Pacific Islands (Geographic Keyword)

1-25 (87 Records)

Ancestral Pathways of Fiji: Using GIS to Analyze Landscapes of Movement and Lineages within the Sigatoka River Valley (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kyle Riordan. Julie Field.

This is an abstract from the "Geospatial Studies in the Archaeology of Oceania" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The concept of landscapes of movement establishes the theoretical basis for understanding meaning behind the creation and use of roads, trails, and pathways. This meaning can be categorized by "prioritized relationships" (i.e., social, political, religious, economic) which ultimately stimulate the existence of landscapes of movement. This...


Apotguan Revisited: A Bioarchaeological Analysis of Latte Period Burials from Guam (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rona Ikehara-Quebral. Judith McNeill. Michele Toomay Douglas. Michael Pietrusewsky.

This is an abstract from the "Research and CRM Are Not Mutually Exclusive: J. Stephen Athens—Forty Years and Counting" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Cultural Resources Management studies in the Mariana Islands have consistently expanded opportunities for in-depth bioarchaeological research. Burial assemblages originating from historic preservation compliance obligations generally derive from one of three contexts: displaced fragmentary remains;...


Applications of Geospatial Technologies in Known Archaeological Landscapes: Re-examining the Archaeological Settlement Pattern of Falefa Valley (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Matthew Prebble. Seth Quintus. Ethan Cochrane.

This is an abstract from the "Geospatial Studies in the Archaeology of Oceania" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The development and present nature of landscape archaeology in the Pacific owes much to the pioneering work of Janet Davidson and Roger Green in Falefa Valley, Upolu, Sāmoa. This research, completed in the absence of modern geospatial technology, not only demonstrated the potential of landscape-scale investigations in Polynesia but also...


Arboriculture, Translocated Flora, and Ecological Inheritance in the Marquesas Islands, East Polynesia (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jennifer Huebert. Melinda S. Allen.

Contact-period accounts point to considerable variability in Polynesian agronomic production systems. In the Marquesas Islands, a mountainous island group in the eastern Pacific, food production in the proto-historic period was narrowly focused on tree cropping and breadfruit cultivation in particular. Early western visitors remarked on the archipelago’s large and thriving island populations, and their stable and productive arboricultural systems. In this paper, we present the results of a...


Archaeology of Colonialism and Ethnogenesis in Guam and the Mariana Islands (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Natalia Moragas. Sandra Montón-Subías. James Bayman.

This paper presents a new archaeological project that we are co-directing in Umatac, Guam. Combining historical written sources and archaeological information, we seek to contribute a better understanding of the historical-archaeological legacy connected to colonial processes related to the Hispanic Monarchy in the western Pacific, and their role in resulting ethnogenesis.


Artificial Lines in Saltwater and Sand: Boundaries, Borders, and Beaches in Oceania and Australia (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only James Flexner.

This is an abstract from the "Contested Landscapes: The Archaeology of Politics, Borders, and Movement" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Islands have long appeared to Western eyes as naturally bounded entities. It has been proposed that they represent ‘natural laboratories’ for understanding natural and cultural evolution. At the same time, islands are recognised as contact zones, for example historian Greg Dening has outlined the significance of...


Banking on Stone Money: The Influence of Traditional "Currencies" on Blockchain Technology (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Scott Fitzpatrick.

Centuries ago in western Micronesia, Yapese islanders began traveling to the Palauan archipelago to carve their famous stone money from limestone, which they then transported back to use in a variety of social transactions. While commonly referred to as ‘money’, these disks were not currency in the strict sense, though their value is not dissimilar to other traditional and modern objects where worth is arbitrary based on both real and perceived attributes (e.g., size, shape, quality, pedigree,...


The Best Gifts come in Small Packages? Coring Volcanic Landscapes in New Britain (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Peter White. Robin Torrence. Vince Neall.

This is an abstract from the "Research and CRM Are Not Mutually Exclusive: J. Stephen Athens—Forty Years and Counting" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. A volcanic environment built up by characterised and well dated airfall tephras is paradise for landscape archaeology because in any excavation the cultural material is placed accurately in time. Shouldn’t this setting also be ideal for environmental data? With expertise provided by Steve Athens, we...


Challenges, Opportunities, and Kuleana: Historic Preservation in Hawaii (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Regina Hilo.

This is an abstract from the "Braiding Knowledge: Opportunities and Challenges for Collaborative Approaches to Archaeological Heritage and Conservation" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Working and consulting with the community is built into Hawaii’s historic preservation laws and statutes. I work for the History and Culture branch of the State Historic Preservation Division, and my main role is mitigating effects to human skeletal remains, iwi...


Continuity and Change in Early Colonial-Era Hawai‘i: An Examination of Foreign Artifacts from Nu‘alolo Kai, Kaua‘i Island (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Summer Moore.

Archaeologists increasingly emphasize the role of social and cultural context in understanding how indigenous groups in colonial settings appropriated foreign goods. While documentary accounts of explorers, traders, and missionaries have long been used by Pacific historians to examine foreign trade in Hawaii’s early colonial period, archaeological sites from this period have rarely been identified. As a result, we know little about how foreign goods acquired through such exchanges were actually...


Contrast and Connection in a Colonial-Era Hawaiian Hinterland: A Study of Nineteenth-Century Households on the Nā Pali Coast, Kaua‘i Island (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Summer Moore.

This is an abstract from the "Rethinking Hinterlands in Polynesia" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. While researchers once considered the residents of hinterlands as the passive recipients of social and cultural influence, scholars have increasingly reframed these regions as dynamic zones of innovation and creative adaptation. Hinterlands have often been mentioned in investigations of indigenous sites in the context of European colonialism. Still,...


Coral Islands, High Islands: A Case of Continued Contact and Cultural Divergence in East Polynesia (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Justin Cramb. Victor Thompson.

This is an abstract from the "Rethinking Hinterlands in Polynesia" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Polynesian atolls are often viewed as outlying provinces or "outer Islands" as compared to larger high islands. These often remote and diminutive coral islands are, and were, home to relatively small populations. Many coral island groups trace ancestry to, and had sustained contact with, high islands. These past connections and modern sociopolitical...


Core-Hinterland dynamics in New Zealand Archaeology (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Karen Greig. Richard Walter.

This is an abstract from the "Rethinking Hinterlands in Polynesia" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The concept of ‘hinterland’ encompasses ideas of distance, marginality and challenge and is often contrasted with ‘core’, which in turn implies centrality and resource richness. In this paper we address the applicability of both these concepts in New Zealand and examine their role in understanding long-term Maori history. We suggest that high...


Cranial Vault Modification in the Mariana Islands (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rona Ikehara-Quebral. Michael Pietrusewsky. Michele Toomay Douglas.

Cultural flattening of the posterior skull, rare in the Mariana Islands, was recently observed in multiple human skeletons from a Latte Period site in Guam. Prior to this study, only one case of possible artificial cranial modification was reported for this region. The cranium of a young adult female from Songsong Village, Rota, was described as having "asymmetrical deformation in the occipital region consistent with artificial shaping practices." In a review of the ethnohistoric literature,...


A Dagger to the Heart? Testing Assumptions of Archaeological Network Analysis with New Guinean Ethnographic Collections (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Mark Golitko. James Zimmer-Dauphinee. John Edward Terrell.

Progressive cultural and biological diversification and divergence over space and time is one of the grand meta-narratives of archaeological thought. Much of the method and theory employed in support of this narrative is arguably at odds with what Emirbayer and Goodwin label the "anti-categorical imperative" at the heart of social network relational thinking. Here we utilize spatial network models within the broader family of Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) to examine the relationship...


The Dynamics of Māori Socio-political Interaction: Social Network Analyses of Obsidian Circulation in Northland Aotearoa (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Thegn Ladefoged. Dion O'Neale. Alex Jorgensen. Christopher Stevenson. Mark McCoy.

The Polynesian colonists who settled New Zealand touched off the creation of a type of society not found in remote Oceania. Over the span of several centuries relatively autonomous village-based groups transformed into larger territorial hapū lineages, which later formed even larger geo-political iwi associations. A social network analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of obsidian artefacts, an important stone resource that was used for a variety of tools, evaluates where and when new...


Education, Conservation, and Research on Easter Island through Three-Dimensional Photogrammetry (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kelsey Sullivan. Britton L. Shepardson. Mario Tuki. Paula Valenzuela Contreras. Francisco Torres Hochstetter.

For fifteen years, Terevaka Archaeological Outreach (TAO) has provided local students from Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) with hands-on experience to: (1) offer experiential learning opportunities about the local cultural and natural resources; (2) promote awareness and expertise in conservation measures and sustainable development; and (3) document and study the modern and ancient natural and cultural resources of the island. Three-dimensional ortho-corrected photogrammetry (3D OCP) is a...


Ethnoornithological and Genomic Perspectives on Royal Hawaiian Featherwork (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Natalia Przelomska. Adrienne Kaeppler. Jim Groombridge. Logan Kistler. Rob Fleischer.

This is an abstract from the "Frontiers in Animal Management: Unconventional Species, New Methods, and Understudied Regions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Hawaiian featherwork constitutes a treasured element of Hawaiian cultural heritage. Feather artefacts curated in museums today were acquired between the late 18th and the early 20th centuries and it is clear that their production required thousands of feathers sourced from Hawaiian forest...


Evidence for Forest Clearance and Food Production in Lapita and Post-Lapita Fiji (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Julie Field. Christopher Roos. Rebecca Hazard.

Investigations at the site of Qaraqara have sought to determine the antiquity of forest clearance and food production in Fiji. Located over 25 km inland from the coast, archaeological excavation has indicated that the site was used for habitation and cultivation, producing a ceramic-rich deposit that extends to a depth of 250 cm. Geoarchaeological analyses of sediment cores from Qaraqara reached 500 cmbs, and document the formation of stable soils by 3000 BP, during the Lapita period. Plant...


Examining the Impacts of Non-human Animals on Sequences of Agricultural Change (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Seth Quintus. Jennifer Huebert. Kyungsoo Yoo.

Historical sequences of agricultural change are influenced by several key factors. While much attention has been paid to the political context of agricultural production, as well as environmental changes brought about by certain techniques, less has been paid to the active manipulation of productive environments by non-human animals. Within the context of some recent theoretical advances in archaeology and ecology, it has become apparent that animals - intentionally or unintentionally introduced...


Excavating and Interpreting Ancestral Action – Stories from the Subsurface of Orokolo Bay, Papua New Guinea (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Chris Urwin.

Orokolo Bay is a rapidly changing geomorphic and cultural landscape in which the ancestral past is constantly being interpreted and negotiated. This paper examines the importance of subsurface archaeological and geomorphological features for the various communities of Orokolo Bay as they maintain and re-construct cosmological and migration narratives. Everyday activities of gardening and digging at antecedent village locations bring Orokolo Bay locals into regular engagement with buried ceramics...


Expanding Our Remote Sensing Toolkit: The First Application of UAV Aerial Thermography in the Hawaiian Islands (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Adam Johnson. Mark McCoy. Jesse Casana. Austin Hill. Thegn Ladefoged.

This is an abstract from the "Geospatial Studies in the Archaeology of Oceania" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Geospatial technology has allowed for significant advances in archaeological practice in Hawaii and Oceania as the equipment, software, and datasets have become more affordable and widely available. Remotely sensed data, notably aerial LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning, are used in research and applied archaeology for site prospection...


Exploring Manufacturing Variability in Calcareous Sand Tempered Pottery on Yap, Western Caroline Islands (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Haden Kingrey. Matthew Napolitano. Geoffrey Clark. Scott Fitzpatrick.

The oldest identified sites on Yap are identified by presence calcareous sand tempered (CST) pottery from deeply stratified deposits. With few exceptions, CST pottery, made from locally produced clay, has been recovered from Rungluw and Pemrang, two sites in southern Yap, western Micronesia (northwest tropical Pacific). Although poor preservation conditions and small sample sizes make it difficult to reconstruct vessel size, detailed analysis of sherds demonstrates at least two sub-types. Recent...


Exploring the Interpretative Roles of Microarchaeology, Ethnohistory and Ethnoarchaeology for Structuring Daily Life in Pre-contact Hawaiian Houses (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kirsten Vacca. Lisa Maher.

Ethnoarchaeology provides a useful tool for understanding material patterns in the archaeological record. However, caution must be exercised in the application of this method to avoid projecting data onto times and places that are no longer represented by contemporary practices. In this paper, the authors argue that ethnoarchaeology is most useful for projects that focus on the longue durée when used in conjunction with a combination of micro and macro archaeological methods. Specifically, the...


Farms with a View: The Evolution of Agriculture at Kealakekua, Hawai‘i (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Myra Jean Tuggle.

This is an abstract from the "Research and CRM Are Not Mutually Exclusive: J. Stephen Athens—Forty Years and Counting" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Above the 400 foot sea cliff at Kealakekua Bay on the leeward Kona coast of Hawai‘i are the remnants of extensive pre-Contact Hawaiian agricultural infrastructure. Inventory survey and data recovery on 100-plus acres at the top of the sea cliff provided an opportunity to examine a relatively large...