Underwater (Other Keyword)

1-25 (38 Records)

3-D Photo Modeling Applications in Underwater Archeology (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Brett Seymour.

Recent advances in 3-D modeling technologies have entered the field of Archeology. The Submerged Resources Center (SRC) of the National Park Service has begun using this technology in the field of Underwater Archeology. Using the Autodesk program ReCap and underwater digital photography SRC photographers have been able to create 3-D models of discreet features and more recently of whole sites. This paper will introduce the technology of 3-D point clouds and compare the final products of the 3-D...


Ancient Maya Salt Making Activities as Revealed Through Underwater Excavations and Sediment Chemistry, Paynes Creek National Park, Belize (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only E. Cory Sills. Heather McKillop. Christian Wells.

Underwater excavations at Early Classic Chan b’i (A.D. 300-600) and Late Classic Atz’aam Na (A.D. 600-900) ancient Maya salt works in Paynes Creek National Park, Belize, reveal activity areas associated with a substantial salt industry for distribution to the southern Maya inland inhabitants. At these sites, wooden architecture and salt making artifacts are abundantly preserved in a peat bog composed of red mangrove. We describe the excavation methods at this shallow, submerged underwater site,...


Battle of Midway: 2017's Exploration for Sunken Aircraft (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Bert S. Ho. Kelly Gleason Keogh.

In May of 2017, the NPS' Submerged Resources Center and NOAA's Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument conducted an exploratory survey for sunken aircraft from WWII's Battle of Midway in June of 1942. What was found spanned the centuries of maritime activity at the Atoll including the battle. It also displayed on the seafloor all aspects of the military's long use of the island as a base, and their lasting impact on the island landscape. Today multiple federal agencies manage Midway as a...


Best Practices for Managing UCH on the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Dave Ball.

Located along the western boundary of the continental United States, the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf holds a vast array of potential archaeological and historic resources, resources which must be considered during the federal permitting process for offshore renewable energy.  In order to better manage these resources and take into account potential adverse effects that could occur as a result of offshore renewable energy development, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management is undertaking a...


A Canoe on a Sand Bar: The Remarkable Story of the Guth Canoe in Northeast Arkansas (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jeffrey Mitchem.

For thousands of years before motorized transportation, dugout canoes were the mode of water travel in interior North America. Due to their perishable nature, they are rarely found archaeologically. Most have been preserved due to being kept submerged in anaerobic conditions or buried in underwater sediments. In Arkansas, only a handful have been found, all in riverine situations. The severe flooding in northeast Arkansas in 2008 dislodged a dugout in the St. Francis River that ended up on a...


Diverse Threats to MAST And Its Heritage in Africa : Confronting Historical Amnesia And Salvors; Securing Slim Resources And Social Relevance (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jonathan Sharfman.

In much of the developing world a triumvirate of treasure hunting, politics, and a lack of technical capacity/resources have skewed portrayals of what maritime history is and why it is meaningful. Shipwreck sites in particular have been promoted as the embodiment of the heritage of "the other" with little local relevance. Treasure hunters accordingly go unchecked in their efforts to recover valuable historical cargos—with detrimental effects for the archaeological inventory. This paper will...


The Evolution and Role of Avocationals in Underwater Archaeology (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Thomas F. Beasley.

Underwater Archaeology started soon after scuba diving began in the early 1950s. For about the next 20 years, divers began to discover, document and analyze shipwrecks. In the early 1970s, those divers began to form groups to work on larger projects and to learn about archaeology. At about the same time, archaeolgy at universities began to offer courses and the discipline of underwater archaeolgy took root. Some of the avocational groups such as the Nautical Archaelogy Society and the Underwater...


Finding the Needle in the Haystack: Submerged Prehistoric Archaeological Sites in Everglades National Park (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Leah Colombo.

Many attempts have been made to consistently locate submerged and inundated prehistoric archaeological sites offshore the state of Florida. In many instances these attempts have not been successful in some respects but beneficial in others. This paper will identify the issues of studying such sites and the results of past and recent studies. However, the main topic of the paper will focus on a recent study exercised within the Florida Bay region of Everglades National Park. Working in...


The Hester Lake B-24 Crash: A Case Study For Small, Low-Cost ROVs (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Walt Holm. Craig Fuller. Bryan Heisinger. Gary Quigg.

Remotely-operated vehicles (ROVs) have been used for years to explore underwater archaeological sites.  Recent technology advances have improved the capabilities of ROVs, while greatly shrinking their size and lowering their cost.  Small, battery-powered ROVs can now be taken to remote sites, opening up areas for research that were previously unavailable. In August of 2015 a team of archaeologists and ROV operators packed deep into California's Kings Canyon wilderness to explore the wreckage of...


In Hot Water: Climate Change and Underwater Archaeology (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jeneva Wright.

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. To date, however, archaeologists are still developing their relevancy and role in informing climate change research, management strategies, and understanding. Coastal and underwater archaeological research has significant potential to offer insights into past human adaptations to climate change, and to provide an anthropogenic lens through which the history of climate change might be viewed. In addition to providing historical...


Literature Search for the Corps of Engineers' Murrell's Inlet Navigation Project (1977)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Newell O. Wright, Jr.. Alan B. Albright.

This resource is a citation record only, the Center for Digital Antiquity does not have a copy of this document. The information in this record has been migrated into tDAR from the National Archaeological Database Reports Module (NADB-R) and updated. Most NADB-R records consist of a document citation and other metadata but do not have the documents themselves uploaded. If you have a digital copy of the document and would like to have it curated in tDAR, please contact us at comments@tdar.org.


A Mammoth Question: Can We Count the First Floridians Among the First Americans? (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Morgan F. Smith.

In 1973, a small team of archaeologists and students made a startling announcement concerning the Guest Mammoth site, in Central Florida. Underwater excavations on the site in the Silver River yielded the remains of three Columbian Mammoths in direct association with lithic artifacts. Two of the bones bore cutmarks. The prevailing Clovis-first paradigm, inaccurate radiocarbon dates obtained from unpurified mammoth bone collagen, and the novelty of an underwater prehistoric site all led to...


Managing submerged prehistory; New Approaches in the Southern North Sea. (2013)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Edward Salter. Chris Pater.

In 2007/2008 75 Palaeolithic flint implements, including 28 hand axes were discovered on the oversize pile of a Dutch aggregates wharf. Dredged from an English Marine Aggregate Licence Area, the material and the site of their discovery have since been subject to intensive investigations. Much of this work was provided for via the Marine Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund, but this funding source ended in March 2011 and a way forwards for the site had to be found. Since that time, English...


Manasota Key Offshore: A Prehistoric Cemetery in the Gulf of Mexico (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Ryan M Duggins. Franklin H Price. Melissa R. Price. Ivor R Mollema. Neil N Puckett.

The likelihood for the existence of prehistoric sites on drowned landscapes of the continental shelf has been discussed for decades. However, the potentially devastating effects of marine transgression have sparked a debate about the types and characteristics of prehistoric sites that archaeologists expect to find offshore.  The Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research recently identified a prehistoric cemetery located in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Investigations at the Manasota...


New Directions for Underwater Archaeology in Virginia (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only John D. Broadwater.

More than two thousand ships have been lost in Virginia waters since the first European explorers ventured here. In addition, countless prehistoric sites and historic piers, wharves and other structures now lie underwater. Yet, except for a few significant exceptions, little emphasis has been placed on locating and studying Virginia’s submerged sites. In a partnership with the Virginia Historic Resources Department, the Archeological Society of Virginia recently formed a Maritime Heritage...


New England’s submerged pre-Contact history: identifying an intact Archaic site in Salem, Massachusetts (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kerry Lynch.

A portion of Salem Harbor in Massachusetts was investigated during a cultural resource management project in 2009/2010. The underwater reconnaissance included a remote sensing survey using a Klein 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler. An acoustic basement was recognized at approximately two meters below the sea bed, and was hypothesized to be an organic layer potentially representative of a buried land surface below marine sediment. Vibratory cores were used to ground truth the potential buried land...


New Management Strategies for Submerged Cultural Resources in the U.S. National Park Service. (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Bert S. Ho. Charles Lawson. Jessica Keller.

With ever increasing stresses to cultural resources in the U.S. National Parks from natural and man-made threats, managers of these resources must evolve and adapt to protect and preserve them all. Some solutions limit or deny access because of the delicate state of the resource or because of the sensitive nature of its history. However, providing access and presenting the past to park visitors in a meaningful way is a primary responsibility of managing places that belong to all Americans. For...


A New Maritime Archaeological Landscape Formation Model (2013)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Alicia Caporaso.

Underwater archaeology tends to be particularistic focusing on the human activities associated with an event, however; human behavior and its resultant material remains exist on a physical and cultural landscape and cannot be separated from it. Studying known archaeological sites within the landscape reveals patterns of human behavior that can only be identified within that context. The natural environment constrains and informs human behavior and plays an important role in the development of...


Phase I Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Marina Location, Queenstown Harbor, Queen Annes County, Maryland (1995)
DOCUMENT Citation Only John C. Bedell.

This resource is a citation record only, the Center for Digital Antiquity does not have a copy of this document. The information in this record has been migrated into tDAR from the National Archaeological Database Reports Module (NADB-R) and updated. Most NADB-R records consist of a document citation and other metadata but do not have the documents themselves uploaded. If you have a digital copy of the document and would like to have it curated in tDAR, please contact us at comments@tdar.org.


Practical Applications of Underwater Laser Scanning in Maritime Archaeology Compared to Micro-bathymetry Sonar and Photogrammetry (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael C. Murray. Fraser Sturt. Graeme Earl. Justin Dix.

Advances in multi-beam sonar have produced high density (and in the case of photogrammetry) textured, photo-realistic results of various underwater archaeological sites by rapidly capturing information in areas that are difficult or otherwise inaccessible to diving. In recent years, these technologies have been accompanied by underwater scanning, a method, which offers a step change in resolution, and consequently, significant interpretative potential. However, each method has inherently...


Pushing the Boundaries: Technology-Driven Exploration of Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only John C. Bright. Stephanie Gandulla.

During the summer of 2017, archaeologists from Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary led a series of partnerships to test technologically based methodologies for exploring and rapidly assessing submerged cultural resources. First, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) mapped shallow water areas and image extant archaeological materials. Next, in a sequential series of field campaigns, researchers conducted a wide-area survey to located and document historic vessel remains. The first campaign utilized...


Recent Advances in Marine Magnetic Survey: Case Studies from the Application of the Magnetometer Survey Python Toolbox V 1.0 (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Brandi Carrier. John Bright. William Hoffman. Dave Conlin.

Between March, 2013, and October, 2014, the National Park Service Submerged Resources Center and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management’s Office of Renewable Energy Programs collaborated on a marine magnetic research and testing initiative resulting in the development of a custom ArcGIS python toolbox for visualizing and assessing marine magnetic survey data used to identify submerged cultural material. These tools, and the mathematical models driving them, were applied in numerous survey...


Recognizing Geomagnetic Storms in Marine Magnetometer Data: Toward Improved Archaeological Resource Identification Practices (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Brandi Carrier. Antti Pulkkinen. Michael Heinz.

Strong magnetic field perturbations resulting from Earth-directed solar events can adversely affect marine archaeological survey. The immediate onset of geomagnetic storms and fast compression of the magnetopause create short duration, high amplitude spikes in Earth’s magnetic field that appear similar to signatures of archaeological anomalies. Aggressive processing, analysis, and comparison of single instrument survey and observatory datasets collected during geomagnetic storms prevented...


Recording Historic Shipwrecks at the Speed of Light: An Archaeological Analysis of the ULS-200 Underwater Laser Scanner to Sonar, Video, and Photographic Recording Methodologies (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael C. Murray.

Since the beginning of underwater archaeology, the effective recording of sites has always been a challenge. This study will compare the ULS-200 underwater laser scanning device to other traditional archaeological recording methods, seek to quantify the average amount of time it takes to conduct a scan underwater and evaluate its accuracy in resolving an image at different turbidities and ranges. Within its ideal range, the expected outcome is that while it will take an equal or longer amount of...


Recording Shipwrecks At The Speed Of Light: Experimental Use Of An Underwater Laser Scanner On The Confederate Ironclad, CSS Georgia (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael C. Murray.

Since the dawn of underwater archaeology, the ability to record features with a high level of accuracy and detail compared to terrestrial sites has been an extremely difficult prospect. However, according to 2G Robotics, the ULS-200 underwater laser scanner can resolve features on an astounding millimetric scale, but under the most ideal conditions. While this has some very exciting implications for the field of underwater archaeology, the CSS Georgia resides in an extremely challenging and...