Monitoring of a Sinkhole Excavation and Repair Prior to the San Xavier Farm Rehabilitation Project Testing


This project is part of the San Xavier Farm Rehabilitation Project. Additional entries related to this project can be found at the following link:

The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is providing funding and technical assistance for farm improvements on the San Xavier District of the Tohono O’odham Nation. Since previous cultural resource investigations identified buried archaeological features and deposits in the vicinity, it was anticipated that ground-disturbing activities that extended below the existing plow zone might encounter intact buried cultural features. Prior to pipeline construction, Reclamation requested ACS provide archaeological monitoring services, including identifying prehistoric, protohistoric, and historic archaeological remains; documenting the remains; and collecting artifacts and performing minimal infield analysis, if appropriate. Monitoring was conducted in 82 person-days between May 20, 2003, and January 30, 2006. Activities that required monitoring included repairing sink holes, removing trees, blading and other types of excavations, removing concrete irrigation ditches and pipes, installing a new irrigation system and an underground utility line, excavation of a temporary pond, and hand and mechanical auguring/drilling. During the course of monitoring, 18 features were identified: six possibly historic concrete-lined ditches, a possible prehistoric canal, five historic ash pits, a flood gate, a windmill foundation, an ash and charcoal pit, a thermal pit, a cremation, and a burial.

In February 2004, monitoring was conducted for 16 sinkhole repairs and a ditch removal. Lisa Champagne monitored the work from February 11–13, and Kristin Fangmeier monitored the work from February 16–20. An ash and charcoal pit (Feature 17) was noted and recorded in the face of the one of the small sinkhole excavations. A concrete-lined ditch (Feature 16) was also recorded. ACS geomorphologist Michael Droz made a brief site visit on February 20 to review the strata exposed in one of the large sinkholes.

A description of the monitoring results can be found in Appendix P of the final report at tDAR ID: 393788.

Cite this Record

Monitoring of a Sinkhole Excavation and Repair Prior to the San Xavier Farm Rehabilitation Project Testing. ( tDAR id: 393795) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8ZG6TPW

This Resource is Part of the Following Collections



Site Type

Investigation Types
Ground Disturbance Monitoring

Geographic Keywords
San Xavier District Tucson

Temporal Keywords

Spatial Coverage

min long: -111.033; min lat: 32.068 ; max long: -110.987; max lat: 32.138 ;

Record Identifiers

Bureau of Reclamation Delivery Order No.(s): 03F2320110

ACS Project No.(s): 03-042-08

No resources have been associated with this project.