Research Design for Data Recovery at La Ciudad de Los Hornos: The Superstition Freeway and Priest Drive Locale (AZ U:9:48 ASM)


The following document presents a research design for archaeological investigations sponsored by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) at the site of La Ciudad de Los Hornos (Los Hornos). The project consists of two phases: testing and data recovery. The testing phase has been completed and a report (Chenault et al. 1991) of the results submitted to ADOT. In addition, the testing results are briefly summarized below. The proposed ADOT undertaking involves the planned reconstruction of State Route 360, the Superstition Freeway, from an area just east of the junction of State Route 360 with Interstate Highway 10 for a distance of 3200 feet and the addition of ramps at Priest Drive. During the initial construction of State Route 360, no formal excavations occurred at Los Hornos. Other portions of the site, however, have been investigated subsequently for numerous undertakings. The site of Los Hornos has been determined to meet criteria of eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. Testing within the ADOT project area revealed that the site extends into the proposed freeway corridor and that numerous intact cultural resources are present.

Los Hornos is one of the largest Hohokam sites known, and occupation there spanned most of the Hohokam sequence, beginning in the late Pioneer period and continuing through the late Classic period. Throughout the twentieth century, and the last decades of the previous century, the site has suffered massive disturbance from development. Whereas some mitigative efforts were performed, large portions of the site have been lost; the only archaeological remains recorded occurred as a result of the monitoring of construction activities. Also, much of the data recovery undertaken professionally has not been published. Exceptions to this are found in a volume by Wilcox et al. (1990), which synthesizes what is currently known about the site, a volume by Effland (1990), and one by Montero (1990). The objectives of the ADOT/SWCA project are data recovery, analyses, and reporting designed to provide information that will contribute to the understanding of the culture history of the site of Los Hornos, the Salt River Basin, and the Hohokam cultural region.

As one of the largest Hohokam sites, and one occupied for an extensive period of time, Los Hornos is of critical importance to our understanding of Hohokam society. Whereas many large Hohokam sites are known to exist, few have been studied in any controlled professional manner. For this reason, it is imperative that, now and in the future, the most extensive Hohokam sites, or what little remains of them, be studied in depth. Of importance is an understanding of the role the large sites played in Hohokam society, and how they compared to the smaller villages. For example, were the large sites central places, or were they merely larger versions of the smaller, more numerous sites? The presence of ball courts and platform mounds indicates that the largest sites were "unique", and that they played a special role in the integration of Hohokam society. By way of analogy, ignoring the study of the Hohokam centers would be like trying to understand the dynamics of modern-day Arizona’s society and economy without studying the role of Phoenix, Tucson, and Flagstaff.

Cite this Record

Research Design for Data Recovery at La Ciudad de Los Hornos: The Superstition Freeway and Priest Drive Locale (AZ U:9:48 ASM). Mark Chenault, Deni Seymour, David Greenwald, Richard Ahlstrom, Thomas Euler, Kirk Anderson, Mark Slaughter, David Abbott. 1991 ( tDAR id: 406127) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8406127

This Resource is Part of the Following Collections

Spatial Coverage

min long: -111.978; min lat: 33.378 ; max long: -111.953; max lat: 33.435 ;

Record Identifiers

Salt River Project Library Call No.(s): E78.C58C34 1991

Salt River Project Library Barcode No.(s): 00023617

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1991_SWCA_ResearchDesign.pdf 35.37mb Jun 20, 1991 Feb 15, 2017 11:48:33 AM Confidential
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