Africa: Sub-Saharan Africa (Geographic Keyword)

1-25 (34 Records)

After Dark: The Nocturnal Urban Landscape of Great Zimbabwe (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Shadreck Chirikure. Munyaradzi Manyanga. Genius Tevera.

This is an abstract from the "After Dark: The Nocturnal Urban Landscape & Lightscape of Ancient Cities" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. What was night life like at Great Zimbabwe? While this question excites imagination in numerous ways, in fact and myth, not much is known about nocturnal life in this ancient African urban landscape. Most archaeological reconstructions of urban life at Great Zimbabwe create the erroneous impression that the...


Ancient Human DNA from Shum Laka (Cameroon) in the Context of African Population History (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Mark Lipson. Mary Prendergast. Isabelle Ribot. Carles Lalueza-Fox. David Reich.

This is an abstract from the "Ancient DNA in Service of Archaeology" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. We generated genome-wide DNA data from four people buried at the site of Shum Laka in Cameroon between 8000–3000 years ago. One individual carried the deeply divergent Y chromosome haplogroup A00 found at low frequencies among some present-day Niger-Congo speakers, but the genome-wide ancestry profiles for all four individuals are very different...


The Appearance, Use, and Production of Glass in Ancient Sub-Saharan West Africa (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Thomas Fenn.

This is an abstract from the "African Archaeology throughout the Holocene" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. One of the commodities heading south across the Saharan Desert over the past 2000+ years was glass. The typical form was as beads, but vessel glass and other forms also have been recorded. Glass not only was imported but at some point in the past also was produced by indigenous populations for local and regional consumption. Advances in...


Archaeological Research on the Ancient Iron Metallurgy in Côte d’Ivoire (2003-2016) (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Timpoko Hélène Kienon-Kabore. Galla Guy-Roland Tié Bi. Arouna Yéo.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Since the year 2003, programmed research is carried out on the old iron metallurgy in Ivory Coast. Documentary research, field surveys and archaeological excavations have discovered ancient sites of iron metallurgy from 2003 to 2016. In a large part of the regions of Côte d'Ivoire, sites were discovered, studied then dated. The northern zones (Korhogo,...


Archaeological Survey and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in African Archaeology: Perspectives from the Niger Valley, Benin (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nadia Khalaf.

The Niger River Valley in the north of the Republic of Benin, West Africa, has abundant archaeology that until recently has been under researched. During a systematic field survey carried out for my doctoral research as part of the European Research Council-funded Crossroads of Empires project led by Prof Anne Haour, over 300 new archaeological sites were discovered and 50,000 material culture objects recorded. This paper will discuss the methodology used to systematically survey the landscape...


Archaeology and the End of Empire in Nigeria: Learning from the History of Late Colonial Archaeology at Ile-Ife (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Tomos Evans.

This is an abstract from the "African Archaeology throughout the Holocene" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. At the city of Ile-Ife (Nigeria) in 1953, three foreign archaeologists (Bernard Fagg, AJH Goodwin, and William Fagg), with the permission of the Oni of Ife, conducted several months of fieldwork in the old city. With the aim of uncovering evidence relating to Ile-Ife’s early industries (including exquisite brass and terracotta artworks), they...


Assessing the Suitability of Southern Africa for Archaeological Provenance Studies with Lead Isotopes (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jay Stephens. David Killick.

Evidence for trade between southern Africa and the Muslim world dates back to the 8th century CE. However, it is not until the 12th and 13th centuries, with the discovery of alluvial gold in southern Africa, that entanglement between the two regions intensified. As a result, state-level societies emerged and began incorporating aspects of the Muslim identity into their own culture. With the intensification of these trade relations, craftsmen began expanding their repertoire of iron and copper...


Beer in the Desert: Archaeological, Ethnohistoric, and Experimental Perspectives on Early Beer Brewing in the Central Namib Desert, Namibia (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Grant McCall. Theodore Marks.

For the better part of a century, archaeologists have surmised that beer brewing played a significant role in a range of major social and economic changes having to do with origins of agriculture. This paper examines an unusual case of early beer brewing, which likely originated during the Middle Holocene among the Later Stone Age (LSA) populations of the hyper-arid Central Namib Desert of western Namibia. In this paper, I discuss practices of modern traditional beer brewing in the region and I...


Bone Tool Technology in West Africa: Contributions from the Diallowali Site System, Senegal (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Peter Coutros. Brooke Luokkala.

This is an abstract from the "African Archaeology throughout the Holocene" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Worked bone has a long history across the African continent, occurring as early as the Middle Stone Age in eastern and southern Africa. However, since the beginning of the Holocene, barbed and un-barbed points – associated with the so-called ‘African Aqualithic’ peaking at 9,000 BP – have likewise been recovered from sites within Sahelian and...


Calibrating the Chronology of Late Pleistocene Climate Change and Archaeology with Geochemical Isochrons (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Stanley Ambrose.

This is an abstract from the "Recent Advances and Debates in the Pleistocene Archaeology of Africa" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Chronometric dating of Late Pleistocene environmental changes and archaeological sites can be refined by correlations with precisely dated volcanic isochrons, stalagmites, and marine isotope stages (MIS). Lake Malawi cores have volcanic ash from the Toba super-eruption, dated ~74 ka at levels previously dated to ~62.5...


Construction of Pleistocene Geochronologies in Central Africa: Luminescence Dating in Northern Malawi (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only David Wright. Jeong-Heon Choi. Jessica Thompson.

This is an abstract from the "Recent Advances and Debates in the Pleistocene Archaeology of Africa" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Advances in understanding the Pleistocene archaeology of Africa depend on well-dated models of human behavioral change. Portions of southern Africa with limestone caves and eastern Africa with volcanic tephra have datable materials (uranium and argon, respectively) beyond the limit of the radiocarbon clock (50ka)....


Contact, Colonialism, and the Intricacies of Ethnogenesis: Portugal, Spain and the Iberian Moment (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christopher DeCorse.

This paper examines Portugal’s and Spain’s varied contacts, intersections and colonial aspirations in West and western Central Africa. Portugal and Spain share centuries of culture history, religion, and governance, and were united under the Iberian Union between 1580 and 1640. Yet within the context of European expansion into the non-Western world, they have often been considered distinct with regard to their histories and as foci of study. Pushing beyond national pasts, this paper...


Context-Specific Applications of Space Syntax on African Urban Sites (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Monika Baumanova.

Organisation of space in preserved buildings and town layouts in sub-Saharan Africa have increasingly been in the research scope of archaeologists and architectural historians alike. The methods of space syntax and its associated theory have, especially since 2000’s, paved its way to African archaeology and used for new interpretations of architecture e.g. of Benin, Dahomey and the Swahili coast. Traditionally, space syntax is undertaken using access analysis graphs for individual buildings,...


A Critical Review of Radiocarbon Dates Clarifies the Human Settlement of Madagascar (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Sean Hixon. Kristina Douglass. Henry Wright. Brooke Crowley. Laurie Godfrey.

This is an abstract from the "Global Perspectives on Climate-Human Population Dynamics During the Late Holocene" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The timing and subsequent environmental impacts of the human settlement of Madagascar remain key topics of debate in archaeology. Located approximately 250 miles off the East African coast, Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, appears to have been one of the world’s last large landmasses to...


Decontaminating Archaeological Dental Calculus: A Protocol for Reliable Extractions (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Maria Soto. Siobhan Clarke. Jamie Inwood. Patrick Roberts. Julio Mercader.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. During dental calculus formation, mineralization preserves microbotanical remains. These provide paleoenvironmental and dietary information. However, modern contaminants on archaeological samples overlap with target species thus necessitating decontamination procedures. We present an efficient protocol to avoid the presence of contaminants: a) testing the...


Exploring the Material Culture of the 19th Century Slave Trade in Coastal Guinea (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kelly Goldberg.

As the British Navy patrolled the West African coast in an effort to enforce the cessation of the Atlantic Slave Trade beginning in the early nineteenth century, several American and European traders shifted their focus a slightly inland, establishing trading sites on the more visibly protected tidal branches of the Rio Pongo of coastal Guinea. This paper explores the material culture used and maintained by one of these establishments at the site of Gambia, considering how material consumption...


Flexibility Against Fragility at the Diallowali Site System during the 1st Millennium BC (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Peter Coutros.

The first millennium BC was a period of dramatic social and environmental change throughout West Africa. Along the Middle Senegal Valley (MSV), communities experienced rapid and dramatic changes to biospheric conditions accompanied by largescale technological, social, and economic reorganizations. On the western edge of the MSV, the inhabitants of the Diallowali site system developed a network of flexible institutions capable of maintaining a thriving community throughout this turbulent period....


Foodscapes as Gendered Landscapes in West Africa (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Amanda Logan. Dela Kuma.

Food is an integral part of how people interact with landscape, and tasks associated with food production, preparation, and consumption are often strongly gendered. Using gendered taskscapes (Logan and Cruz 2014) as a starting point, we forward the notion of foodscape as a lens through which to see the varied and multi-scalar forms that gender may take on a landscape. Using case studies from both ancient and modern West Africa, we examine how tracing food production, preparation, and consumption...


Foodways in Atlantic Era West Africa – Ghana: Towards an Archaeology of Daily Life (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Dela Kuma.

In the context of Africa, foodways are usually portrayed very differently than in the archaeology of food literature. Food in West Africa is depicted by its primary historians as shrouded in continuous food insecurities and largely lacking differentiated cuisines. However, recent archaeological and historical research in Atlantic era West African foodways have highlighted the dynamic nature of West African foodways. Despite these advancement, the full processes through which American crops...


Imperial Mixtures and Paradoxes of Government in Colonial Senegal (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Francois Richard.

This paper examines the travails of colonial government in Senegal, looking specifically at material histories in the rural region of Siin. One tenet of French colonial policy was to govern through the operation of commerce, specifically through the infrastructure of cash-cropping. If peanut agriculture would, in principle, create both wealth for the colony and ‘African subjects,’ on the ground, peanuts combined with a web of material entities that bent, diverted, or interrupted the flow of...


Initial Results from Magnetometer Survey at the Sacred Site of Dakajalan, Mali (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Andrew Womack. Peter Coutros. Mamadou Cissé.

In the spring of 2017 geophysical remote sensing surveys were conducted across three locations at and around the Dakajalan sacred site, Commune Rurale de Sanankoroba, Mali in order to detect anomalies associated with archaeological features. This site has been described in oral tradition as the location where the battle that proceeded the formation of the Mali Empire took place, and also where the village that acted as the first capital of the newly formed empire was located. Surface survey of...


La Metallurgie Ancienne du Fer de la Zone 4000 de Siola (Kanisasso, Zone d’Odienne, Nord-ouest de la Cote D’Ivoire) (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Timpoko Hélène Kienon-Kabore. Vincent Serneels.

Près de Kaniasso dans la zone d’Odiénné, sur les sites de Siola, zones 1000 et 2000, et Doumbala, une séquence chrono-technologique en trois phases a été mise en évidence, caractérisées par trois traditions techniques différentes : KAN 1 (1300 – 1450 AD), KAN 2 (1450 – 1650 AD) et KAN 3 (1650 - 1900 AD). Des vestiges présentant de grandes similitudes ont été identifiés sur de nombreux sites dans la région. Par contre, le site de la zone 4000 de Siola, dont l’étude sur le terrain a été reprise en...


Lithic Miniaturization and Behavioral Variability in Southernmost Africa 18–11 kcal. BP (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Justin Pargeter. Marika Low.

Lithic miniaturization, the systematic production of small stone artifacts by controlled fracture, was a pervasive feature of late Pleistocene lithic technology. Smaller toolkits enabled humans to exploit raw materials more efficiently, to produce composite tools more effectively, to reduce a wider range of rocks, and to increase mobility by lightening toolkits. These benefits allowed humans to occupy a wider range of ecological niches. Archaeologists working in southern Africa have long...


Macro- and Microscopic Effects of Heating in Lithics: Potential Indicators of Human-Controlled Fire? (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Russell Cutts. Ervan Garrison. Douglas Crowe.

Outside of clear association of human activities and fire features (e.g., a constructed hearth and artifacts), a perennial challenge persists in linking human/hominin behavior to the control of fire. This particularly vexes ongoing investigations to determine early human-fire interaction(s). Although natural landscape fires can be intense, their tendency to move quickly may limit modifications in lithic material at ground level. Studies examining the effect(s) of heating tool-stone at different...


A Model of the Extinct Palaeo-Agulhas Plain Ecosystem in Southernmost Africa (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Curtis Marean. Richard Cowling. Janet Franklin.

This is an abstract from the "Human Interactions with Extinct Fauna" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Unlike some regions, Africa was not subject to massive and abrupt mammalian extinction events in the Late Quaternary, but some African regions were subject to abrupt extinctions of small numbers of species. The coast of South Africa records such an extinction event near the Pleistocene and Holocene boundary. These extinct species were all adapted to...