WWII (Other Keyword)

1-25 (25 Records)

Archaeology and the Battle of the Atlantic: Approaches, Methods and Results of Studying and Underwater Battlefield (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Joseph C Hoyt.

Seven years of focused research has been directed towards studying and characterizing WWII losses off the coast of North Carolina. During this time, NOAA has worked with multiple state, federal, academic and private sector partners to increase our understanding of this large collection of resources. This project evolved over time in both theoretical approaches as well as methodologies employed to collect data. Over the course of seven years an incredible amount of information has been uncovered:...


B-24 Liberator Aircraft: Survey Results and Partnerships for Upcoming Recovery Project (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Megan Lickliter-Mundon.

In 1944, factory workers and community members from Tulsa, OK financed the last B-24 Liberator built by the Tulsa Douglas Aircraft plant. They named her Tulsamerican, signed and wrote messages on her fuselage, and sent her to Europe with a part Tulsa crew. She crashed off the coast of Croatia after a bombing mission but was never forgotten as a WWII community icon. After imaging and preservation surveys in 2014 and 2015, researchers are now preparing for the recovery of remains and personal...


Battle of Midway: 2017's Exploration for Sunken Aircraft (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Bert S. Ho. Kelly Gleason Keogh.

In May of 2017, the NPS' Submerged Resources Center and NOAA's Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument conducted an exploratory survey for sunken aircraft from WWII's Battle of Midway in June of 1942. What was found spanned the centuries of maritime activity at the Atoll including the battle. It also displayed on the seafloor all aspects of the military's long use of the island as a base, and their lasting impact on the island landscape. Today multiple federal agencies manage Midway as a...


Carpeted with Ammunition: Investigations of the Florence D shipwreck site, Northern Territory, Australia (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jason, T. Raupp. David Steinberg.

The American transport ship Florence D disappeared in the murky waters off of the Tiwi Islands after being bombed by Japanese fighter planes on their return from the first air attack on Darwin Harbour on 19 February 1942. Considered one Australia’s great wartime mysteries, the location of the site was unknown until discovered by a local fisherman in 2006. Archaeological investigations of the wreck later conducted by teams from the Northern Territory’s Heritage Branch verified the identity of the...


Developing Personhood: The discourse, experience, and material culture of children’s play activities in a WWII Japanese American Internment Camp (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only April Kamp-Whittaker.

Recent studies apply the concept of "personhood" to the archaeological record as part of the continuing attempt to understand the complexities of past societies by moving away from gross categories and instead examining socially constructed roles. This paper explores the application of "personhood" as a way to transcend a broadly defined focus on "children" or "childhood." Such generalizing terms can obscure the impact of gender, age, and other social or economic variables on children’s...


The Gila River Japanese American Incarceration Camp: Thinking With The Past (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Koji H. Ozawa.

Recent research on the World War II Japanese American Incarceration Camp at Gila River has provided both depth of knowledge to the subject and a forum for community engagement. Archaeology in particular has brought to light the diversity of experiences and the specific physical conditions of this displacement and confinement. Through a thorough examination of the context and materials of the Japanese American Incarceration, archaeological investigation can further our understanding of the...


Identifying Aircraft Artifacts Ex Situ: The Life History of an F4U Corsair (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Hunter W. Whitehead.

This is an abstract from the "Developing Standard Methods, Public Interpretation, and Management Strategies on Submerged Military Archaeology Sites" session, at the 2019 annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology. In 2016, representatives of Saiki, Japan presented an historical aircraft engine, propeller, and partial wing to the Naval History and Heritage Command (NHHC). The artifacts were discovered by accident some years prior when fishermen caught their nets on a submerged...


Interpretive film and television public service announcements: documenting and protecting the Battle of Saipan (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jennifer F McKinnon. Toni Carrell.

WWII in the Pacific is a particularly difficult subject as it consumed not just the world powers battling for water and land, but also the Indigenous and civilian communities whose island homes were the backdrop for the war. This paper illustrates the process of creating an interpretive film and public service announcements that are a multi-vocal and inclusive in their content and message. An 18-minute interpretive film about Saipan’s WWII underwater heritage and several short public service...


Lost in Action, Navy's Missing Training and Experimental Aircraft: A NAS Pax River Case Study (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Agustin J Ortiz.

As part of NAS Pax Rivers heritage management responsibilities, Naval History and Heritage Command's Underwater Archaeology Branch (NHHC UAB) and partner entities have been conducting remote sensing surveys in the Chesapeake Bay and surrounding waters since 2015 in order to find its missing aircraft from the early 1940s and 1950s.  Several were lost at the advent of WWII as part of experimental testing, which lead to advancements in aircraft capabilities and flight safety. This paper will...


The Navy’s Ultimate Piston-Engine Fighter: An Investigation of a Submerged Experimental Bearcat (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Agustin J Ortiz.

This is an abstract from the "Developing Standard Methods, Public Interpretation, and Management Strategies on Submerged Military Archaeology Sites" session, at the 2019 annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology. As a continuation of the Naval Air Station Patuxent River (NAS Patuxent River) Aircraft Survey, this paper will focus on the study of a submerged aircraft which may represent the first F8F Bearcat. Naval History and Heritage Command is continuing to research potential...


Partners in Research and Preservation for the Battle of the Atlantic: A Case Study in Programmatic Synergy (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only David W Alberg.

ABSTRACT: Conducting long-term broad-scope projects have become increasingly difficult in ever-shrinking federal budgets and a slow economy. This reality has necessitated an all-inclusive approach, partnering with a wide range of institutions to achieve an end. Since the Battle of the Atlantic Project began in 2008, NOAAs Office of National Marine Sanctuaries has partnered with several internal line offices: Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, Office of Coast Survey, Office of Marine and...


Prosthetic Memories, Finnish WWII Army Photographs and Online Commemoration (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Tuuli Matila. Timo Ylimaunu. Paul R. Mullins.

This is an abstract from the "POSTER Session 2: Linking Historic Documents and Background Research in Archaeology" session, at the 2019 annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology. We will examine Finnish Army photographs from World War Two, that we argue, can shape Finnish views of the war. The photographs have been published in an online gallery, and have mnemonic potential beyond their use in scholarship. Images can be viewed as what Alison Landsberg calls "prosthetic...


Race, Health, and Hygiene in a World War II Japanese American Internment Camp (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Stacey L. Camp.

During World War II, approximately 120,000 individuals of Japanese heritage were imprisoned in internment camps in the United States, with 2/3 of the prisoners holding American citizenship. This paper looks at health and hygiene related artifacts found at one such internment camp, the Kooskia Internment Camp, which was located in north Idaho and in operation from May 1943 to May 1945. Hygiene and health products mediated the racial boundaries between not only Anglo American officials and their...


The Sinking of HMAS Sydney: Consequences and Memory (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Claire P. Phelan. Janet Adamski.

This paper will examine the sinking of HMAS Sydney in the Indian Ocean on 19 November 1941, by the German raider, SV Kormoran. All hands on the Sydney were lost, a total of 635 men, one-third of the nation’s Navy. The fate of the Sydney has always remained controversial, due to the lack of survivors. Despite numerous attempts, investigators consistently failed to trace the wreckage of either ship until 2008, when the crew of SV Geosounder located both vessels, thus closing one of the most tragic...


The SS James Eagan Layne; The Liberty 70 Project, a Catalyst for Conversation in Submerged Cultural Heritage (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Mike W. Williams. Mallory R. Haas.

The wreck of the SS James Eagan Layne (JEL) has been a diving site since 1954, due to her masts still visible above the water. She is known to be the most dived wreck in the UK and was subject to early salvaging from divers who thought it fair game. Which is a frame of thinking in British diving culture then and today. Plymouth, the location of the JEL is the birthplace of South West diving at Fort Bovisand, and as such the SHIPS Project, a non-governmental organization started the Liberty 70...


Sunken Aircraft of the Battle of Midway (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Bert S. Ho. Kelly Gleason Keogh.

In June of 2017, the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Midway will occur as archeologists begin the first dedicated project to discover the sunken aircraft at the atoll involved in the battle. Often considered as the turning point of the Pacific Front in World War II, Midway has been difficult to study archaeologically because of the remoteness of the location, and the difficulty in surveying around the treacherous reefs that surround it. Efforts to locate submerged aircraft have been made...


Technology for Underwater Heritage: Mapping World War II Sites in the Pacific (2015)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Peter W. Kelsey.

The National Park Service is investigating large scale yet highly accurate distributed models that could assist preservation activities across the Pacific. Recent innovations regarding reality capture and computer modeling technologies specific to the marine environment, including LiDAR, SONAR and photogrammetry are providing value to heritage projects in the Pacific. The first comprehensive survey of the USS Arizona ship and memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii since 1984 began in November of 2013...


"Top Secret" Maritime Archaeology: Preliminary Investigations on the San Pablo, Sunk During an OSS Operation in Pensacola, Florida in 1944 (2013)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Gregory Cook.

As one of the many popular diving spots in Northwest Florida, divers have been visiting the site of the San Pablo for decades.  Little was known about the vessel's history until recent research revealed the large, steel-hulled freighter was sunk in a top secret OSS operation known as Project Campbell.  The project involved the development of a disguised, remote-controlled vessel carrying explosives capable of attacking and sinking enemy vessels, and it was intended to be deployed during the...


"Unidentified Planes Sighted": The Application of KOCOA Military Terrain Analysis to Aerial Combat (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Madeline J. Roth. Jennifer F McKinnon.

KOCOA military terrain analysis is a tool used to interpret and analyze terrestrial, and more recently, naval battlescapes; however there has been little experimentation with the application of KOCOA to aerial combat. Renewed interest in the June 1942 attack on Midway atoll (coinciding with the 75th anniversary of the attack) presented researchers with an opportunity to expand KOCOA definitions to incorporate aerial combat into terrain analysis. The resulting terrain features were used to...


USS Indianapolis Discovered! Now What? (2019)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Blair Atcheson. Richard Hulver.

This is an abstract from the "Developing Standard Methods, Public Interpretation, and Management Strategies on Submerged Military Archaeology Sites" session, at the 2019 annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology. The 2017 discovery of USS Indianapolis, one of the Navy’s most storied ships and sought-after wrecksites, propelled the vessel back into the public eye and highlighted a string of deep-water WWII shipwreck investigations. After the media hype subsided, the Naval...


War On Our Doorstep: U-boats Off The Mid-Atlantic Coast (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Tane Renata Casserley.

More than any other place in the United States, coastal Virginia and North Carolina serve as a uniquely accessible underwater museum and memorial to WWII’s Battle of the Atlantic. Since 2008, NOAA’s Monitor National Marine Sanctuary and partners have documented and surveyed this unique collection of WWII Allied and German vessels. NOAA’s goal is to protect these fragile historic resources for future generations, and to preserve the memory of the brave Allied service men and U.S. merchant...


War on the Homefront: National Division and South Africa's Battle of the Atlantic 1939-1945 (2018)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Ian P Harrison.

In 1939, the Union of South Africa was caught unprepared for war. Lacking a servicable navy, the Union Defense Force was neverthelss tasked with protecting Allied supply lines through the Southern Ocean. Despite establishing a series of coastal defenses and RADAR stations to this end, Allied merchants rounding the Cape continued to suffer heavy casualties. As these losses mounted, competing ethnic, cultural, and political factions within the Union began using the U-boat war as fuel for their...


World War II Shipping in the Gulf of Mexico and the Impact of the German U-boat Threat: the Archaeological Evidence (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Matthew E Keith. Amanda M Evans. Eric Swanson.

An estimated 56 commercial vessels were sunk by German U-boats in the Gulf of Mexico during targeted campaigns conducted between 1941 and 1943.  In the years since, an estimated 14 of these wrecks have been located and identified with a high degree of confidence.   A number of these sites have undergone varying levels of archaeological analysis, although very few have been scientifically excavated, resulting in little related material culture.  This paper will review the archaeological evidence...


WWII Battlefield Archaeology of Tarawa (2017)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Kristen Baker.

A central tenant of military philosophy is "adapt, improvise, and overcome". Navigating battlefields requires constant adaptation to dynamic surroundings due to the interplay of several variables such as 1) pre-existing landscape and terrain, 2) enemy defenses, 3) enemy opposing forces, and 4) friendly and enemy fire. To successfully navigate the archaeology of a historic or prehistoric battlefield, archaeologists must attempt to understand the variables (such as those listed) that contributed...


WWII-Related Caves, Community Archaeology and Public Service Announcements: A Community Approach to Raising Awareness and Protecting Caves (2016)
DOCUMENT Citation Only Jennifer F McKinnon. Toni Carrell. Genevieve S. Cabrera.

A recent ABPP-funded project explored community consensus building for the protection of WWII-related caves on the island of Saipan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The project utilized radio and television public service announcements for the purpose of sharing a local message of protection and preservation of caves with the island community. This paper outlines the process of community engagement and involvement, recording privately owned WWII cave sites, developing a...