Taphonomy and Site Formation (Other Keyword)

1-25 (75 Records)

Altered States: Evaluating Postmortem Modification of Dental Tissues (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Samantha Blatt. Amy Michael. John Dudgeon. Rebekah Rakowski. Kateea Peterson.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Teeth are the most likely skeletal elements to survive taphonomic insult, but are not impervious to diagenetic changes. The bulk of dietary, migratory, and climatic studies pursued by bioarchaeologists are reliant on unaltered preservation of dental tissue. Yet, contextual value of depositional environments is often overlooked. Though study of the physical,...


Analysis of Anatomical Dissection at Point San Jose Hospital, Fort Mason, San Francisco (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Mallory Peters. Jessica Curry. Eric Bartelink.

During a 2010 National Park Service project to remove lead contaminated soils from behind a historic hospital at Point San Jose (now Fort Mason), San Francisco, a medical waste pit containing commingled human and faunal remains was discovered. From 1864-1903, several military surgeons were posted at the Point San Jose Hospital to treat military personnel. Analysis of the human remains revealed evidence of anatomical dissection indicated by numerous incised cut marks, saw cut marks, and other...


Archaeological Resources Located on Windward and Leeward Sand Dunes Adjacent to Playas and Ephemeral Lakes: A Limited Case Study from the Western Shoreline of the Salton Sea (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Dice.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. There are many locations in Southern California where ephemeral lakes formed during the Late Pleistocene, then desiccated during the latter part of the Holocene: the Cronese Lakes, Lake Manly in Death Valley, Lake Thompson near Lancaster, and many others. Some geological studies have shown that prevailing winds become turbulent over desert flats and as a...


Archaeology in the Big Bend of the Green River, KY (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Janet Levy. Patty Jo Watson.

This is an abstract from the "From Middens to Museums: Papers in Honor of Julie K. Stein" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Julie Stein joined the Shell Mound Archaeological Project (SMAP) in western Kentucky in 1977 when Patty Jo Watson and William Marquardt, leaders of the project initiated in 1971, recognized the need to add geoarchaeology to the already interdisciplinary project. I started as a graduate student at Washington University–St. Louis...


Assessing Archaeological Applications of Curated Sediment Samples: A Case Study at Mesa Portales (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nathan Shelley.

This is an abstract from the "How to Conduct Museum Research and Recent Research Findings in Museum Collections: Posters in Honor of Terry Childs" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. This project assesses the research utility of curated sediment samples excavated at Mesa Portales, New Mexico. These archaeological deposits date to the Pueblo III period (1150-1300 AD) and contain evidence suggesting two traditionally estranged cultures, Gallina and...


Beyond the Big Bend: Julie Stein’s Geoarchaeological Legacy in the Green River of Kentucky (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only George Crothers. Justin Carlson. Karen Stevens. Alexander Metz. Katharine Alexander.

This is an abstract from the "From Middens to Museums: Papers in Honor of Julie K. Stein" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Although it has been 40 years since Julie Stein’s dissertation research in Kentucky, her geoarchaeological work laid the foundation for and inspired much of the interdisciplinary work that continues in the Green River today. This research includes new excavations of shell midden sites in both the lower and upper Green River,...


Beyond the Farm: Forensic Taphonomy in East Tennessee (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Joanne Devlin. Lee Jantz. Michelle Hamilton.

The impact of Walter Klippel’s teaching has provided his students the tools necessary to answer several critical questions faced by forensic anthropologists. Through his classroom tutelage countless numbers of graduates have the skills to recognize and categorize non-human bones. Beyond this zooarchaeological training, his research influence and guidance has also afforded both students and practitioners alike with knowledge to identify and document particular signatures of postmortem damage...


Bone Modification by the American Cockroach (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jennifer Synstelien. Heli Maijanen.

Bone modifications by chewing insects and their larvae have been described for several families. We report extensive bone damage due to feeding of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), a close relative of termites. Roaches were seen feeding on thawing vertebrate remains in a processing room, in which skeletons were being prepared for entry into a comparative collection. A study of roach gnawing was initiated after a number of defleshed mammal bones were discovered extensively modified....


Bone Preservation, Specimen Identifiability, and Outcrop Shape – A Preliminary Investigation of Early Pleistocene Taphonomy at Koobi Fora, Kenya (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Stephen Merritt. Monica Avilez. Jonathan Reeves.

Fossil bone surface assemblages include differential specimen preservation (weathering stage, cortical surface exfoliation, polish, roundedness, fracture type) and identifiability (taxonomic or anatomical precision). Three 1x1 meter inventory squares placed on steep, moderate, and minimally sloping areas of a fossiliferous outcrop test whether outcrop shape is a megabias that influences assemblage attributes. A digital elevation model created from drone-captured aerial imagery describes outcrop...


Broken Bones: Taphonomy vs Cultural Modification in North and Central Texas (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jodi Jacobson.

Until recently, highly fragmented bone assemblages in Texas were almost all attributed to poor preservation. A review of assemblages, however, indicates that while there are a high percentage of heavily fragmented medium-sized and larger mammal bone at many of these sites, bones associated with small mammals, reptiles, avian, and fish have only minimal fragmentation. A review of bone from a variety of sites with deep temporal and well-stratified context and of varying degree of preservation and...


Burning Down the House: Evidence for Controlled and Uncontrolled Structure Fires among the Late Woodland and Mississippian Settlements at the Orendorf Site in Fulton County, Illinois (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Andrea Alveshere.

The Orendorf site (11F107), located on a bluff overlooking the central Illinois River valley, comprises a mound group and a series of Late Woodland and Mississippian habitations. The occupation of the site is characterized by a gradual migration of the community to the west through successive abandonment and rebuilding. Burned structures have been found in all Orendorf settlements, and at least two of the abandonments followed complete burning of all structures. Intensive salvage excavations of...


Can Mammoth Killing be Distinguished from Mammoth Scavenging by Humans and Carnivores? (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Gary Haynes. Janis Klimowicz. Piotr Wojtal.

This is an abstract from the "Human Interactions with Extinct Fauna" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The characteristics of human-killed and human-scavenged elephant carcasses differ in important ways. The bones of an elephant butchered immediately after humans killed it are identifiably distinct from bones taken from a "ripened" carcasses that was scavenged by humans. With newly killed carcasses, the butchering may be light to full, resulting in...


A Characterization of Site Formation Processes at FxJj34, Northen Kenya (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Elena Skosey-LaLonde. Jonathan Reeves. Matt Douglass. David Braun. Emmanuel Ndiema.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Any inference of behavior based upon the spatial distribution of archaeological material requires an understanding of site formation processes. Natural agents, such as water flow, may be responsible for post-depositional alteration of buried materials and can result in spatial patterns which mask the behavioral processes associated with the initial deposition...


Charred Organic Matter in the Middle and Later Stone Record in South Africa: Exploring Multiple Anthropogenic Processes and Origins (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Mareike C. Stahlschmidt. Christopher Miller. Susan M. Mentzer.

This is an abstract from the "Charred Organic Matter in the Archaeological Sedimentary Record" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Middle and Later Stone caves and rockshelters in South Africa are commonly rich in organic matter. The formation history of the organic component in the archaeological deposits is still unclear and several natural and anthropogenic processes can be considered. This paper will focus on a discussion of possible anthropogenic...


Colonization of the Southern Tip of the World (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Atilio Zangrando. Angélica Tivoli.

This is an abstract from the "Patagonian Evolutionary Archaeology and Human Paleoecology: Commending the Legacy (Still in the Making) of Luis Alberto Borrero in the Interpretation of Hunter-Gatherer Studies of the Southern Cone" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. In the last years of the 1980s, Luis Borrero elaborated an archaeological model of the peopling of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego which still prevails. In particular, this model provides...


A Comparison of the Surface Variation of Burned and Weathered Bone (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kyra Johnson. Emily Sponsel. Gilliane Monnier.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Burned and weathered bones play an important role in understanding the taphonomy and possible behavior of an archaeological site. The processes can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from one another due to the similarities in the overall degradation of the bone. This study attempts to further develop methods of quantifying surface texture variation in...


A Concealed Landscape: Historic Processes of Landscape Change at Cahokia Mounds, IL (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Caitlin Rankin.

This is an abstract from the "Geoarchaeology" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Ongoing geoarchaeological research studying the relationship between urbanism and environmental change at the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Cahokia Mounds has begun to unravel a pre-contact landscape concealed by historic land-use practices. Archaeological excavations and sediment coring conducted to understand the environmental conditions during the construction and...


Construction of Pleistocene Geochronologies in Central Africa: Luminescence Dating in Northern Malawi (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only David Wright. Jeong-Heon Choi. Jessica Thompson.

This is an abstract from the "Recent Advances and Debates in the Pleistocene Archaeology of Africa" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Advances in understanding the Pleistocene archaeology of Africa depend on well-dated models of human behavioral change. Portions of southern Africa with limestone caves and eastern Africa with volcanic tephra have datable materials (uranium and argon, respectively) beyond the limit of the radiocarbon clock (50ka)....


Contemporary Archaeology of the Recent Soufrière Hills Volcanic Eruptions on Montserrat (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Miriam Rothenberg.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. In July of 1995, the Soufrière Hills volcano began a series of eruptions that would fundamentally alter the communities and landscapes of the small Caribbean island of Montserrat. By the turn of the millennium, two-thirds of the island had been abandoned or destroyed, and a comparable proportion of the population had relocated abroad. This paper presents the...


Croxton Site Faunal Assemblage: Pre- and Post-Deposition Disturbance Analysis (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicolette Edwards.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The pre- and post-depositional processes that impacted the faunal assemblage associated with the Ipiutak component at the Croxton site, Alaska, have not been adequately studied/documented (see Gerlach 1989). This study focuses not only on the pre- and post-depositional disturbances that may have occurred, but also on how the burial environment may have played...


Cultural, Taphonomic, and Biogeographic Considerations of Black Footed Ferret at the Burntwood Creek Bison Kill Site, Central High Plains, USA (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jack Hofman. Barbara Crable.

Feature 15-1 at a 9,000 year old bison kill site in Rawlins County, northwest Kansas yielded remains of black footed ferret (BFF) and numerous other species. Here we summarize cultural and taphonomic factors related to the feature’s formation and review BFF biogeography for the early Holocene period in the central Plains region. The diverse fauna from this feature and its varied modifications may reflect special cultural behavior associated with the bison kill at Burntwood Creek. Both natural...


Cut Mark Size Does Not Change during Butchery: Implications for Reconstructing Tool Use and Carcass Processing (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Stephen Merritt.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Animal carcass butchery occurs when technological factors (tool attributes) and butchery behavior (distinct actions like defleshing, disarticulation) intersect with animal anatomy (morphology of musculoskeletal tissues or regions), and potentially encodes information about these contexts via bone surface modifications. This study examines cut mark...


Deposition, Disturbance, and Dumping: The Application of Archaeobotanical Measures to Taphonomic Questions (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Dominique Sparks-Stokes. Susan E. Allen. Alan P. Sullivan III.

This study assesses the utility of archaeobotanical measures to recognize differential site formation processes, drawing on the Bronze and Iron Age hill fort site of Zagorë, in northern Albania, as a case study. The blanket sampling strategy for collection of flotation samples applied by the Projeki Arkeologjik I Shkodres (PASH) (2010-2014) during the site’s excavation provides a complete record of archaeobotanical changes across the depth of each excavation unit. The use of small mesh sizes for...


Discerning Paleolithic Places Rather Than Pleistocene Palimpsests: Olival Grande and the Early Upper Paleolithic in Central Portugal (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Paul Thacker.

This is an abstract from the "SAA 2019: General Sessions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. The expansive, open-air archaeological site of Olival Grande contains the earliest, well-dated Upper Paleolithic assemblage known from the Rio Maior vicinity. Fabric analysis, sedimentology, and geochemistry studies detail manifold site burial mechanisms, very slow rates of deposition, and significant post-depositional processes at the hillslope site. This...


Elephant-Hunting with D. Stanford (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Gary Haynes.

Dennis Stanford’s work at the Dutton, Selby, Lamb Spring, and Inglewood sites was a major part of his lifelong search for breakthrough evidence about North America’s earliest human encounters with mammoths. He encouraged me to study the megafaunal bones from those sites, and gave me room to disagree with him. His support allowed me to start looking into new ways to understand how the bones were modified and how such sites came to be. This presentation ties together data from those fossil sites...