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The Rise of Fortification Systems in Anatolia at the Collapse of the Early Bronze Age

Author(s): Stephanie Selover

Year: 2016

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Summary

The end of the Early Bronze Age (ca. 2000 BCE) saw the collapse or the decline of a number of civilizations and settlements throughout the ancient Near East, and is an oft discussed topic in the study of the archaeology and history of the region. This paper takes a micro look at this phenomenon within Central and Southeastern Anatolia, using the creation, upkeep and collapse of complex fortification systems as a proxy for violence and the preparedness for violence in the region. Before the Early Bronze Age, few settlements were fortified in Anatolia, a marked difference between Anatolia and other ancient Near Eastern regions, including Mesopotamia and Northern Syria. By the end of the Early Bronze Age, virtually all archaeologically known urban centers were fortified, with a variety of different fortification technologies evident. The rise of fortification systems in Anatolia coincided with the rise of socially complex societies and the threat of outside violence, and began a new urban layout that would continue through the rest of the Bronze Age.


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The Rise of Fortification Systems in Anatolia at the Collapse of the Early Bronze Age. Stephanie Selover. Presented at The 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Orlando, Florida. 2016 ( tDAR id: 403916)


Keywords


Spatial Coverage

min long: 25.225; min lat: 15.115 ; max long: 66.709; max lat: 45.583 ;

Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America