The Prehistory and Management of Cultural Resources in the Red Mountain Area


The report is comprised of two separate "working papers" on the prehistory of the California Desert: 1) Background to Prehistory of the El Paso / Red Mountain Desert Region; and 2) An Archaeological Protection and Stabilization Plan for the Squaw Spring Well Archaeological District near Red Mountain, California.

The first report represents the second in a series of regional (i.e., Planning Unit) studies undertaken or scheduled for the California Desert Planning Program, United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Both the initial report, "Background to Prehistory of the Yuha Desert Region" (Weide and Barker 1974), and the present one were prepared by the Archaeological Research Unit, Dry Lands Research Institute, University of California, Riverside.

The intent of these studies is to provide the BLM with an overview of information pertaining to the prehistory of a planning unit, which can then serve as background for the cultural resource section of the Unit Resource Analysis. Basic objectives in the studies are to describe and discuss available archaeological and ethnological data. The information is presented in terms of ethnohistory and ethnography, previous archaeological research, culture history (or sequence), potential archaeological significance, and archaeological sensitive areas within the planning unit. Ultimately, the background information may be incorporated into a program of statistical sampling of archaeological inventory areas in the California Desert under development by the BLM (cf. Weide 1973; Weide and Barker 1974:90-96). The program is being designed to yield projections of patterns of site locations and densities in the desert which, ideally, will be instrumental in long-term planning of use and development in the California Desert.

The second report details a plan to protect and stabilize the Squaw Spring Well Archaeological District. A request for determination of National Register eligibility pursuant to Executive Order 11593 was made in 1976. On July 19, 1976, the Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation of the National Park Service determined that the area " eligible for inclusion in the National Register." Additionally commenting that the district..." is significant because it forms one of the principal hubs for a larger network of subsistence and economic activities (and) further study of this area will likely yield important information on regional culture history, on processes of big game hunting and associated ritual, plant food processing (and gathering) and paleo-environmental reconstructions." The formal nomination was submitted to the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. Monies were allocated for protection of the district during the fiscal year 1978. In 1979 the large protective sign and the protective fence were emplaced to protect the resources at Squaw Spring. In 1981 the permaloy descriptive sign was placed within the district, completing the physical elements of the protection project.

Originally the information in this record was migrated into tDAR from the National Archaeological Database Reports Module (NADB-R) and updated. In 2014, as part of its effort to improve tDAR content, the Center for Digital Antiquity uploaded a copy of the document and further improved the record metadata.

Cite this Record

The Prehistory and Management of Cultural Resources in the Red Mountain Area. Michael C. Hall, James P. Barker, Russell L. Kaldenberg, Jan Townsend, Harry W. Lawton. Cultural resource publications: anthropology-history. Riverside, California: Bureau of Land Management, Calif. Desert District. 1981 ( tDAR id: 191058) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8Z89DDT

This Resource is Part of the Following Collections


Investigation Types
Archaeological Overview Collections Research Data Recovery / Excavation Environment Research Heritage Management

Allenrolfea occidentalis Antiquities Aristida Artemisia spinescens Artemisia tridentata Atriplex Cercocarpus ledifalius Chrysothamnus nauseosus Class I Review Coleogyne ramosissima Cowania stansburiana Cultural History Cultural Resource Encelia farinosa Ephedra Eriogonum fasciculatum Eurotia lanata Fallugia paradoxa Fouquieria splendens Franseria dumosa Haplopappus Hunting Blinds Hymenoclea salsola Indians of North America Juniperus californica Juniperus occidentalis Juniperus osteosperma Larrea divaricata Lycium Major Plant Communities Management National Register District National Register of historic Places eligibility National Register of Historic places nomination forms Opuntia Penstemon speciosus Pinus jeffreyi Pinus monophylla Poa Prehistory Proposed Cultural Sequence Purshia Purshia tridentata Quercus turbinella Salazaria mexicana Sarcobatus vermiculatus Sensitive Archaeological Areas Sensitive Archeological Areas Squaw Spring Well District Stabilization Stabilization Plan Stipa Tetradymia axillaris Yucca baccata Yucca brevifolia Yucca schidigera Show More

Geographic Keywords
06029 (Fips Code) 06071 (Fips Code) Argus Range California Cuddeback Lake Harper Lake Inyo (County) Kern (County) Lake Harper Lake Searles Lava Mountain Mojave Desert North America (Continent) Red Mountain Region San Bernardino (County) Searles Lake United States of America (Country)

Temporal Keywords
Amorgosa II Death Valley I Death Valley II Death Valley III Death Valley IV Early Lake Cottonwood Early-middle Rose spring Early Milling Phase Early Mohave Fluted Co-Tradition Fluted Point Tradition Great Basin Archaic Lake Mohave Complex Late Prehistoric Late Rose Spring Little lake phase Morona Newberry phase Pinto Basin San Diguito Complex Western Lithic Co-Tradition Western Pluvial Lakes Tradition

Spatial Coverage

min long: -118.268; min lat: 34.954 ; max long: -117.237; max lat: 35.86 ;

Record Identifiers

NADB document id number(s): 1040087; 1044217; 1061071; 1040088; 000000018682; 1040086; 1080201

NADB citation id number(s): 000000012547; 000000012545; 000000012546; 000000020005; 000000015616


General Note: Originally this record was automatically added to tDAR from NADB. In 2014, a copy of the document was added and the record metadata was updated. There were multiple additional records (tDAR id: 132381, 191056, 191057, 183108, 127395) for this document, which have been marked as "duplicate".

File Information

  Name Size Creation Date Date Uploaded Access
prehistorymanage00hall.pdf 10.66mb Nov 10, 2014 10:52:15 AM Public