The Public History of Xenophobic Communism: Enver H. Hoxha’s Bunker Exhibition in Tirana, Albania
Enver H. Hoxha was the communist leader of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985. At first an avowed Stalinist, Hoxha later adopted an extreme Marxist-Leninist perspective that emphasized isolationism, atheism, and a strict socialist order. Hoxha’s rule was also marked by executions of political opponents and religious leaders, human rights abuses, and widespread poverty. One symbol of his paranoia was the construction in the late 1970s of a 100-room, underground anti-nuclear bunker. Opened to the public in 2014, the complex is itself a well-preserved artifact that has been transformed into a museum and art space that includes Hoxha’s personal apartment and images, videos, and artifacts from Albania’s post-war period. Now an attraction for Albanians as well as foreign communist heritage tourists, the BUNK’ART exhibition immerses visitors in a realistic experience that effectively connects them with the material culture of Albania’s former dictatorial regime and Hoxha’s own cult of personality.
Cite this Record
The Public History of Xenophobic Communism: Enver H. Hoxha’s Bunker Exhibition in Tirana, Albania. Thomas A Crist, Michael D. Washburn, John H. Johnsen, Kathleen L. Wheeler. Presented at Society for Historical Archaeology, Fort Worth, TX. 2017 ( tDAR id: 435496)
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min long: -129.199; min lat: 24.495 ; max long: -66.973; max lat: 49.359 ;
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Contact(s): Society for Historical Archaeology