Phase II Archaeological Evaluations, Sites 44CE0551 and 44CE0555, Fort A.P. Hill, Caroline County, Virginia
Author(s): John Mullin
The Fort A.P. Hill Cultural Resource Manager, under the Environmental Division of the Directorate of Public Works within Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia, has completed Phase II archaeological evaluation investigations at Sites 44CE0551 and 44CE0555, Fort A.P. Hill, Caroline County, Virginia. Sites 44CE0551 and 44CE0555 were originally identified during a Phase Ia, reconnaissance-level, survey conducted in association with proposed forestry activities. The current Phase II fieldwork was conducted in association with the proposed development ofan explosive ordnance demolition training area.
The objective of the archaeological evaluations of Sites 44CE0551 and 44CE0555 was to (1) determine the sites’ boundaries and subsurface integrity, and (2) to determine if the sites are eligible for inclusion in the National Register. The investigations included (1) pedestrian surface survey of both sites, (2) the excavation of 32 shovel tests and six 1x1-meter test units at Site 44CE0551, and (3) the mechanical stripping of seven potential grave depressions at Site 44CE0555. The fieldwork at Site 44CE0551 resulted in the recovery of 2,861 artifacts, including 67 surface collected artifacts, 53 artifacts from 11 shovel tests, and 2,741 artifacts from six test units. Mechanical stripping at Site 44CE0555 resulted in the identification of a historic trash pit feature.
Site 44CE0551 represents an early twentieth-century farmstead occupation with remnant late nineteenth-century components, and with later military disturbances. Soil profiles encountered during the archaeological evaluation indicate that the site has been extensively disturbed, with the majority of artifacts having been recovered from redeposited soils. Four cultural features were identified at the site: Feature 1, a brick cellar; Feature 2, a gas/oil tank-related depression; Feature 3, a building pier-related depression, and Feature 4, a builder’s trench for Feature 1. However, these features have been extensively disturbed by military training activities beginning in the 1940s. Subsequently, Site 44CE0551 is recommended not eligible for inclusion in the National Register under Criterion D. Based on historical research and information provided by descendants of the former landowner, the site is also recommended not eligible under Criteria A, B, and C.
Site 44CE0555 represents a twentieth-century trash pit. The trash pit includes artifacts that date from the late nineteenth- through mid twentieth-century, and appears to have been created in the 1940s when the military acquired the land. Investigations of several depressions that originally appeared to represent exhumed graves associated with a former cemetery found no evidence of extant or former graves. As the site represents twentieth-century trash in mixed contexts, Site 44CE0555 is recommended not eligible for inclusion in the National Register under Criterion D, as the site is not likely to yield additional information important in history or prehistory. The site is also recommended not eligible under Criteria A, B, and C.
Cite this Record
Phase II Archaeological Evaluations, Sites 44CE0551 and 44CE0555, Fort A.P. Hill, Caroline County, Virginia. John Mullin. 2008 ( tDAR id: 393192) ; doi:10.6067/XCV85T3MJ0
This Resource is Part of the Following Collections
min long: -77.417; min lat: 38.041 ; max long: -77.168; max lat: 38.213 ;
Individual & Institutional Roles
Contact(s): Patty Conte
Field Director(s): Richard B. Davis
Project Director(s): John Mullin
Repository(s): Fort Lee Regional Archaeological Curation Facility
Submitted To(s): Virginia Department of Historic Resources
VDHR File Number(s): 2007-0025
Accession Number (s): AP2012.001
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