Walnut Canyon National Monument: An Archeological Overview

Author(s): Patricia A. Gilman

Year: 1976


Walnut Canyon National Monument is viewed here in the environmental

context of the region surrounding Flagstaff, Arizona, and in the archeological context of the Sinagua culture area, with emphases on the effective environment and on the importance of the canyon to the Sinagua. Each phase of Sinagua culture history is outlined and related to the culture

history of the canyon. Neighboring prehistoric groups, including the

Southern Sinagua, Cohonina, Prescott and Anasazi, are discussed in order to suggest possible inter-group influences; Schroeder's Hakataya concept is examined. A brief ethnography of the Flagstaff area follows, with

emphasis on subsistence patterns; although no ethnographic groups inhabited the immediate area, the Hopi, Navajo, Hualapai, Havasupai, Yavapai and Apache Indians used the area for seasonal hunting-and-gathering and/or passed through it along trade and warfare networks. The history of research in the Sinagua area and in the canyon is traced from the first exploratory expeditions of the late 19th century through the archeology of the present decade. Because the major occupation of the cliff dwellings and less spectacular rim sites was short, spanning the years from AD 1125 to 1200, possible reasons for the late settlement and early abandonment of the canyon and for the abandonment of the larger Sinagua area, centering on the effects of environmental stress on an agricultural economy, are examined. The overview concludes with a general discussion of research problems in the canyon and in the broader area, suggesting directions for future research. Appendices summarize all archeological investigations within monument boundaries, including stabilization projects, and locate and evaluate collections of artifacts and other materials from the monument.

Cite this Record

Walnut Canyon National Monument: An Archeological Overview. Patricia A. Gilman. Publications in Anthropology ,4. Tucson, Arizona: Western Archeological Center. 1976 ( tDAR id: 3974) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8PR7TS5

This Resource is Part of the Following Collections

Temporal Coverage

Calendar Date: 500 to 1350

Spatial Coverage

min long: -111.547; min lat: 35.14 ; max long: -111.44; max lat: 35.214 ;

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