Environment and Climate  (Other Keyword)

1-25 (236 Records)

20,000 Years Under the Sea: Dynamically Visualizing the Past and Future of Shorelines, Ecosystems, and Climate Change at Point Reyes, California (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Thomas Whitley. Michael Konzak. Bryan Mischke. Robert Watson. Paul Engel.

Geospatial analysts are now capable of developing increasingly accurate models of past and future ‘shorelines’ and the predicted impacts they might have on archaeological sites or cultural landscapes. But GIS alone cannot realistically simulate hydrodynamic effects, terrain displacements, or changes in vegetation communities, water bodies, and atmospheres. Funded by the NCPTT, this study combines GIS analysis of LiDAR terrain and bathymetric models with the photorealistic 3D modeling...


2017 Excavations at McDonald Creek (FAI-2043), A Multicomponent, Open-Air Site in the Tanana Flats Training Area, Fort Wainwright, Central Alaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kelly Graf. Julie Esdale. Ted Goebel.

In 2013 our team began a 3-year testing project to assess the research potential of the recently-discovered McDonald Creek archaeological site (FAI-2043). The site is located in the Tanana Flats of Central Alaska south of Fairbanks. Site testing indicated a well-stratified and reasonably preserved multicomponent site situated in unconsolidated eolian sand and silt deposits atop an ancient alluvial landform. Three cultural components have been identified so far, dating to the early Allerød,...


6k Years of Land Use in South Asia: Sustainability, Power Relations, and Tropical Variability (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kathleen Morrison.

Tropical environments vary significantly in terms of rainfall and seasonality; these differences make a difference in the kinds of land use strategies that work over the long term. This paper reviews some of the opportunities and constraints of tropical environments in South Asia, considering the range of land use practices deployed over the last 6,000 years in this region. I argue that some practices which could be called sustainable also come at a high cost in terms of human dignity,...


Adaptive Pastoralism and Climate Change in the Irish Chalcolithic – Early Bronze Age: Adding Evidence from Termon, Co. Clare (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Deanna Keegan.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Burren, a karstic region located in Western Ireland, has seen intensive farming practices since the Neolithic. Local proxies throughout the west coast of Ireland have indicated periods where the environment shifted to colder and wetter conditions in two key phases during the late 3rd and early 2nd millennia BC. A comparison of the archaeological record at...


The African Humid Period: Paleolimnological and Paleoecological Evidence (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Henry Lamb.

From about 15,000 to 5,000 years ago, lakes and rivers existed across now arid areas of northern Africa, accompanied by extended ranges of vegetation, animals and human settlement. In eastern Africa, lake levels were very much higher than present, with now-closed lakes overflowing into the Nile and tributary rivers. While it is widely recognised that this African Humid Period resulted from an intensified African summer monsoon linked to the early Holocene precessional increase in summer...


The Agency of Monsoons in South Asia (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kanika Kalra.

Every June through September, the inhabitants of South Asia welcome and celebrate the southwest monsoons. The monsoon winds are the lifeline of this region but also a major threat, inspiring societies to devise mechanisms to both harness their potential and subvert the damage they may cause. This paper analyzes prehistoric and historical responses to monsoons in South Asia in terms of their unpredictable nature, and examines how the monsoons both facilitate and constrict people’s actions. In...


An Agent-Based Disaster Model: Marginality, Decision-Making, and Novel Resource Exploitation during ENSO Flooding Events in Chicama, Peru (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Seth Price. Benjamin Vining.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Ecological disasters are often argued to be forces of large-scale societal change, including the primary causes of major cultural collapses. This concept is reevaluated in light of the recent 2016-2017 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which provides an opportunity to examine the ways in which this event affects the landscape. Through integration of remote...


Agricultural Niche Construction in Roman North Africa: Simulating Irrigation and Deforestation on a Desert Margin (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicolas Gauthier.

Earth system models are climate models capable of simulating land-atmosphere feedbacks and the complex biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes that drive them. These models are particularly well-suited to studying the impact of preindustrial land use on regional climate change, as they explicitly resolve the impacts of irrigation, deforestation, and agropastoral production on the flow of water and energy between the land and atmosphere. Generating realistic maps of past land use is a...


Ancient Landscapes of the Rocky Mountain Front: A View from the Billy Big Springs Site, MT (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Maria Nieves Zedeño. Francois Lanoe. Anna Jansson. Danielle Soza. Ashleigh Thompson.

The northern Rocky Mountain Front contains critical information regarding human exploration and colonization of the continent. Yet, reconstructed paleo-landscapes in the region extending from southern Alberta to northern Montana have focused almost exclusively on the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Billy Big Springs, a multi-component site located just east of East Glacier Park, provides new data on long-term natural (as old as 21,000 cal. BP) and cultural (post 14,000 to 700 cal. BP) landscape...


Ancient Maya Water Control, Wetlands, and the Fiery Pool (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Timothy Beach. Sheryl Luzzadder-Beach. Nicholas Dunning.

This is an abstract from the "Decipherment, Digs, and Discourse: Honoring Stephen Houston's Contributions to Maya Archaeology" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. One of Steve Houston’s sublime volumes is The Fiery Pool, which was also a groundbreaking exhibit. These explored the themes of the Maya and their relationships with water. Here we consider the themes from The Fiery Pool from the perspectives of ancient Maya Wetland fields, "creatures", and...


Anthropocene Amazonia, Beyond the Buzzword: Centennial-Scale Anthropogenic Influences on Southern Amazonian Forests, 1000-2000 CE (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Heckenberger. Wetherbee Dorshow.

The Anthropocene is defined here as the time when human-induced alterations of the environment become a driver of regional and global climate. The Amazon has very deep histories of human alterations of forest systems, but settled occupations that dramatically altered forest structure in regional systems of Late Holocene age, particularly following the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), ca. 900-1300 CE. Global population loss in the Old World, beginning in the 13th century, and the demographic...


The Anthropocene: Present Singular or Past Plural? (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Thomas Leppard.

To what extent are Anthropocene dynamics prefigured or anticipated in microcosm during the later Quaternary, and how do scalar differences in environmental organization (result in anthropic processes working at different rates) complicate any search for a Golden Spike? Drawing on datasets from islands worldwide during the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene, this paper explores how humans drive change in biophysical systems, emphasizing similarities of type yet differences of scale between...


The Apparent Resilience of the Dry Tropical Forests of the Nicaraguan Region of the Central American Dry Corridor to Extreme Variations in Climate over the Last c.1200 Years (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only William Harvey. Sandra Nogué. Nathan Stansell. Kathy Willis.

This is an abstract from the "Reconstructing the Political Organization of Pre-Columbian Nicaragua" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Central American dry corridor is currently and has historically been the most densely populated area of the Central American Isthmus and is subject to the greatest covariance in precipitation between seasons. The vegetation of this region was typically composed of dry tropical forests, which are suggested to be...


Application of a Novel Machine Learning Methodology to the Study of Dipodomys spp. Response to El Niño Southern Oscillation events Throughout the Holocene (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kasey Cole. Peter Yaworsky.

This is an abstract from the "Novel Statistical Techniques in Archaeology II (QUANTARCH II)" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events influence climatic variation on a global scale, considerably impacting modern human and animal populations. There is, however, a dearth of literature regarding the long-term effects of ENSO variation on prehistoric vertebrate populations. Here we examine how kangaroo rat (Dipodomys...


Approaching Equifinality: Pollen and Non-pollen Palynomorphs as Complementary Paleoecological Proxies (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Ryan Szymanski.

In analyses of paleoenvironmental records, the specific effects of climate/precipitation patterns and human landscape impacts on ancient ecologies can be difficult to discern. As largely substrate-specific in nature, fungal spores may serve as proxy for a range of phenomena, such as soil erosion, landscape burning, vegetation clearance, moisture availability, and the existence of particular plant types in a given area. Microbotanicals, including pollen, fungal spores, phytoliths, and...


Archaeological Open Air Hunter-Gatherer Sites in the Serranopolis Region, Brazil: An Interpretation of the Landscape (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rosicler Silva. Julio Cezar Rubin de Rubin. Edilson Teixeira. Marcio Antonio Teles.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The archaeological region of Serranópolis in Southestern Goias/Brazil stands out for its cultural material in rock shelter sites occupied by groups of hunter-gatheres and agricultural ceramists from 10,400 B.P to 915 B.P. The purpose of this paper is to verify the low frequency and visibility of open air sites, applying variables such as landscape, geology,...


Archaeological Proxies of Early Modern Human Niche Construction in Northern Malawi (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jessica Thompson. David Wright. Sarah Ivory. Jeong-Heon Choi. Elizabeth Gomani-Chindebvu.

This is an abstract from the "The Extended Evolutionary Synthesis and Human Origins: Archaeological Perspectives" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Most archaeological literature dealing with niche construction avoids hunter-gatherer behaviors, in part because they can be difficult to detect archaeologically. As the role of humans in shaping environments over long time scales becomes increasingly apparent, it is critical to develop archaeological...


Archaeological Shoreline Monitoring in a Climate-Changing SW Florida: The Case of a Rapidly Eroding, Rare, Late-Archaic Shell Midden at Calusa Island (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Karen Walker. Jennifer Haney. William Marquardt. Rachael Kangas. Sara Ayers-Rigsby.

There are only a very few Archaic period sites in the Charlotte Harbor/Pine Island Sound region of southwest Florida. One of these, composing a large portion of Calusa Island, is an oyster-shell dominated midden. According to a landowner, since ca. 1973-1974 the site has suffered a horizontal loss of 11 m along parts (if not all) of its 80+meter, eroding archaeological shoreline. Based on a 1944 aerial photograph, it is likely that as much as 28 m has been eroded away. We began a monitoring...


Archaeology in the Age of the Anthropocene: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only David Wright.

The 2016 decision by the Working Group on the Anthropocene of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) to designate an Epoch based on a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) fixed at AD1950 is significant for managing global ecological systems moving forward. There is no serious scientific debate on whether humans have impacted the global ecology, but regardless of the ICS decision to anchor the so-called "Golden Spike" to the advent of the nuclear age, humans are known...


Archaeology on Sheppard’s Island: Predictive Modeling and Heritage Preservation in Delaware’s Inter-Tidal Zone (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Heather Wholey.

This is an abstract from the "The Middle Atlantic Regional Transect Approach to Climate Change Impacts on Archaeological Resources" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Delaware Bay is the second largest estuary along the U.S. Atlantic coast and is experiencing some of the gravest effects from sea level rise. Most of the estuarine shoreline is fringed by salt marshes that have been developing for over 2,000 years but are now being lost at a rate of...


Assessing Agricultural Strategies in Prehistoric Korea through Climate and Landscape Models (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rachel Lee. Martin Bale. Jade D'Alpoim Guedes.

This is an abstract from the "New Evidence, Methods, Theories, and Challenges to Understanding Prehistoric Economies in Korea" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Relict fields and archaeobotanical remains from village sites in South Korea indicate intensive agriculture was practiced during the Mumun Period (ca. 1500-200 B.C.). In this paper, we discuss the effects of climate and landscape in the decision-making of Mumun farmers, particularly which...


Assessing Malaria Risk in 19th Century Tucson, Arizona (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jeremy Pye.

Malaria is thought to have been brought to the Americas by early Spanish explorers. By the late 19th century, malaria had spread through human populations throughout tropical and temperate areas of the Americas, including the American Southwest. Historical documents, maps, and modern GIS data layers (e.g., DEM, soils, vegetation, land use, streams) from the area around Tucson, Arizona, were consulted and entered into ArcGIS (v.10) in order to produce a map of potential vector breeding locations...


Avifaunal Remains from the Palmrose Site (35CT47): Establishing Seasonality and Investigating Endangered Species (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Hannah Wellman.

Avifaunal remains have great potential to improve archaeological understanding of the economy and subsistence of peoples who lived in the past, as well as to yield information about local ecology, environmental change, and past bird species distribution. The large assemblage of faunal remains from the three archaeological sites comprising the Seaside Collection from Seaside, OR, contains significant quantities of bird bone. Previous analyses of vertebrate remains (including birds) by Greenspan...


Beringian Landscapes and Human Responses in the Middle Tanana Valley, Alaska (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Joshua Reuther. Ben Potter. Nancy Bigelow. Charles Holmes. Francois Lanoe.

The middle Tanana Valley of interior Alaska, an unglaciated region of Eastern Beringia, holds a high-resolution record of human-environment interaction that extends over 14,000 years. The Late Glacial and early Holocene landscapes of this region were dynamic with considerable ecological restructuring. Aeolian deposits accumulated in lowland areas and adjacent foothills at relatively high rates, soils were relatively underdeveloped, river down-cutting prevailed across the valley, and wild fires...


Beyond a Record of Environmental Change: The Influence of Variability in Peat Composition on the Archaeological Record in Viking Age Iceland (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Alicia Sawyer.

Research suggests non-woody resources, such as peat, can serve as unique repositories of environmental change. This paper discusses how peat serves such a role, and sheds light on the how these processes affect the archaeological record, an aspect of environmental change that has been overlooked. During the colonization of Iceland in the 9th century AD, early Icelanders (Vikings) began to affect and be affected by local environments. Viking colonization led to rapid deforestation of woodland...