THE TWELVE APOSTLES: CONCEPTION, OUTFITTING, AND HISTORY OF 16th-CENTURY SPANISH GALLEONS
Author(s): Jose L Casaban
During the 16th century, Spain created an empire whose territories spanned Europe, America, and Asia. The most renowned ocean-going vessel employed by the Spanish during this period was the galleon. However, our knowledge of galleons is limited due to inaccuracies in their contemporaneous representations and the absence of archaeological evidence. This paper uses the Twelve Apostles, a series of newly-designed Spanish galleons built between 1589 and 1591, to bridge the gaps in our current state of knowledge and to rectify misconceptions about this type of vessel. The examination of original unpublished documents located in various Spanish archives, along with archaeological and iconographic evidence, is used to investigate the conception, outfitting, and history of these galleons. This research also contributes to the assessment of functional, technological, material, ideological, economic, and environmental factors in the design and management of these innovative Spanish ships.
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THE TWELVE APOSTLES: CONCEPTION, OUTFITTING, AND HISTORY OF 16th-CENTURY SPANISH GALLEONS. Jose L Casaban. Presented at Society for Historical Archaeology, Washington, D.C. 2016 ( tDAR id: 434701)
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min long: -129.199; min lat: 24.495 ; max long: -66.973; max lat: 49.359 ;