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3-D Scanning, LiDAR, and UASs in Cultural Property Protection (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Carey Baxter. Michael Hargrave. George Calfas. Samuel Vance. Andrew Hamblin.

Archaeologists managing cultural resources on military installations have increasing opportunities to leverage unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), LiDAR, ground-based 3-D scanning, near-surface geophysics, and other remote sensing methods into their Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices. These techniques are being integrated into CRM work under controlled conditions where adequate time and technical expertise is available. Military archaeologists are also developing Cultural Property...

3D Cyber-Archaeology Dissemination through Scientific Visualization - Personal and Large-Scale Virtual Reality Platforms (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Jurgen Schulze. Connor Smith. Philip Weber. Thomas DeFanti. Thomas E. Levy.

We created a walk-up virtual reality system consisting of six large 3D TV displays with 4k resolution, for easy dissemination of spatial and three-dimensional archaeological findings. We call this system the CAVE Kiosk. The system has been placed in the campus library to make it easily accessible to the entire campus community. We currently support three types of data: regular photographs, high resolution panoramic stereo photographs, point clouds such as from LIDAR scanners, and 3D models such...

Advances and Prospects in the Archaeological Sciences on the 40th Anniversary of the Society for Archaeological Sciences (II) (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Robert Sternberg.

The Society for Archaeological Sciences (SAS) is an international professional society of about 300 members dealing with natural science applications in archaeology, paleoanthropology, and conservation. The Society was founded in 1977, so this session commemorates the 40th anniversary of the beginning of SAS. These four decades have seen advances in techniques, applications, theories, and infrastructure surrounding the archaeological sciences. We take this occasion to reflect on some of these...

Amerind Seminar Participants (2016)

IMAGE The Amerind Foundation, Inc..

from left, front, Tim Kohler, Alleen Betzenhauser; from left, back, Rahul Oka, Anna Prentiss, Christian Peterson, Matt Pailes, Mike Smith, Gary Feinman, Amy Bogaard, Elizabeth Stone

Ancient Biomolecules and Destructive Sampling at the National Museum of Natural History (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Sabrina Sholts.

Biomolecular analyses have revolutionized the field of archaeology in the 21st century. Rapid advances in technology have lowered barriers to biomolecular information by increasing the speed, affordability, and effectiveness with which researchers can extract and analyze biomolecules from ancient materials. Amid growing attention on museum collections as a source of samples for biomolecular research, the people who curate and manage these collections are faced with new challenges and...

Ancient DNA Analysis of Microbes Preserved in Dental Calculus: Challenges And Opportunities (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Laura Weyrich. Alan Cooper. Keith Dobney.

Sequencing ancient microorganisms using next generation sequencing approaches have truly revolutionized our view of the past. While past paleomicrobiological research was largely restricted to coprolites and sediments, the recent analyses of ancient calcified dental plaque has provided novel insights into ancient human diets, disease, behaviors, and lifestyles. Despite the benefits, obtaining DNA from diverse microbial communities is difficult and is fraught with issues for first time...

Ancient Dog Genome Preserved in Tumor Provides Novel Insights into the Domestication of Dogs (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Laurent Frantz.

Transmissible cancers are mostly known from Tasmanian devils, soft shell clams and dogs. In dogs, the Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumors (CTVT) manifests as genital tumors and spreads between dogs (usually during mating) by the transfer of living cancer cells. This tumour first originated in the cells of an individual dog, up to 11,000 years ago, and possesses the genome of that founder dog. As such, CTVT cells contain an ancient living genome (the founder’s dog genome) that was passed along...

Archaeological Geovisualization Underwater (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Rob Rondeau.

New research continues to challenge the "Beringia" explanation of the peopling of the Americas. During the Last Glacial Maximum sea level in the Gulf of Alaska was approximately 100 – 120 meters lower than present. Vast areas of adjacent coastline extending south along the Pacific Northwest Coast may have been deglaciated beginning about 16,000 BP; providing a coastal corridor for people using watercraft to move south along the coast from eastern Beringia. The focus, now, is locating a...

An Archaeologist Amongst Geneticists: Overview of My Experiences as an Archaeologist in an Ancient DNA Laboratory (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Jakob Sedig.

In this paper, I provide insight on the field of ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis from my unique perspective as an archaeologist employed in a leading aDNA laboratory. Ancient DNA research has advanced so much that genomic data from thousands of individuals across the globe are now available for study. These data are allowing geneticists and archaeologists to conduct studies that provide new insights into migration, demographic transitions, and relatedness of ancient individuals. They also afford an...

Archaeology as Actionable Science on Climate Change: Lessons from Interdisciplinary Collaboration (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Carrie Hritz. Marcy Rockman. Robert Winthrop. Torben Rick.

Within archaeology, it is widely assumed recognized that the field has much to offer present and future efforts to address climate change. From an archaeological perspective, this may be directly through data, improved models of human adaptation, building or preserving modern connections to place, to name a few. However, to date these have not been well-incorporated into federal efforts to address climate change, largely as a result of a lack of systematic engagement. To address this gap for...

Archaeology AskHistorians: Public-driven Inquiry and Outreach in the Digital Age (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Corey Bowen.

With over 640,000 subscribers and 1.6 million unique monthly views, AskHistorians is the Internet’s largest public history education forum. AskHistorians’ simple Q&A format connects people with questions about the past to those with expert-level knowledge in the topic at hand, be it armored snails or erotic Moche pottery. Users of the popular, if controversial, social media site reddit post questions to the AskHistorians forum, and receive responses from a diverse panel of volunteers selected...

Archaeology, Museums, and the Anthropocene (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Torben Rick.

While debate continues about when the Anthropocene began, many researchers have shifted focus away from questions about the onset of the Anthropocene to questions of why, how, and what next? Museums are poised to play an important role in societal and scientific conversations about the pressing issues of the Anthropocene and how best to move forward in the age of humans. Building on a variety of ongoing efforts, I discuss the role of museum based archaeological research, collections, and...

Artifacts Addicts Anonymous: The Road to Recovery from Negative Data (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Mia Carey.

Have you recovered thousands of artifacts, but none from the time period of interest? Have you spent weeks or months in the field, with absolutely nothing to address your research questions so you keep digging? This is the phenomenon of negative data. While this can be a scary thing, it is okay. Archaeologists suffering from artifact addiction have developed an unhealthy obsession with the recovery, analysis, and interpretation of material culture. This addiction can result in delayed reports,...

At the Intersection of Academia and Activism: Using the Historical Ecology Framework Toward the Conservation and Restoration of Natural and Cultural Heritage (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Erina Perez. Thomas Banghart. Hope Loiselle. Kevin Gibbons.

Historical ecology has become one of the most relevant research paradigms in understanding the long-term relationships between humans and their environments. Its multidisciplinary approach dissolves the boundaries between the social and natural sciences to bring together disciplines such as archaeology, ecology, biology, anthropology, ethnohistory, and geography toward the conservation and restoration of natural and cultural heritage. This paper specifically explores archaeology’s unique...

Bayesian Reconstruction of Past Demography (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Michael Price.

I describe a novel, age-structured, Bayesian framework for reconstructing past demography. The framework is quite flexible and can incorporate and synthesize a wide range of data. I demonstrate its use with human burial data, where each observation can include an AMS radiocarbon measurement, an estimate of age-at-death, or both. Conceptually, the framework is useful because it addresses in a statistically principled way two vexing sources of equifinality in archaeological data: (1) the...

Beyond Solutionism? Digital Data and Threatened Cultural Heritage (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Eric Kansa. Sarah Whitcher Kansa.

In his influential book "To Save Everything, Click Here" (2014), Evgeny Morozov coined the term "solutionism" to describe a utopian vision that innovation in digital technologies can solve complex social problems. Fueled by Silicon Valley wealth, digital technologies have an obvious glamor. The high-profile reconstruction of the Palmyra Arch by the Institute for Digital Archaeology exemplifies how governments, universities, corporate sponsors, and granting foundations use media attention on...

Ceramic Petrographers in the Americas: An Introduction to our Mission and Goals (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Yukiko Tonoike. Andrea Torvinen.

Founded in June 2017, the mission of the Ceramic Petrographers in the Americas (CPA) group is the promotion, discussion, and development of ceramic petrography in archaeology. Of principal interest is providing resources for those interested in employing ceramic petrography for their research and those who would like to pursue this method as a specialty. The group consists of archaeologists residing in the Americas who use optical petrography and other characterization techniques to infer the...

Challenges for Archaeologists: A Changing Climate Is Only One Development (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Arlene Fleming.

There is general awareness among cultural heritage professionals, including archaeologists, that a drastically changing climate requires re-examination of our responsibilities and practices for identifying, documenting and managing sites and objects. The occurrence and effects of phenomena such as warming temperatures, sea-level rise, desertification, violent storms, and flooding, are frequently discussed. However, the socio-economic ramifications of a changing climate and severe weather events,...

Chapter 7 Supplemental References (2017)

DOCUMENT Alleen Betzenhauser.

The references listed here are for reports and other sources from which raw data were collected and used to calculate Ginis for the Mississippian structures in Chapter 7 and the Woodland structures in Chapter 11. See for raw data for each structure.

Climate Change Adaptation: Implementing Indigenous and Local Knowledge to Increase Community Resilience (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Diane Douglas.

Community resilience can be enhanced by engaging local and indigenous groups in the management of their cultural resources, both intangible and tangible. Many communities in developing nations were formally subjected to colonial governance, which imposed foreign architectural designs, irrigation agriculture and economic crops—and these systems vastly changed the social-cultural dynamics of these communities, often destabilizing systems that had been in place for generations. After colonial...

CollectionSpace at the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology: A Strategic Information Platform for Cultural Heritage Collections (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Christopher Hoffman. Michael Black.

Museums use collection management systems to manage metadata about objects in their collection and track transactions such as loans and exhibitions. At UC Berkeley however, museums are turning the open source CollectionSpace system into a strategic platform for research, education, and public service. The Hearst Museum of Anthropology is in the midst of a major effort to improve the quality of the data documenting its collection of approximately 3.8 million objects. With this improved...

Community-based Economic Development: Is it Pragmatic? Should it Be? (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Lawrence Coben.

Does pragmatism work in practice? More particularly, does pragmatic philosophy actually contribute to the well being of stakeholders, especially those from the local community who have historically been marginzalized and have not benefitted from archaeological practice? Can archaeological practice be expanded beyond the production of knowledge to include the needs and desires of community members as they themselves express them? This paper will explore these questions, utilizing the...

Competition for Resources: How Commensal Competition Informs Us of Past Human Activity (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Ardern Hulme-Beaman. Thomas Cucchi. Jeremy Searle. Keith Dobney.

Humans have a dramatic impact on environments around them. They augment, manipulate and engineer local environments to their own benefit, often resulting in a concentration of easily available food and nest sites. These anthropogenic resources and environments are readily exploited by a myriad of other organisms. These organisms, in local and neighbouring environments, engage in a range of different relationships with humans, reflecting the level of interaction and dependence. Due to the...

Conflict and Heritage (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Carsten Paludan-Müller.

During recent years cultural heritage has moved into public awareness as part of contemporary conflicts. Destructions of sites and monuments in The Middle East and North Africa, and in the former Yugoslavia have given us blatant examples also of targeted destruction. However this is nothing new. Throughout history monuments and heritage have played their part in conflict between people. A recent conflict in the United States over monuments relating to the Civil War and its aftermath has further...

Considering Seascapes, Waterscapes and the Relational (2018)

Citation DOCUMENT Courtney Nimura. Liam Brady. Joakim Goldhahn.

This paper introduces some key themes for this session, and considers how seascapes and waterscapes relate to the many and varied people, things, and places with which humans live. While many aspects of the archaeological record can be interpreted as referencing the watery realm through association (e.g. shell middens) or visual cues (e.g. rock art), our goal with this session is not to focus on simply identifying these connections, but to interrogate the nature of these relationships – to...

Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America