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Schoolhouse Point Mesa Data: Groundstone from Screened Contexts

Creator(s): Office of Cultural Resource Management, Arizona State University

Year: 1997

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Summary

The Schoolhouse Point Mesa archaeological sites are part of an extensive settlement system on the southern banks of the Salt River. The Arizona State University, Office of Cultural Resource Management, Roosevelt Platform Mound Study (RPMS) divided the Schoolhouse Point Mesa settlement complex into two groups: the Schoolhouse Management Group and the Livingston Management Group. The Schoolhouse Management Group includes those sites on the west side of Pinto Creek Wash, while the Livingston Management Group includes sites on the east side of the wash. Schoolhouse Point Mound (AZ U:8:24(ASM), AR-03-12-06-13a(USFS)) is the largest site in the Schoolhouse Management Group and on the mesa. The mound is treated in a separate report volume and its data are reported separately (Please see https://core.tdar.org/project/394037). The Schoolhouse Point Mesa report volumes and data document the remaining 23 archaeological sites in the Schoolhouse Management Group. Nineteen of the sites are located on the mesa, while four are west of the mesa on the terraces overlooking the Salt River.

The Schoolhouse Point Mesa Data table Groundstone from Screened Contexts presents a summary of the groundstone artifacts recovered from excavated, screened contexts at Schoolhouse Point Mesa Sites (except Schoolhouse Point Mound, which is reported separately). The table lists archaeological sites designated by Arizona State Museum (ASM) site numbers (without the "AZ" common to all ASM numbers) (e.g., U:8:205 = ASM site number AZ U:8:205). It then lists designated archaeological contexts - strata - at each site. The strata represent major natural or cultural depositional events such as erosional fill, roof fall, floor contexts, and sterile substrate. Strata are depicted as horizontal rows of interconnected boxes on a Harris Matrix. In this table, the archaeological contexts - strata - are identified by a combination of numbering systems: the ASM site number, a colon, the feature number, and the stratum letter designation (EX: U:3:198:006A, U:3:198:006B). Within a feature, each stratum is designated by the feature number (e.g., 10, 11, 12, etc.) and a letter that designates a particular stratum (e.g., A, B, C). The letters are assigned in descending order. Mixed levels and artifacts collected out of context are designated by a "?". Artifacts from each feature (or mixed context) are tallied according to strata. Please see column metadata for further detail. Please also see the Schoolhouse Point Mesa strata data tables for further data about each stratum, including the assigned stratum type, at the following tDAR urls:

https://core.tdar.org/dataset/394455

https://core.tdar.org/dataset/394457

https://core.tdar.org/dataset/394458

https://core.tdar.org/dataset/394376

The table then provides the frequency (count) of different groundstone artifacts for each stratum.

The Schoolhouse Point Mesa Data tables were originally published in the Roosevelt Platform Mound Monograph Series No. 8 titled "The Archaeology of Schoolhouse Point Mesa, Roosevelt Platform Mound Study: Report on the Schoolhouse Point Mesa Sites, Schoolhouse Management Group, Pinto Creek Complex." The tables were published in an appendix at the end of the volume. Please see the report volume at the following tDAR URL: https://core.tdar.org/document/394293


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Cite this Record

Schoolhouse Point Mesa Data: Groundstone from Screened Contexts. Office of Cultural Resource Management, Arizona State University. Tempe, Arizona: Office of Cultural Resource Management, Arizona State University. 1997 ( tDAR id: 394468) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8XK8HKR


Data Set Structure

Measurement Column
Count Column
Coded Column
Filename Column
Integration Column (has Ontology)

Table Information: shmesa_screened_groundstone

Column Name Data Type Type Category Coding Sheet Ontology
Stratum Identifies a major natural or cultural depositional event such as erosional fill, roof fall, floor contexts, and sterile substrate (i.e., a single archaeological context in both horizontal and vertical space). Strata are depicted as horizontal rows of interconnected boxes on a Harris Matrix. This table contains data from multiple sites with multiple features and associated strata. Thus, in this table, a stratum is identified by combining several numbering systems: an ASM site number, a colon, a feature number, and a stratum letter designation. EX: U:3:198:006A, U:3:198:006B A stratum is a combination of an individual feature and a context in or associated with that feature. For example, Feature 10 might be a structure with an erosonial fill stratum, a roof fall stratum, a floor stratum, and a sterile substrate stratum. Within each feature, each stratum is designated by the feature number (e.g., 10, 11, 12, etc.) and a letter that designates a particular stratum (e.g., A, B, C). The levels excavated in a feature were aggregated into individual feature strata (e.g., Levels 1 - 3 = Stratum A). A feature's stratum letters are assigned in descending order. A context letter of "?" designates a mixed level or context or artifacts collected out of context. Examples: 0? = General Cultural Fill/No Feature and Indeterminate context 10A = Feature 10 and Context A 10B = Feature 10 and Context B 10C = Feature 10 and Context C 22? = Feature 22 and Mixed and/or Undefined context 22A - Feature 22 and Context A Each stratum (e.g., 10C) is assigned to a stratum type. The stratum data are presented in separate strata data tables. Please see the Schoolhouse Point Mesa Strata data tables at the following tDAR urls: https://core.tdar.org/dataset/394455 https://core.tdar.org/dataset/394457 https://core.tdar.org/dataset/394458 https://core.tdar.org/dataset/394376 Examples: 10A = Feature 10 and Context A = Feature 10, erosional fill 10B = Feature 10 and Context B = Feature 10, roof fall 10C = Feature 10 and Context C = Feature 10, floor Artifacts collected from each feature are tallied according to strata. For example, artifacts collected from Feature 10 are tallied for Stratum A, Stratum B, Stratum C, etc.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Provenience and Context : Stratum none none
Axe Frequency of groundstone artifact type Axe in a given stratum. An Axe is a "blade is ground to a sharp edge; polished surface; rounded end, usually with a 3/4 groove; axe preforms" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Axes received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis for axes and mauls (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-12 -- 5-14 and associated form).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Censer Frequency of groundstone artifact type Censer in a given stratum. A Censer is a "rock with drilled or pecked depressions, usually 2 cm or more in diameter or depth" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Censers received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Incised/Decorated Frequency of groundstone artifact category Incised/Decorated in a given stratum. This groundstone artifact category is NOT exclusive of other groundstone artifact categories. In other words, the frequency of Incised/Decorated represents the count of any groundstone artifacts (palettes, shaft straigheners, etc.) that display evidence of some kind of incising and/other etching decoration. An Incised/Decorated groundstone artifact is a "stone which may or may not be intentionally shaped with patterned scratches, grooves, or decorations" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Incised/Decorated artifacts received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Mortar Frequency of groundstone artifact type Mortar in a given stratum. A Mortar is a piece of groundstone with a "large round hole; deep depressions; used with mortar; no formal exterior shape, although stone may be rounded" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Palette Frequency of groundstone artifact type Palette in a given stratum. A Palette is a "flat tabular stone, shaped into rectangle; may be decorated; exhibits wear from grinding pigment" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Palettes received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Pestle Frequency of groundstone artifact type Pestle in a given stratum. A Pestle is a "hand stone used with a mortar for crushing food, etc.; exhibits high degree of battering on one or both ends" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Pestles received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Rubbing Stone Frequency of groundstone artifact type Rubbing Stone in a given stratum. A Rubbing Stone is a "biscuit shaped, or irregular rock (not polished, not a polishing roundstone)" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Rubbing Stones received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Shaft Straightener Frequency of groundstone artifact type Abrader/Shaft Straightener in a given stratum. An Abrader/Shaft Straightener is a "stone with one or more smooth, U shaped grooves; grooves are usually polished; surface lustrous, shiny" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Abraders/Shaft Straighteners received a Stage 3 Special Gourndstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-9 -- 5-11 and associated form).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Sharpening Stone Frequency of groundstone artifact type Sharpening Stone in a given stratum. A Sharpening Stone is a "stone with one or more V shaped grooves; grooves may cross each other; usually gritty texture for sanding" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Sharpening stones received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis as part of the special analysis for Abraders/Shaft Straigheners (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-9 -- 5-11 and associated form).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Shrine Stone Frequency of groundstone artifact type Shrine Stone in a given stratum. A Shrine Stone is an "unmodified stone found in an unusual context or group; spheroidal weathered, or flow banded conglomerate" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Shrine stones received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Stone Ball Frequency of groundstone artifact type Stone Ball in a given stratum. A Stone Ball is a "spherical stone; intentionally ground and shaped; approximately fist sized" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Stone Balls received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Indet. Grinding Implement Frequency of groundstone artifact category Indeteminate Grinding Implement in a given stratum. An Indeterminate Grinding Implement is designation "use[d] if groundstone, and no further definitions are possible due to fragmentary condition" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
TOTAL The total number of groundstone artifacts (across all types and categories) in a given stratum at Schoolhouse Point Mound.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Anvil for Lithics Frequency of groundstone artifact type Anvil (for lithics) in a given stratum. An Anvil (for lithics) is a "rock with small crushed, pecked depressions, scattered pockets; used for bipolar percussion" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Anvils for lithics received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Stone Bowl Frequency of groundstone artifact type Stone Bowl in a given stratum.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Site The archaeological sites from which the groundstone artifacts were recovered. In this table, sites are identified by an Arizona State Museum (ASM) site number. Arizona State Museum numbers begin with the designation "AZ." They then use a three-part numbering system. A letter, beginning with "A" and continuing to "FF", designates one of many arbitrary rectangles that divide the state into rectangular units, each of which includes 16 U.S.G.S topographic maps in a 15-minute series. The letter is followed by a number that refers to a 15-minute series map in a given rectangular unit. The numbers begin with 1 in the northwest corner and continue to 16 in the southeast corner. The map number is followed by a site number, which are allocated sequentially within a 15-minute series map. Each of these elements are separated by colons. At the end of the number, it is customary to provide a short-hand for the state institution that assigned the number (e.g., ASM, ASU, NAU), as several institutions have assigned site numbers throughout Arizona. EX: AZ U:8:23(ASM) Site AZ U:8:23(ASM) also has a a Tonto National Forest site number: AR-03-12-06-177. Please see the Roosevelt Platform Mound Study Site Concordance Table to match the ASM number(s) to the Tonto National Forest number(s).
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Provenience and Context : Site none none
Architectural Stone Frequency of groundstone type Architectural Stone in a given stratum. Architectural Stones are "large slabs, modified by flaking and/or grinding ;outline varies; used as door lintels, roof opening covers, shaped wall stones" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Anvil for Pottery Frequency of groundstone artifact type Anvil (for pottery) in a given stratum. An Anvil (for pottery) is a "round, thick biscuit shape; may have indentation in profile, rough surface" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Anvils for pottery received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Mano Preform Frequency of groundstone artifact type Mano Preform in a given stratum. A Mano Preform is a "partially shaped mano" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Palette, Informal Frequency of groundstone artifact type Informal Palette in a given stratum. An Informal Palette is a "small stone with flat surface; usually unshaped; exhibits wear from grinding pigments" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Informal palettes received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-15 to 5-16 and associated form for details of the analysis).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Lid Frequency of groundstone artifact type Lid/Vessel in a given stratum. A Lid/Vessel is a "stone slab, modified by flaking and/or grinding; circular outline; used to cover vessels or granaries" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Mano Frequency of groundstone artifact type Mano in a given stratum. A Mano is a "hand stone; flattened ground surface; ends may be modified" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Metate, Basin Frequency of groundstone artifact type Basin Metate in a given stratum. A Basin Metate is a metate with "no definite ridges; shallow rounded depression in center; ground material removable from middle" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Basin Metates received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis for metate use-wear (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-17 -- 5-18 and associated form for analysis details).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Metate, 3/4-Trough Frequency of groundstone artifact type 3/4 Trough Metate in a given stratum. A 3/4 Trough Metate is a metate with a "definite ridge along both sides; one end closed (ridge on end); ground material removable from one end" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). 3/4-Trough Metates received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis for metate use-wear (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-17 -- 5-18 and associated form for analysis details).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Metate, Full-Trough Frequency of groundstone artifact type Full Trough Metate in a given stratum. A Full Trough Metate is a metate with a "definite ridge along both sides; both ends open; ground material removable from either end" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Full Trough Metates received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis for metate use-wear (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-17 -- 5-18 and associated form for analysis details).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Metate, Indeterminate Frequency of groundstone artifact type Indeterminate Metate in a given stratum. An Indeterminate Metate is "used for metate fragments, where further determination of artifact class is not possible" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Indeteminate Metates received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis for metate use-wear (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-17 -- 5-18 and associated form for analysis details).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Metate, Informal Frequency of groundstone artifact type Informal Metate in a given stratum. An Informal Metate is a "grinding slick; large flat area exhibits wear from grinding; no formal shape; no depth to depression (< 1 cm)" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5). Informal Metates received a Stage 3 Special Groundstone Analysis for metate use-wear (see A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-17 -- 5-18 and associated form for analysis details).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none
Metate, Slab Frequency of groundstone artifact type Slab Metate in a given stratum. A Slab Metate is a "large stone with small area(s) of light wear depressions; no formal shape; no depth to depressions (< 1 cm)" (A Laboratory Plan for Salado Research, pp. 5-4 to 5-5).
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Ground Stone : Count none none

Keywords


Temporal Coverage

Calendar Date: 900 to 1450


Spatial Coverage

min long: -111.012; min lat: 33.635 ; max long: -110.991; max lat: 33.662 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contact(s): USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

Contributor(s): Peter H. McCartney ; Ronna J. Bradley ; Judi L. Cameron ; J. Phil Dering ; Suzanne K. Fish ; Chris Loendorf ; Theodore J. Oliver ; Marcia H. Regan ; Christy G. Turner II ; Sheldon T. Watson ; Linda K. Williams

Lab Director(s): Arleyn W. Simon

Principal Investigator(s): Glen E. Rice ; Charles Redman

Sponsor(s): USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

Repository(s): Center for Archaeology and Society, Arizona State University

Prepared By(s): Office of Cultural Resource Management, Arizona State University

Submitted To(s): USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office


Record Identifiers

Roosevelt Monograph Series(s): 8

Anthropological Field Studies(s): 37

Bureau of Reclamation Contract No.(s): 9-CS-32-06230

Notes

General Note: The Archaeological Research Institute, Arizona State University stored and maintained the digital file(s) hosted on this record page as part of the Roosevelt Platform Mound Study (RPMS) digital collections. The data were stored in a single Excel file with multiple tabs. Each tab contained a data sheet that summarized the frequencies of a particular artifact class and/or type that was analyzed during the RPMS laboratory studies. The data sheets were standardized across the different project areas. To curate these data in tDAR, each tab was converted into a single Excel file. Each file contains the frequency data for a particular artifact class and/or type.

General Note: The Office of Cultural Resource Management and the Archaeological Research Institute, Arizona State University intended for the data sheets and the artifact categories in the sheets to remain consistent (i.e., standardized) across the sheets and across the different project areas. During the course of this curation project, several inconsistencies were identified in the artifact categories (i.e., column names). Where appropriate, minor wording, spelling, and/or word order changes were made to column headings to ensure standardization across artifact class and/or type names. For example, some data tables used the column names "Full-Trough Metate," "3/4-Trough Metate," "Slab Metate," etc., while others used the names "Metate, Full-Trough," "Metate, 3/4-Trough," "Metate, Slab." Center for Archaeology and Society and tDAR staff decided to ensure standardization to the "Metate, ..." column names.


File Information

  Name Size Creation Date Date Uploaded Access
shmesa_screened_groundstone.xlsx 19.92kb Jan 22, 2015 6:14:42 PM Public
Translated version shmesa_screened_groundstone_translated.xls (68.00kb)
Data column(s) in this dataset have been associated with coding sheet(s) and translated:
Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America