ontology (Other Keyword)

1-18 (18 Records)

Analogist Ontology at Chavín de Huantár (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Matthew Sayre. Nicco La Mattina.

The ontological turn in Anthropology has revealed new possibilities for considering the relationships between humans, material things, and “other-than-human persons,” as well as reassessing the Western notion of a nature/culture dichotomy. One site where these insights have begun to be applied is Chavín de Huantár in Peru. The iconography of the site is well known for its mixed human/animal hybrids, a style that prompted John Rowe to consider the art figuratively as visual kennings, with certain...


Andean Ontologies: An Introduction to the Substance (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Henry Tantaleán.

In the last decade a number of studies have been published focusing on the way Andean peoples both in the past and present, describe and define their world and its relational elements. These ontologies are derived from anthropology, ethnohistory and ethnography. Most of them intend to reconstruct the worldview of these social groups with different results. In this paper I summarize the main trends related to ontologies developed for Andean societies, especially those used to explain pre-Hispanic...


Being and Becoming in Huron-Wendat Worlds (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christopher Watts.

Seventeenth century accounts of Huron-Wendat life, like those of myriad other Eastern Woodlands groups, underscore a relational ontology wherein the media which separate humans from non-humans, as well as the organic from the inorganic, is principally porous and naturally given to communion. These same accounts, however, also suggest that the Huron-Wendat possessed an intricate soul schema that, while variegated and capable of metamorphosis, was nonetheless primary and essentialist in nature. In...


Bison Hunters and the Rockies: An Evolving Ontology (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Maria Zedeño.

Euroamericans who encountered northern Plains bison hunters in the late 19th century believed that the Blackfoot held the Rocky Mountains in awe and fear, preferring to remain on the plains even as bison and elk herds dwindled. This incorrect assumption has hampered our ability to understand deep-time relationships between mountain and plains cultural expressions. Although the historic Blackfoot did not dwell in high elevations, the character of their relationship with the Rocky Mountain Front...


Categorizations of Identity in Settler Colonial Contexts: Unpacking Métis as Mixed in the Archaeological Record (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kisha Supernant.

The Métis Nation of Canada has often been categorized as a mixed, hybrid ethnic group, based largely on racialized understandings of the early encounters between Indigenous women and European men. Métis scholars have begun to critique the racial basis for "Métis-as-mixed" and shift toward ways of identifying based on personhood and nationhood. In this paper, I discuss how settler colonial categories of hybridity have influenced past archaeological research on the Métis in Canada and explore the...


Gathering Relations in an Aqueous World: Monumentality, Ontology, and the Belle Glade Landscape (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nathan Lawres. Matthew Colvin.

Recent research on Pre-Contact South Florida has reinforced the notion that the peoples dwelling in the region inhabited a past material world much different from our own and from neighboring areas. In particular, the hydrologic characteristics of a subtropical landscape centered on the Lake Okeechobee basin are one of the central features of both the epistemology and ontology reflected in the earliest monumental architecture in the region. Yet these worldviews and worlds were not static...


A History of Convergences: Timescales, Temporalities, and Mississippian Beginnings (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Timothy Pauketat. Thomas Emerson.

An early Mississippian world came about at and around Cahokia in the eleventh century CE owing to the convergences of people with other organisms, celestial objects, atmospheric conditions, landforms, and elements, each with their own distinctive temporalities and affects. Understanding those convergences historically entails grappling with timing and duration, and we offer a Bayesian reading of the latest radiocarbon datasets considered against the backdrop of the suspected periodicities of the...


Instigating Technological Knowledge through an African Ontology (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Dr. Kathryn Arthur.

This paper focuses on the relationship between material culture and living peoples as constructed through an African perspective of what it means to be in existence- ontology. It is critical that we precedent descendant theories of the human and nonhuman world to produce meaningful narratives of the past, to avoid alienation and ethnocentrism. The Borada-Gamo of southern Ethiopia offers that their worldview enlightens their knowledge of technology. Material culture as spiritually animated has...


Issues in Interpretation and Presentation of Cherokee Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Johi D. Griffin. Kathryn E Sampeck.

A crucial challenge in the public interpretation of Cherokee archaeology and cultural heritage is for Native community members to be able to inform the interpretation and presentation in every step of the process, from formulating research design, carrying out investigations, and the dissemination of the results. The emphasis in both formulating and interpreting cultural heritage work conducted by the authors is to use frameworks and approaches that start from Cherokee perspectives and goals....


Knowing My House: An Indigenous Theory and Practice of Being (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kathryn Arthur.

The Gamo, who live in the highlands on the edge of the southern Ethiopian rift valley, are known for their unique and beautiful household architecture. Tourists ogle their oval basket-like grass houses and peer inside for mere minutes hoping to observe some secret moment or practice previously unknown to them. Similarly many archaeologists long to feel beneath their trowels a widespread hard surface indicative of a house floor. We remove the tangible aspects of the home, bit by bit, hoping to...


The Ontological Approach: Applying Social Theory to Physically Manifested Culture (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jennifer Rogerson Jennings.

This is an abstract from the "Reflections, Practice, and Ethics in Historical Archaeology" session, at the 2019 annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology. The design, integration, and accessibility of digitized collections allows one to determine a "things" meaning for themselves, instead of having to accept or deny the preexisting representation applied to said "thing." This will create possibilities of expanded representation for objects, cultures, and meaning itself. The...


Ontological foundations of Inka archaeology (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Bruce Mannheim.

The “ontological turn” ties several core anthropological questions about cultural variability in human interaction with the world, all of which can best be summarized by Sapir’s dictum—from the 1920s— that “the worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different labels attached.” Drawing on evidence—ethnographic, grammatical, cognitive, material, and visual—from the central Andes (principally from Southern Quechua and their Inka ancestors), I...


Relational Empire: The Non-modern Violence of the Inka State (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Darryl Wilkinson.

The use of “relational” approaches in archaeology seems much more prevalent in some contexts as compared to others. Particularly, it is most often invoked with respect to prehistoric hunter-foragers – that is, societies that are “politically non-complex” to use the classic archaeological terms. Perhaps as a result, violence is seldom discussed in the literature on relationality, unless to point out the contrasting violence of modernity itself. Yet for those of us who deal with indigenous...


Relational Native Ontology and Tewa Ethnogenesis in the Pueblo of Pojoaque (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Samuel Catanach. Mark R. Agostini.

This paper recognizes the collaborative potential between American Indian Studies and an emerging landscape archaeology in furthering interdisciplinary studies of the American Southwest. Here the authors call for the continued reinterpretation of ancestral and contemporary Tewa sites by employing Native ontological and decolonized historical approaches to archaeological and ethnographic contexts situated in the backdrop of a larger and active cultural landscape. Such methods offer nuanced...


Relationality, Circularity, and Monumentality: Ontological Materializations in the Belle Glade Monumental Landscape (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nathan Lawres.

The Belle Glade monumental landscape exhibits a high level of monumentality, with architectural features ranging from large circular ditches to massive geometric arrays of earthen architecture. However, this unique architecture has seen few archaeological interpretations. Those that have been put forth have largely emphasized economic explanations, many of which have been refuted with the acquisition of new archaeological data. Additionally, recent ecological studies show that the physical...


Towards a situated ontology of bodies and landscapes in the archaeology of the southern Andes (first millennium AD northwest Argentina) (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Andres Laguens. Benjamin Alberti.

Past ontologies of Andean worlds have been reconstructed in relation to archaeological landscapes, objects, and contexts. Relational and animated worlds build on Andean concepts such as Apu, wa’ka, and Pacha, as well as Amazonian theories. In our case, we work with Amazonian perspectivism as a broad-based Amerindian ontology to analyze a case from Andean northwest Argentina. Perspectivism provides us with a radically different ontological premise for the world: things do not need to be animated,...


Transferring Technological Knowledge: Becoming Craft Specialists and Craft Items through Ritual Reproduction (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kathryn Arthur.

This is an abstract from the "The Movement of Technical Knowledge: Cross-Craft Perspectives on Mobility and Knowledge in Production Technologies" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. How do we identify the transfer of technological knowledge on the local scale and how it might change through time and in regional contexts? The Gamo of southern Ethiopia offer that their Indigenous way of knowing the world enlightens understanding of transformations in...


What We Choose to Model and How We Think the World Works (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Mark Lake.

In 1972 David Clarke argued that "models are pieces of machinery that relate observations to theoretical ideas." That "machinery" does not have to be computational, or even quantitative, but with the resurgence of interest in simulation, the adoption of methods from evolutionary biology and the development of more sophisticated spatial statistics, it is increasingly both. Many of the papers in this session are case studies that explore exactly the issue of how effectively we can use models to...