Radiocarbon (Other Keyword)

1-25 (37 Records)

Absolute Chronology of the Early Formative Revisited: Bayesian Analysis, Radiocarbon Chronology, and the Emergence of Pottery in the Americas (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only John Hoopes.

In 1987, the author’s doctoral dissertation featured a comprehensive analysis of calibrated radiocarbon dates associated with the earliest ceramic complexes in the Americas towards a model for the emergence of sedentary lifeways. This resulted in a critical evaluation of James Ford’s posthumously published model for the Early Formative diffusion of pottery as well as other cultural features in a region extending from the Southeastern U.S. through Mesoamerica and the Isthmo-Colombian Area to the...


Analysis of XAD as a Pre-Treatment Method for Radiocarbon Dating Bone (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kat Loftis. Robert Speakman.

The presence of exogenous organic carbon is a major concern when radiocarbon dating bone. A particular source of error and frustration in the field of radiocarbon dating has been the analysis of bone that has undergone humification. Humification occurs during burial and results from a combination of two distinct processes: Maillard reactions involving indigenous organic carbon, and the complexation of collagen with soil humic substances. Soil humic substances—composed of fulvic acids, humic...


Assessing the effectiveness of XAD-2 resin as pre-treatment method for AMS 14C dating (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kathy Loftis. Alex Cherkinsky. Robert Speakman.

The ability to generate accurate and reliable radiocarbon dates for bone is of great importance in archaeology. Radiocarbon measurements are routinely performed on hydrolyzed bone extract, which may contain exogenous organic matter. The presence of exogenous organic matter may then affect the accuracy of the estimated radiocarbon dates. Several pre-treatment methods have been previously developed to minimize contamination from exogenous sources of organic carbon. Here, we assess the...


A Bayesian Model-Based Comparison of Radiocarbon Chronologies for the Earliest Complex Societies in the Maya Lowlands (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Claire Ebert. Julie Hoggarth. Brendan Culleton. Jaime Awe. Douglas Kennett.

Sedentary agricultural villages, ceramic technology, and evidence for institutionalized socio-economic inequality first appeared in the Maya lowlands during the Preclassic Period (1200 cal BC – cal AD 300). The chronological details of these significant cultural developments between different regions of the lowlands remain unclear in many cases because of an emphasis on local ceramic typologies that are often difficult to correlate. We use a Bayesian framework to model high-resolution AMS 14C...


Building a Meaningful First Americans Radiocarbon Chronology (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael Waters.

Chronology is key to understanding the story of the first Americans. Accurate and precise ages from sites are necessary to develop chronological relationships and overlaps among different Paleoindian complexes. Proper dating of any Paleoindian horizon requires an understanding of the geological context, geochemical environment and potential contamination factors, material and chemical fraction dated, number of ages obtained, and many other variables. Without understanding these factors of...


The Challenges and Prospects of Developing Radiocarbon "Big Data" for the Study of Prehistoric Demography (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Robert L. Kelly. Erick Robinson.

The use of large radiocarbon datasets has the potential to transform archaeology and its place in the social and natural sciences in the coming decades. Radiocarbon ‘big data’ enhances the unique contribution of archaeology to reconstruct human demography over vast spans of time. This move towards big data is confronted by some central challenges in archaeological method and theory, such as the use of legacy data of disparate quality and working over broad spatial and temporal scales. For some,...


Chemical and Radiocarbon Analyses of Paint Samples from Oxtotitlán (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jon Russ. Karen Steelman. Marvin Rowe. Chris von Nagy. Mary Pohl.

The prehistoric rock paintings in the Oxtotitlán site are thought to be among the earliest of Mexico and represent the beginning of the highly influential Mexican muralism tradition. The proposed antiquity of the murals is based primarily on stylistic interpretation of the motifs represented in the paintings. Our objective was to use radiocarbon analyses of organic matter in the paint and biofilms covering paint layers to provide more direct evidence as to the ages of the artifacts. Small paint...


The Contribution of Tree-Ring Studies to Archaeological Research in Northwestern Mesoamerica (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Paula Turkon. Sturt Manning. Carol Griggs. Andrea Torvinen. Ben Nelson.

This is an abstract from the "Journeying to the South, from Mimbres (New Mexico) to Malpaso (Zacatecas) and Beyond: Papers in Honor of Ben A. Nelson" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Despite more than fifty years of excellent archaeological research in Northwestern Mesoamerica, progress has been impeded by a lack of precise chronological controls to understand site developments and pinpoint the direction of political influence and cultural change....


Cultural Radiocarbon Determinations of Kentucky (1981)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Christopher Turnbow.

This resource is a citation record only, the Center for Digital Antiquity does not have a copy of this document. The information in this record has been migrated into tDAR from the National Archaeological Database Reports Module (NADB-R) and updated. Most NADB-R records consist of a document citation and other metadata but do not have the documents themselves uploaded. If you have a digital copy of the document and would like to have it curated in tDAR, please contact us at comments@tdar.org.


Dating a Tree Island: A Comparison between Faunal Bone, Shell, Pottery, and Coprolites (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Maureen Mahoney. Domonique deBeaubien.

South Florida’s tree island hammocks are islands that were once completely surrounded by water and used as habitation areas from the Archaic period and beyond. Although many islands along the coast can be dated using marine shell, interior tree islands (such as those found on Seminole Tribe of Florida reservation lands) generally lack these artifacts making for a difficult dating strategy. This paper will focus on a comparison of dating material, including shell, pottery, faunal bone, and...


Dendro-14C-Wiggle-Match Contributions to Northwestern Mesoamerican Chronology (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Paula Turkon. Sturt Manning. Carol Griggs. Alexandra Jigetts-O'Neill.

This paper reports on the progress of the Dendro-14C wiggle-matching project begun in 2013. Initial work established the feasibility of the methods and availability of the data. This paper will report on the ways in which the data can aid in cultural interpretation in northwestern Mesoamerican regions. A focus will be on dating the construction of high status areas at the sites of La Quemada and Los Pilarillos in the Malpaso Valley, Zacatecas, and their chronological relationship to...


Determining local marine reservoir effect ΔR correction factors for Cuba (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Nadine Kanik. Yadira Chinique de Armas. Mirjana Roksandic. William Buhay.

The atmosphere constantly produces radiocarbon, 14C, which dissolves in the oceans as carbon dioxide. Theoretically, radiocarbon concentrations are equilibrated between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. However, in some regions old seawater at the bottom of the oceans returns significantly older radiocarbon dates as water sinks down the water column, causing the isotopic decay of 14C to increase with depth. This creates a delay of ~200-500 years for the atmospheric carbon to be...


Explaining Variation in the Scale of Neolithic Quarry and Mine Production (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Peter Schauer. Kevan Edinborough. Stephen Shennan. Andrew Bevan. Mike Parker Pearson.

In recent years new methods have been developed for using summed radiocarbon probabilities as a population proxy and for comparing radiocarbon datasets to establish whether they are significantly different from one another, while taking into account sampling variation and the patterns in the calibration curve. On the basis of newly collected and updated radiocarbon data on the dating of Neolithic mines and quarries in in Britain, Ireland and continental Northwest Europe, the paper will present...


Exploring Settlement and Mobility Pattern Changes Using Radiocarbon Databses (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Thomas Brown. Kevan Edinborough. Kenneth Ames.

Using data from a newly constructed regional 14C database for the Early and Middle-Holocene on the northern Northwest Coast of North America, a combination of Bayesian models, summed probability distributions and spatial analyses are used to evaluate hypotheses regarding the nature and timing for the development of collector strategies on the northern coast. Research and taphonomic biases are accounted for by binning the radiocarbon data, and by applying a general linear model to the data set. I...


Exploring the Differences in Radiocarbon Ages of Seals and Caribou: A Case Study from Kotzebue Sound (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Scott Shirar. Joshua D. Reuther. Joan B. Coltrain. Owen K. Mason. Shelby L. Anderson.

J. Louis Giddings’ pioneering work in chronology building in Northwest Alaska laid the groundwork for this case study, where we explore differences between the radiocarbon ages of seals and caribou from Late Holocene archaeological sites in the Kotzebue Sound region. Samples were recovered from distinct cultural features like house floors and cache pits which date between 130 and 1600 BP, including two samples from a house excavated by Giddings in Kotzebue in 1941. Our comparisons of radiocarbon...


Frontier Networks Archaeological Project - Culture Contact in Mississippian west-Central Illinois
PROJECT Uploaded by: Andrew Upton

For thousands of years, demographic upheaval and migration have led to social settings where distinct human populations coexist. Communities pursue various types of interaction in these multiethnic contexts, ranging from the maintenance of ethnic distinctions through social and political pluralism to the adoption of traits as part of processes of ethnogenesis. This project seeks to examine changes in networks of social interaction, identity, and exchange following a migration process in a...


High-Precision Chronology Building at Coastal Sites on California’s Channel Islands (2013)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Chistopher S. Jazwa. Douglas J. Kennett. Lynn Gamble.

Using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) techniques and chronology building calibration software that incorporates Bayesian statistics, it is possible to establish high-precision chronologies for complex sites. This includes shell midden sites, which are common along coastlines in the United States and often contain multiple distinct strata. We present the example of SCRI-333, on the western end of Santa Cruz Island, California. At this site, we selected carbonized twig and marine shell...


A History of Convergences: Timescales, Temporalities, and Mississippian Beginnings (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Timothy Pauketat. Thomas Emerson.

An early Mississippian world came about at and around Cahokia in the eleventh century CE owing to the convergences of people with other organisms, celestial objects, atmospheric conditions, landforms, and elements, each with their own distinctive temporalities and affects. Understanding those convergences historically entails grappling with timing and duration, and we offer a Bayesian reading of the latest radiocarbon datasets considered against the backdrop of the suspected periodicities of the...


Human-Environmental Dynamics of the Georgia Coast (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Victor Thompson. John Turck.

This paper synthesizes and evaluates settlement and subsistence patterns in relation to landscape change for the entire prehistoric period on the Georgia coast. The dynamic coastal processes of the region have altered the topography and distribution of resources, including those important to humans. These processes were neither uniform in space nor time, with variations leading to the creation of micro-habitats. We assess these habitats individually and as part of a complex whole, to better...


The Iapodians in Iron Age Europe: a Stable Isotope and Radiocarbon Dating Program in Northern Croatia (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Emily Zavodny. Brendan J. Culleton. Sarah B. McClure. Douglas J. Kennett. Jacqueline Balen.

In this paper, we report results from ongoing research on the Iapodian culture, a distinct group centered in the Lika region of modern-day Croatia. Despite excavations in the area since the late 1880s, the scope of Iapodian involvement in regional interaction spheres, larger trade networks, and the general Iron Age world is unclear, and has yet to be systematically analyzed with modern methods. Preliminary isotopic results from Iapodian samples demonstrate an increase in millet consumption,...


Improving Radiocarbon Dating with Ancient DNA Analysis (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jakob Sedig.

Recent advances in ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis have helped to shed new light on long-standing archaeological questions. Researchers can now study how elites and commoners may have been genetically related, the genetic heritage of the first migrants to a particular area, how ancient populations are related to modern groups, and more. While such revelations have been of critical importance to archaeology, results from recent analyses have implicated that ancient DNA analyses can also be applied to...


The Middle and Late Holocene Archaeological and Climatic Records of Southern New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas: New Insights and New Revelations (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Myles Miller. Tim Graves.

A contextual analysis of 3,989 radiocarbon dates provides unprecedented insights into 8,000 years of prehistoric adaptions and social evolution in the northern Chihuahuan Desert of southern New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas. The chronology is particularly robust between 4500 BP and historic times, allowing for distinctive subsistence, technological, and social developments to be isolated throughout the terminal Middle Holocene and Late Holocene and corresponding Middle Archaic, Late Archaic, and...


Modelling Village Development in the Prince Rupert Harbour (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kevan Edinborough.

The initial results of a radiocarbon local marine reservoir correction study are presented for Prince Rupert Harbor in northern British Columbia, Canada. These preliminary results are integrated into a series of Bayesian age-depth models that illustrate how shell-midden accumulation rates can dramatically vary. Village development in the harbor is discussed in the light of these new findings. SAA 2015 abstracts made available in tDAR courtesy of the Society for American Archaeology and Center...


Neanderthals, Denisovans and Modern Humans: Unravelling the Chronology of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic of Eurasia (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Tom Higham. Thibaut Devièse. Marine Frouin. Katerina Douka.

For more than half a century Paleolithic archaeologists have grappled with radiocarbon-based chronologies that are often contradictory and imprecise. Several key debates in the Palaeolithic have their roots in basic issues related to chronology; did the Aurignacian predate the Chatelperronian in some regions of Europe? When did Neanderthals disappear? How long did anatomically modern humans (AMH) and Neanderthals overlap, and what implications did this have for interaction, acculturation or...


New Romantic Archaeology: radiocarbon revolutions and revolutions in understanding (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Seren Griffiths.

This presentation will reflect on the so called four ‘Radiocarbon Revolutions’ and their implications on archaeological narratives and theory generally, and Neolithic studies in Britain specifically. The timing of this reflection is critical given the implications of recent Bayesian analysis in order to produce precise, robust and probabilistic chronologies for parts of European prehistory. This paper will revisit the reactions to the initial radiocarbon revolutions by important theorists such...