The onset of warfare and access to diverse resources in the late Early Horizon-Early Intermediate Period (ca. 300 BC-AD 100)

Author(s): Margaret Brown Vega; Nathan Craig

Year: 2015


The formation of economically specialized communities in the coastal valleys of Peru by the late Archaic (3000 BC) has long been accepted. Specialized groups exchanged products with each other, negotiating both local and more far-flung exchange networks by the Initial Period (ca. 1800-900 BC). By the end of the Early Horizon (ca. 300 BC) communities in coastal and inland valley areas built numerous fortifications, suggesting conflict or preparations for defense that must have changed interaction and exchange practices. Fieldwork to document these early fortifications over a large region highlights the presence of not only long-distance trade goods at fortified sites, but access to diverse resources. A combination of survey and excavation data are considered for three valleys: Huaura, Pativilca, and Fortaleza. This paper considers possible models to explain how populations during times of conflict, specifically the late Early Horizon-Early Intermediate Period transition, gained or maintained access to marine, valley, and highland economic resources despite possible hostilities and resource stress. Understanding such strategies informs not only on the nature of interaction during this transitional period, but also on the trajectory of political-economic organization along the coast and adjacent inland valley areas for subsequent periods.

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Cite this Record

The onset of warfare and access to diverse resources in the late Early Horizon-Early Intermediate Period (ca. 300 BC-AD 100). Margaret Brown Vega, Nathan Craig. Presented at The 80th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, San Francisco, California. 2015 ( tDAR id: 395023)


Geographic Keywords
South America

Spatial Coverage

min long: -93.691; min lat: -56.945 ; max long: -31.113; max lat: 18.48 ;