Digital Archaeology: Simulation and Modeling (Other Keyword)

1-25 (88 Records)

A 3D Geometric Morphometric Comparison of Bone Surface Modifications on Proboscidean Assemblages from the Western Great Lakes (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Carolina Gonzalez. Jake Harris. Curtis Marean. Daniel Joyce. Erik Otárola-Castillo.

This is an abstract from the "Novel Statistical Techniques in Archaeology I (QUANTARCH I)" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Currently, an alarming number of plants and animals are on the brink of extinction due to habitat loss caused by human activities and climate change. Though numerically unprecedented, this may not be the first instance of a human-driven mass extinction. For decades, scholars have hypothesized that human predation led to the...


3D Hydraulic Modeling of the Ancient Irrigation System at the MGK site in Xinjiang, China (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Yuqi Li.

Most archaeologists would agree that ancient irrigation systems preserve important information about the technology, economy, and social organization of past societies. However, considering that archaeologists generally lack training in hydraulics, it is often difficult for us to extract much information from an ancient irrigation system beyond basic description and chronology. Thanks to the recent development in drone technology and flow modeling techniques we now have the option of generating...


Adding Navigating Capabilities to a Deterministic Computer Model of Ocean Voyaging (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Alvaro Montenegro.

This is an abstract from the "Modeling Mobility across Waterbodies" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Since pioneering efforts in the 1970’s, computer models that simulate vessel displacement have contributed useful information to the debate around several historical and archaeological problems. Existing models can be separated into two categories. In stochastic models, wind and current values are based on a probabilistic description of these...


An Agent-Based Disaster Model: Marginality, Decision-Making, and Novel Resource Exploitation during ENSO Flooding Events in Chicama, Peru (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Seth Price. Benjamin Vining.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Ecological disasters are often argued to be forces of large-scale societal change, including the primary causes of major cultural collapses. This concept is reevaluated in light of the recent 2016-2017 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which provides an opportunity to examine the ways in which this event affects the landscape. Through integration of remote...


Agricultural Niche Construction in Roman North Africa: Simulating Irrigation and Deforestation on a Desert Margin (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicolas Gauthier.

Earth system models are climate models capable of simulating land-atmosphere feedbacks and the complex biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes that drive them. These models are particularly well-suited to studying the impact of preindustrial land use on regional climate change, as they explicitly resolve the impacts of irrigation, deforestation, and agropastoral production on the flow of water and energy between the land and atmosphere. Generating realistic maps of past land use is a...


The Archaeology of Travel in Greater Nicoya (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Adam Benfer.

Sometime before AD 1, a dynamic interaction and exchange network developed among the villages and hamlets of Greater Nicoya. The range and frequency of trade within this region is demonstrated by geochemically sourced ceramic and stone artifacts. The travel routes along which these artifacts were traded remain poorly understood. Geographic information systems (GIS) offer a means to predictively model the optimal terrestrial and aquatic travel routes that interconnected the settlements of Greater...


The Architectural and Urban Design Principles of Tenochtitlan (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Antonieta Rivera.

There exists a vast literature examining every aspect of Aztec culture. Despite this, few studies focus specifically on Aztec architecture and its implications for understanding broader aspects of Aztec cosmology. This paper contributes to our knowledge of Aztec society through an exploration of architectural and urban design principles that guided the building of their cities and ceremonial precincts. By examining ethnohistoric and archaeological sources, and drawing on evidence from several...


Assessing Impacts of Late Holocene Environmental Variability on the Demography of Prehispanic Societies in Northern Chile (18°-29°S) (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Eugenia Gayo. Calogero Santoro. Claudio Latorre. Virginia Mcrostie. Jose M. Capriles.

Agricultural communities began to spread over much of the Atacama Desert (18°-29°S) at 3.5 ka BP, triggering unprecedented levels of population growth. In inland areas and particularly along desert oases, this phenomenon featured increasing complexity in food-production systems and sedentary lifestyles with population aggregating in architecturally complex villages. Whereas, littoral populations maintained marine foraging and fishing strategies with limited inland food-resources. Both lifestyles...


Basketmaker III in the Central Mesa Verde Region: Transitions, Social Dynamics, and Population Growth (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Grant Coffey. Mark Varien. Kyle Bocinsky.

This is an abstract from the "Adopting the Pueblo Fettle: The Breadth and Depth of the Basketmaker III Cultural Horizon" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The Basketmaker III period (A.D. 500 to 725) in southwestern Colorado was a time of fundamental social and demographic change. The area witnessed dramatic population growth after A.D. 600 that was due to immigration and increases in fertility. This growth was accompanied by changes in settlement...


Bonita Canyon: A Chronology of Prehistoric Occupation and Predictive Analysis of Archaic Sites (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Savanna Moore.

This is an abstract from the "Partners at Work: Promoting Archaeology and Collaboration in the Chiricahua Mountains" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. One of the goals of the Student Conservation Association (SCA) is to develop the next generation of conservation leaders. While the focus is often on natural resources, cultural resources, as a nonrenewable resource, have, until recently, been neglected. Chiricahua NM has been partnering with the SCA...


Building Nearest Neighbor Models of Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems Using Four Case Studies for the Northwest Coast of North America (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only James Brown. Galen Miller-Atkins.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Spatial analysis of settlement patterns have traditionally focused on hierarchical city states. Seldom do settlement pattern studies use spatial statistics to characterize hunter-gatherer settlement systems. Through the application of nearest neighbor analysis this paper characterizes the settlement patterns for four sub-regions of the Northwest Coast of North...


Changes to the Western Eurasian Hominin Climate Niche (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christopher Nicholson.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The climate niches that early modern humans and our earlier hominin ancestors inhabited have undergone major changes over time. This study documents climate niche expansions, contractions, and stationarity across four time periods (Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, Mid-Holocene, and 1950¬–2000) in western Eurasia. Using spatially gridded global climate...


Climate Change and the Foraging-Farming Transition on the Great Plains (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Angel Nihells. Melissa G. Torquato. John Rapes. Matthew E. Hill. Erik Otárola-Castillo.

This is an abstract from the "Novel Statistical Techniques in Archaeology I (QUANTARCH I)" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The foraging lifestyle persisted as the major human subsistence strategy worldwide for most of the human career. With notable exceptions, this way of life was eventually replaced by a subsistence base complemented and often dominated by cultivated foods. Archaeologists have proposed several hypotheses to explain this...


Competing with the Crown: Early Spanish Mission Settlement Decisions in a Human Behavioral Ecology Model (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicholas Triozzi.

Models developed from principles in human behavioral ecology have long benefited archaeological research. Drawing on natural features in the modern landscape, locations of prehistoric settlements can be evaluated in terms of calculable suitability. Such models also have predictive potential, as they can rank loci in terms of any combination of environmental conditions appropriate to the archaeological context being investigated. Where available, careful examination of ethnohistoric and...


A Computational Approach to Initial Social Complexity: Göbekli Tepe and Neolithic Polities in Urfa Region, Upper Mesopotamia, Tenth Millennium BC (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Claudio Cioffi-Revilla. Niloofar Bagheri-Jebelli.

Extensive archaeological field work and multidisciplinary research in recent decades shows that communities of sedentary hunter-gatherers during the tenth millenium BC built the earliest presently known monumental structures during the PPNA (ca. 9600–8800 BC) at the ceremonial site of Göbekli Tepe and nearby PPNB settlement sites in present-day Urfa province, southeastern Turkey. However, the earliest evidence of agriculture dates to a later period (early PPNB, ca. 8750 BC, terminus post quem)...


Dates as Data: Where Are We Now in Using Radiocarbon Dates to Infer Population Histories? (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Stephen Shennan.

Archaeologists have long used site counts and other measures to infer past population histories and such efforts have always been criticised by those who point to all the known and unknown unknowns that in their view make such efforts as dubious as getting to the topmost steps on Hawkes’s ladder of inference. In recent years most effort has been devoted to the use of summed radiocarbon probabilities for demographic inference since for most of later prehistory in most of the world it gives a much...


Decomposing Habitat Suitability With Theory-Driven Machine-Learning (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kenneth Vernon. Peter Yaworsky. Brian Codding.

This is an abstract from the "Fifty Years of Fretwell and Lucas: Archaeological Applications of Ideal Distribution Models" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Archaeological applications of ideal distribution models have advanced beyond the study of straightforward settlement decisions to address a variety of important but difficult anthropological questions. To aid in these investigations, we demonstrate a method for (i) decomposing habitat...


Did the Neolithic Revolution Revolutionize the European Landscape? An Analysis of the Relationship between Climate, Vegetation, and the Arrival of Agro-pastoral Subsistence (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Grant Snitker. Sean Bergin.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Archaeologists have long recognized the spread and adoption of agro-pastoral subsistence in Europe as a transformative economic and social process. While many studies have tied site-specific changes in vegetation communities to the arrival of the Neolithic, very few attempts have been made at synthesizing these data to examine the Neolithic revolution in...


The Dreaded Pox: Agent-Based Simulation of the 1870 Smallpox Epidemic in Tucson, Arizona (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jeremy Pye.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. In October of 1869 a smallpox outbreak developed in Tucson, Arizona, which lasted until late April of 1870. Historical documents do not agree on the number of deaths resulting from the epidemic, and no concrete information is given about the extent of the illness spread through the Tucson community or the surrounding region. Bioarchaeological evidence of...


Dynamic Simulation of Large Herbivore Distribution during the Last Glacial Maximum: Implications for the Distribution of Human Populations (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Samuel Seuru. Liliana Perez. Ariane Burke.

This is an abstract from the "Novel Statistical Techniques in Archaeology II (QUANTARCH II)" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. In this study we propose the use of agent-based modelling (ABM) and cellular automata (CA) to test the impact of predator-prey relationships on the distribution of prehistoric human populations. Our research goal is to establish a dynamic model of the distribution of large herbivores that constituted the main food source for...


Ecologies of Space and Time: The Shared History of Humans and Fire in the Jemez Mountains, NM (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Rachel Loehman.

This is an abstract from the "Ann F. Ramenofsky: Papers in Honor of a Non-Normative Career" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. In the southwestern US humans and ecosystems share a history of fire. An integrated archaeo-ecological framework offers an important interpretive lens for both archaeologists and ecologists. Contemporary ecological patterns and processes that are thought to be ‘native’ or ‘natural’ may in fact be highly influenced by past...


The Effect of Climate Change on the Niche Space of North American Proboscideans (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Alejandra May. Evalyn Stow. John Rapes. Benjamin Schiery. Erik Otarola-Castillo.

This is an abstract from the "Novel Statistical Techniques in Archaeology I (QUANTARCH I)" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Most researchers agree that the extinction events of North American megafauna, including proboscideans, occurred approximately 13,000 years ago. The reason for the demise of these creatures, in particular proboscideans such as mammoth and mastodon, is a matter of debate. There are three accepted general hypotheses explaining...


The Effects of ENSO on Travel along the Pacific Coast of the Americas (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Richard Callaghan. Alvaro Montenegro. Scott Fitzpatrick.

This is an abstract from the "Coastal Connections: Pacific Coastal Links from Mexico to Ecuador" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. For decades, prehistoric contacts have been suggested between Ecuador and western Mexico, occurring from 400 BC, if not earlier, to the sixteenth century based on similarities in mortuary behaviors, ceramic technology, language, and ethnohistoric accounts, and other lines of evidence. However, the frequency of these...


Epigraphy and the Archaeology of Settlement in the Dolores Region, Peten, Guatemala (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicholas Carter. Lauren Santini.

This is an abstract from the "At the Interface the Use of Archaeology and Texts in Research" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. This paper summarizes recent research into the timing, distribution, and causes of ancient Maya settlement in the area of Dolores, Peten, Guatemala, in the western Maya Mountains. Integrating evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, ceramic studies, and GIS modeling of least-cost pathways and viewsheds, I propose an...


Erosion and Agricultural Resilience in the Formative Teotihuacan Valley (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nadia Johnson.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. During the Formative Period, the Teotihuacan Valley’s population was dispersed in small farming settlements in the piedmont slopes surrounding the valley bottom. The end of this period witnessed a dramatic population shift, with the Valley’s inhabitants clustering near perennial streams on the valley floor, along with thousands of new migrants. Erosion is...