and relatively very little cortex, suggesting that obsidian came into...


Deconstructing Rock Art – An Experimental Approach to the Application of Portable Analytical Instrumentation to Applied Pigments at Pleito, South-Central California (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Clare Bedford. David Robinson.

The composition of background substrate, overpainted layers and admixtures can influence the data acquired from portable instrumentation at rock art sites. An understanding of the extent and impact of this influence is crucial when comparing in situ rock art pigments with potential source materials. This study uses an experimental process to assess the impact of factors such as a pigment thickness, overpainting, and addition of organic binders on the readings acquired using portable...


The Dirt on Cultural Diversity: Examining Occupation Floor Surfaces in the Moquegua Valley (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Riley Murrin.

This is an abstract from the "Exploring Culture Contact and Diversity in Southern Peru" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The recent rise in the availability of literature on the topic soil chemical analysis has inspired growing interest in evaluating soils at archaeological sites to gain a more detailed picture of the lives and culture of the people that once lived there. Through soil analysis, we can better define areas once used for residential...


Discerning Paleoindian Mobility in the Eastern Great Basin: A Geochemical Analysis of Lithic Artifacts from Bonneville Estates Rockshelter and Smith Creek Cave (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Caitlin Doherty. Ted Goebel.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Lithic technological organization studies and geochemical analyses provide a useful way for archaeologists to examine prehistoric forager mobility. In the Great Basin, these methods, when applied to assemblages from multi-component sites, have revealed diachronic changes in lithic raw material procurement patterns between the Paleoindian and Early Archaic...


The Dynamics of Māori Socio-political Interaction: Social Network Analyses of Obsidian Circulation in Northland Aotearoa (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Thegn Ladefoged. Dion O'Neale. Alex Jorgensen. Christopher Stevenson. Mark McCoy.

The Polynesian colonists who settled New Zealand touched off the creation of a type of society not found in remote Oceania. Over the span of several centuries relatively autonomous village-based groups transformed into larger territorial hapū lineages, which later formed even larger geo-political iwi associations. A social network analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of obsidian artefacts, an important stone resource that was used for a variety of tools, evaluates where and when new...