Archaeometry & Materials Analysis: Metallurgical Analysis (Other Keyword)

1-25 (25 Records)

Accidental Innovation? Using Isotopic Analysis to Test Possible Iron Production as a By-Product of Advanced Copper Smelting (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Brady Liss. Thomas Levy. James Day.

This is an abstract from the "The Movement of Technical Knowledge: Cross-Craft Perspectives on Mobility and Knowledge in Production Technologies" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Faynan region of Southern Jordan is one of the largest copper ore deposits in the Levant. These ores were exploited throughout history, and during the Iron Age (ca. 1200-800 BCE), copper production in Faynan reached an industrial scale. However, excavations at Khirbat...


Artisanal Lineages, Communities of Practice and Learning Traditions in Muisca otive goldwork (Colombia): An Initial Exploration (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Marcos Martinón-Torres. Maria Alicia Uribe Villegas.

This is an abstract from the "The Movement of Technical Knowledge: Cross-Craft Perspectives on Mobility and Knowledge in Production Technologies" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Technological and stylistic regularities in material culture are often used to define archaeological ‘cultures’, and variously interpreted as resulting from communities of practice, learning traditions and/and imitation, together with consumer or patron demands....


Changing Times, Changing Ways? Evidence for Metallurgy at the Cividade de Bagunte (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nadya Prociuk.

The Iberian Peninsula has been a rich source of metallic ores for millennia, and the quest for control of those resources has profoundly impacted the history of the Peninsula. Iberia has followed a unique trajectory in the development of metallurgy, with a case for the independent invention of copper smelting in the southwest, and small-scale production of bronze and other metals across the Peninsula until Roman occupation. The advent of Roman imperial control of labour and mines constituted a...


A Complex History of Human-Environment Interaction Revealed by the Study of Metal Production Industries in Imperial China (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Siran Liu. Thilo Rehren. Wei Qian. Jianli Chen. Marcos Martinón-Torres.

The study of technology with archaeological science approaches is a powerful proxy for investigating the history of human-environment interactions and provides essential information which could not be revealed by other types of evidence. This great potential was however not fully exploited in previous works. Here we present an on-going project of archaeometallurgical investigation of 7th-15th century silver-lead production sites in China. Environmental history study agreed that during this...


The Diversity of Old Copper Culture Projectile Points (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Richard Meindl. Michelle Bebber.

This is an abstract from the "Defining and Measuring Diversity in Archaeology" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Old Copper Culture (OCC) (4000-1000 B.C.) of the Lake Superior Region of North America features a wide variety of utilitarian tools manufactured from native copper. Here, we assess the technological diversity of copper projectile points found in the region spanning Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota U.S.A., as well as artifacts found...


Early Iron Metallurgy in the Caucasus: Filling in a Technological "Missing Link" (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nathaniel Erb-Satullo.

In the study of technological transformations, there is often much discussion of how innovations are conditioned by earlier systems of technical knowledge. Identification of transitional features is often challenging, however, particularly for questions about the origins of iron smelting and its relationship with copper-base metallurgy. This paper discusses some unusual technological features in iron metallurgical debris (circa 8th-6th c. BC) from a fortified hilltop site in the Caucasus,...


Experimental Investigation of Primary Copper Smelting in Central Michoacan (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Blanca Maldonado. Patricia Castro. Peter Tropper.

This is an abstract from the "From Materials to Materiality: Analysis and Interpretation of Archaeological and Historical Artifacts Using Non-destructive and Micro/Nano-sampling Scientific Methods" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Copper was the main metal produced and worked in Mesoamerica, but data for pre-modern primary production and processing remain elusive. Systematic research at Itziparátzico, a Late Postclassic location in Central...


High Energy Generation and Elevated Temperature Potential of an Archaic Furnace in Ancient Peru (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jose-Luis Sagripanti. Dan Wise. Ralph A. Anthenien Jr.. Elias Yoon. Christopher Kleihege.

We present an aerodynamic and thermal study of the architectonic complex including a fire pit (locally named Fogon Mayor) on top of the largest pyramid in Caral, a society that flourished between 2627 and 2020 cal B.C. near the Pacific coast of present day Peru.The air flow produced by wind on the corridor and ducts feeding the fogon was estimated by various engineering approaches that agreed (within 7-18%) with calculations obtained by fluid-dynamics-modeling of the whole pyramid. Results were...


IRANGKOR Project: Production, Trade and Consumption of Iron in the Khmer Empire, Cambodia (9th to 15th c. CE) (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Stéphanie Leroy. Mitch Hendrickson. Emmanuelle Delque-Kolic. Enrique Vega. Philippe Dillmann.

Investigation into material production and distribution is an important way of understanding the political and socioeconomic organization of premodern states. Iron, with its specific technological characteristics and diverse cultural utility, can be perceived as one of the most dynamic materials for facilitating social and cultural transformation. Reconstructing how iron was managed in the Khmer Empire is therefore a critical perspective for documenting the interrelationship between its multiple...


Iron Production at Marginal Settlements in Northern Iceland (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicholas Zeitlin.

The environment of Iceland was rapidly and severely affected by the Norse Settlement, in particular by deforestation. In Iceland’s changing environment the production of iron, an essential material, became limited not by access to iron ore but by availability of wood to make charcoal fuel. The large-scale production of iron may be one of the primary processes that led to deforestation in Iceland due to the large need for charcoal. Investigations at Stekkjarborg on the farm of Keldudalur in...


The Landscape of China’s Participation in the Bronze Age Eurasian Network (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Li Zhang.

In the last decade, much has been learned about the network of interactions in Bronze Age Eurasia, and the importance of the steppe pastoralists in the creation of this network. However, the mechanisms that enabled societies in ancient China (both those bordering on and distant from the steppe) to participate in the Bronze Age Eurasian arena are still poorly understood. Based on the latest archaeological discoveries in China, this article focuses on the participation of four regions of ancient...


Large-Scale Craft Production and the Andean Religious Center: A Reconsideration (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Izumi Shimada. Amy Szumilewicz.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Our conventional conception of the prehispanic Andean religious or ceremonial center emphasizes a limited range of sacred, ritual activities, intermittent public gatherings, a relatively small resident population, and perhaps small-scale production of craft items for offerings. At the Middle Sicán (900-1100 CE) religious center of Sicán, however, the large...


Little Bronze Things: What They Do and How They Do It in the Early Bronze Age in NW China (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rowan Flad.

Small bronze objects, some tools, others ornaments, and yet others of undetermined function, are the earliest known Bronze objects in China. Many of these objects are found in sites from Northwest China that date to the early part of the second millennium BC. Their manufacture seems to have been conducted locally on a small scale in this region, and yet the transformation of matter that their production entailed played a role in large scale transformations of society – ultimately culminating...


The medieval Basque iron industry, cultural traits in technological traditions (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only David Larreina-Garcia. Juan Antonio Quirós-Castillo.

This is an abstract from the "The Movement of Technical Knowledge: Cross-Craft Perspectives on Mobility and Knowledge in Production Technologies" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Basquesmith project investigates ironworking production during Early Medieval times ‒mostly utilitarian iron implements such as ladles or keys‒ excavated in rural settlements in the Basque Country (northern Spain), focusing on the characterisation of the manufacture...


The Metallurgical Cycle and Human Responses to Material Fatigue (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Joseph Lehner.

Innovations in metallurgy had and continue to have significant and transformative effects on society. From mineral exploration and mining to primary metal production, manufacturing, and consumption across a range of social contexts, metallurgy influenced a wide range of distinctly human conditions. However, while metals are particularly transmutable, they also rapidly corrode back into increasingly stable mineral compounds in processes that people tried to mitigate and often unsuccessfully...


A Metallurgical Study of Early Bronzes from Northern Vietnam: Some Thoughts on Methodology, Local Practices and Inter-regional Interaction (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Francis Allard. Wengcheong Lam. Nam Kim.

This is an abstract from the "The Current State of Archaeological Research across Southeast Asia" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. This paper presents the results of the metallurgical analysis of 43 fragments of bronze artifacts recovered from Bronze Age sites in northern Vietnam. It represents the largest systematic study undertaken so far of early north Vietnamese bronzes using a range of archeo-metallurgical techniques. The artifacts, which are...


Mining, Extractive Metallurgy and Imperialism in the Inka Empire (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Colleen Zori.

The Inka empire directed significant resources and labor towards the extraction of metals from the provinces. Using the examples of Porco (silver), Viña del Cerro (copper) and the Tarapacá Valley (copper and silver), this poster explores Inka strategies for obtaining metallurgical wealth. These case studies show that, as suggested by ethnohistoric sources, large-scale silver extraction was directly overseen by the state. In contrast to models of more indirect state involvement typically...


New Insights for Provenance Studies of Iron Artifacts (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Philippe Dillmann. Stéphanie Leroy. Sylvain Bauvais. Maxime L'Heritier. Alexandre Disser.

The study of the production and trade of metals is one of the means to highlight the technical and social organization of societies. Among several issues, the question of the provenance of the metal is of primary importance and can lead to enlighten the organization of the production (spatial and temporal structures of the chaine opératoire) and of the supply networks. Concerning iron and its alloys, these last years have seen important developments in archaeological sciences to address the...


Niche Construction and Iron Smelting Technology: Some Thoughts on the Development of Regional Metallurgical Economies (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Charlton.

This is an abstract from the "The Movement of Technical Knowledge: Cross-Craft Perspectives on Mobility and Knowledge in Production Technologies" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Linking the evolution of smelting technology to the development of regional economies remains one of the greatest challenges for archaeometallurgy. It is neither possible to explain technological evolution without reference to its costs and benefits in a given...


Pastoral Societies, Holocene Climate and Technology: Perspectives from Iron Age Southern Jordan (Session 4400) (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Thomas E. Levy.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. How did pastoral societies evolve into more complex social organizations in what is today a hyper-arid desert zone? This paper examines the Iron Age (ca 1200 - 500 BC) data from southern Jordan that indicates relatively little climate change from today, yet the rise of complex pastoral nomadic societies.


Produccion metalurgica en la Costa Sur: de Paracas a Nasca (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only María Inés Velarde. Pamela Castro de la Mata.

Las sociedades de Paracas y Nasca que habitaban el actual territorio de Ica, desarrollaron una tradición metalúrgica con características locales particulares dentro de los Andes Centrales. Los orígenes de la producción metalúrgica en esta zona se relacionan con la presencia de Chavín durante el Horizonte Temprano, y se caracteriza por el predominante uso de oro laminado y trabajado en formas y diseños simples. Esta tradición metalúrgica se mantuvo durante varios siglos en el sur, casi a espaldas...


Range and Variation of Copper Tools from Two Archaic Localities in Wisconsin (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Robert Ahlrichs.

Great Lakes Archaic copper artifacts have been well documented and typed for many decades. However, there is a lingering tendency to think of copper as primarily a social signifier and to shy away from development of economically oriented copper theory. One component of the problem is rooted in copper’s innately malleable nature. Copper was made into a wide range of tools and non-utilitarian items during prehistory. While most of these types have been enumerated, there are no published...


The Socio-economic Dynamics of Iron Production in Viking Age Northern Iceland (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicholas Zeitlin.

This is an abstract from the "SANNA v2.2: Case Studies in the Social Archaeology of the North and North Atlantic" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Understanding how an agricultural society organized the production of iron and the trade of farming implements allows us to describe how they managed natural resources and non-agricultural activities as a community. In the North Atlantic region known for its ephemeral material culture, slags and other...


Technical Knowledge, Metal Artisans, and Moche Visual Culture: A View from Piura, Peru (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Alicia Boswell. Joanne Pillsbury.

This is an abstract from the "The Movement of Technical Knowledge: Cross-Craft Perspectives on Mobility and Knowledge in Production Technologies" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Technical knowledge is passed along through individuals and the exchange of objects. While technical studies of artifacts illuminate the physical evidence of evolutions in manufacturing processes, what are the mechanisms via which ideas are exchanged? What is the role of...


Three Case Studies of Andean Metalworking (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Sebastian Warmlander.

The history of South American metalworking still presents a number of unresolved questions, despite decades of archaeological and historical research. This is especially true for the Andean region, where in prehistoric times alloys of copper as well as precious metals were crafted into intricate objects. Here, analytical metallographic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy are used to investigate different aspects of...