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Society for American Archaeology 80th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (2015)

Part of: Society for American Archaeology

The Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology provides a forum for the dissemination of knowledge and discussion. The 80th Annual Meeting was held in San Francisco, California from April 15-19, 2015.


Resources Inside This Collection (Viewing 1-100 of 3,681)

  • Laboratory Techniques for the Detection of Human Parasites in Archaeological Samples. (2015)
    DOCUMENT [ID: 398103] Jeremy Pye.

    Parasites have had a significant impact on the course of human history. Activities of a variety of parasites throughout the world can lead to lethargy, dementia, malabsorption of nutrients, bowel obstruction, internal bleeding, blindness, physical disability and deformation, and many other symptoms of disease. Furthermore, parasites have caused the deaths of countless individuals, have resulted in the abandonment of settlements, and have even affected the outcome of wars. The effect that...

  • Micro analyses of 17th Century adobe bricks from the "new" church at Pecos, New Mexico. (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 395159] Cody Dalpra. Linda Scott Cummings. R. A. Varney. Peter Kovácik. Jennifer Milligan.

    The clash of Pueblo farmers and Spanish missionaries in central New Mexico marks the transition from prehistoric maize farming to the modern era along the Rio Grande River. The interaction between Native Americans and Spanish was not totally either peaceful or confrontational. The first church, built in the 1620s, was later burned during the Pueblo Revolt when Spanish were forced to leave, then rebuilt when relations improved. Four bricks from the new church (Mission de Nuestra Senora de los...

  • Public Outreach and Pipeline Archaeology in the Western United States (2015)
    DOCUMENT [ID: 396652] Susan Chandler.

    Cultural resource companies are increasingly tasked with disseminating the results of their archaeological research to the public. Because the nature of the archaeological record differs for each compliance project and because there are many different "publics" who can be identified, archaeologists have taken several different approaches to public outreach. In the last decade, Alpine Archaeological Consultants, Inc. has created a variety of public outreach products that describe what was...

  • Ethnic Chinese at Central Pacific Railroad Maintenance Camps (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433897] Michael Polk.

    The Central Pacific Railroad was completed in May 1869 due, in large part, to the work of thousands of ethnic Chinese railroad workers. After the railroad was complete, it was necessary to upgrade the railroad and carry out maintenance on the far flung transportation network. Railroad documents, previous excavations of ethnic Chinese worker camps in Nevada and recently recorded camps near Promontory Summit, Utah, show that Chinese workers continued to be employed for decades after 1869. It is...

  • Immigration Service Records and the Archaeology of Chinatown, The Dalles, Oregon (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433896] Rick McClure.

    As a key transportation hub and supply center on the Columbia River during the 19th century, the city of The Dalles, Oregon attracted significant numbers of overseas Chinese workers and merchants. By the 1880s a distinct "Chinatown" district had emerged. Enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Act included close monitoring of the population by Federal agents. Records of the Immigration Service housed at the Seattle branch of the National Archives include the case files for many community residents....

  • Identity and Isolation: The Material Realities of an (almost) Isolated Household in Sandpoint, Idaho (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433895] Molly E Swords. Mark Warner.

    A great deal of archaeology conducted on Chinese immigrant communities in the United States has documented the persistence of an array of traditional cultural practices after arrival.  Recent work in Sandpoint, Idaho has identified a Chinese household/business whose material world contrasts with what many other archaeologists have previously reported on.  What was identified was an amalgamation of continued use of Chinese goods with the incorporation of an array of western habits, particularly...

  • Scraping Our Way To The Past: A Methodological Approach For Chinese Rural Work Camps (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433894] Mary L. Maniery.

    Recovering meaningful information from ephemeral, short-term work camps in the west is challenging, given the brief occupation time, absence of shelters other than tents or portable structures, and informal layout and design.  One methodological approach that has proved effective for research at camps with shallow or no subsurface deposits focuses on exposing and investigating the horizontal deposits across the sites.  Archaeological studies of Chinese occupied camps related to mining, railroad...

  • Railroad Camps in the High Sierras (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433893] John P. Molenda.

    Railroad construction camps occupied by Chinese laborers have been investigated archaeologically since the 1960s. The upcoming 150 year anniversary of the construction of the first transcontinental railroad has spurred renewed interest in these sites. This paper will discuss what we have learned from previous studies of railroad work camps and how they inform current interpretations, with special emphasis on drawing connections between the archaeological record and theoretical frameworks for...

  • Plant and Animal Consumption in the Market Street Chinatown, San Jose, California (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433892] Ryan Kennedy.

    The Market Street Chinatown was a major urban Chinese community in nineteenth century San Jose, California. From 1866 to 1887, the community housed and served as a home base to several thousand Chinese residents and laborers. Excavated in the 1980s, the Market Street Chinatown yielded an incredibly rich collection of material culture as well as faunal and floral remains. This paper examines food consumption and food choice amongst Market Street’s nineteenth century Chinese residents. The author...

  • Urban Life Through the Lens of Glass: A Brief Analysis of Glass Tableware and Flaked Objects from the 19th Century San Jose Market Street Chinatown, California (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433891] Nathan Acebo.

    The Market Street Chinatown archaeological collection offers a diverse assemblage of artifacts that shed light on the urban social lives of Overseas Chinese communities in San Jose, California during the late 19th century (1866-1887). Glass objects constitute a considerable percentage of the total archaeological collection and includes a massive assortment of medicinal and cuisine containers, architectural features, and domestic objects. The bricolage collection of glass permits discriminate...

  • "Rebuilding" Chinatown in The Dalles, Oregon (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433890] Eric B. Gleason.

    Uncovered during ongoing efforts to restore the last standing Chinese operated laundry and merchandise store in The Dalles, Oregon, test excavation at site 35WS453 has exposed the deep roots of a largely vanished community. The thick stratified deposits at the site are the product of nearly a century’s worth of intensive occupation, followed by a long period of near abandonment. By coupling archival research with the archaeological record, we are gaining a clearer understanding of the site...

  • Exploring Healthcare Practices of Chinese Railroad Workers in North America (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433889] Sarah C Heffner.

    Chinese laborers on the North American transcontinental railroads performed dangerous and labor-intensive work, and many died or were seriously injured as a result of explosions, cave-ins, and severe and unpredictable weather. These workers received meager wages and may have faced additional health risks from ethnic violence and malnutrition. Little is known about how these individuals treated their injuries and ailments and, to this date, not a single document written by a Chinese railroad...

  • What Have We Done, What Are We Doing, and Where Are We Going with Overseas Chinese Archaeology? (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433888] Douglas Ross.

    According to this session’s organizers there is no dominant Overseas Chinese narrative, but rather one characterized by diversity. They perceive this diversity as a strength and seek to highlight the range of both Chinese experiences and recent archaeological approaches to their lives. Papers address topics ranging from lifeways of urban merchants to healthcare practices of rural railroad workers, consumer habits of Chinatown residents, and the role of burned sites in creating highly politicized...

  • Getting Burned: Fire, Politics, and Cultural Landscapes in the American West (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433887] Chelsea E. Rose.

    The National Historic Landmark town of Jacksonville, Oregon is celebrated for its nineteenth century past.  While saloons, hotels, and shops survive as testament to the days of the Oregon gold rush, the selective preservation of the built environment has created a romanticized frontier landscape.  A sleepy park now covers the once bustling Chinese Quarter, which burned to the ground in 1888. Recent public archaeology excavations revealed the remains of a burned building, and led to a fruitful...

  • Chinese Railroad Workers in Wyoming and Mongolia, 1890-1955 (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 433886] Dudley Gardner. Adreanna Jensen.

    Chinese railroad laborers, who worked overseas, left a distinct archaeological foot print where ever they lived. Here we want to look at how this footprint is manifested in Mongolia and Wyoming (1890-1955). This comparison considers the similarity in topography and the dissimilarity in the land the immigrants worked in. What is intriguing is the similarity in material culture and spatial organization. We want to briefly present the similarities and dissimilarities between the two experiences,...

  • Knowing My House: An Indigenous Theory and Practice of Being (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 431441] Kathryn Arthur.

    The Gamo, who live in the highlands on the edge of the southern Ethiopian rift valley, are known for their unique and beautiful household architecture. Tourists ogle their oval basket-like grass houses and peer inside for mere minutes hoping to observe some secret moment or practice previously unknown to them. Similarly many archaeologists long to feel beneath their trowels a widespread hard surface indicative of a house floor. We remove the tangible aspects of the home, bit by bit, hoping to...

  • Using geochemistry, phytoliths and ethnographic analogy to interpret Neolithic settlements in southwest Asia (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 431440] Emma Jenkins. Sarah Elliott. Samantha Allcock. Carol Palmer. John Grattan.

    Our understanding of Neolithic sites in southwest Asia is often impeded by the lack of preservation of biological evidence. As a result, they often consist of a series of structures, the construction and function of which, remains elusive. In order to address this problem we conducted a study which used phytoliths and geochemistry from an ethnographic site in Jordan, Al Ma’tan, to determine if certain building construction techniques and anthropogenic activities leave specific phytolith and...

  • Seeds for the gods: chía (Salvia hispanica) in Teotihuacan ritual offerings (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 431439] Diana Martinez-Yrizar. Carmen Cristina Adriano-Morán.

    Over the last decades, as a result of archaeological research inside of the Sun and the Moon pyramids in Teotihuacan, significant concentrations of chía (Salvia hispanica) seeds have been recovered in association with ritual contexts. This is particularly true in Offering 2, pit 59 of the Sun Pyramid and in Burial 6 of the Moon Pyramid. The archaeological artifacts were similar in both contexts, for example Tlaloc vessels, projectile points, pyrite disks and faunal remains, among others. In this...

  • Residue Analysis of Plastered Floors and Function of the Rooms at Teopancazco, Teotihuacan (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 431438] Luis Barba. Linda Manzanilla. Agustin Ortiz. Alessandra Pecci.

    Teopancazco is a neighborhood center at Teotihuacan. It was excavated in the framework of the project Teopancazco "Teotihuacan. Elite y Gobierno" directed by Linda R. Manzanilla between 1997 and 2005). Samples from the plastered floors of the compound have been analysed at the Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica of the UNAM (Mexico) in order to understand the chemical enrichments of floors and the spatial distribution of activities. We show here the results of the analyses of the Xolalpan...

  • The People Who Harvest Together, Live Together. Ethnoarchaeological considerations on a Late Chalcolithic archaeobotanical assemblage from Çadır Höyük, Turkey (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 431437] Madelynn Von Baeyer.

    This paper presents archaeobotanical data from the Late Chalcolithic (LC) archaeobotanical assemblage at Çadır Höyük, a mounded site on the north central Anatolian plateau with almost continuous occupation from the Middle Chalcolithic through the Byzantine period. The analysis will focus on both descriptive and quantitative data from samples dating to around 3600 B.C.E. from a communal cooking area at Çadır. It will examine how archaeobotanical analysis can be used as a line of evidence to...

  • Starch Grain Analysis of Bedrock Mortars in California: Implications to Our Understanding of California Prehistory (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 431436] Justin Wisely.

    Starch grain analysis is a growing field in California archaeology, with the potential to significantly add to our understanding of prehistoric peoples. Using a non-destructive extraction method for field sampling bedrock mortars, I was able to extract microscopic plant residues from the mortar surface for analysis. The subsequent identifications were made using my ethnographically-informed comparative collection of modern native plants. The results of this research indicate that the function of...

  • Modelling Anthropic Activity Markers: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Plant-Related Domestic Activities (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 431435] Carla Lancelotti. Abel Ruiz Giralt. Jonas Alcaina Mateos. Juan José García-Granero. Alessandra Pecci.

    The concept of Anthropic Activity Markers as ethnography-derived models to interpret archaeological activities has seen a remarkable development in recent years. In this talk we present the results of MoMArq (Modelización de Marcadores de Actividades Antrópicas: de lo etnográfico a o arqueológico), a multidisciplinary project that combined cross-cultural studies with analyses of phytoliths, starch, multi-element geochemistry and spot-tests to analyse domestic plant-related activities in the...

  • Detecting the functions of patios in a Classic Maya regal palace at La Corona, Guatemala. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 431434] Maxime Lamoureux St-Hilaire. Marcello A. Canuto. Tomás Barrientos. Clarissa Cagnato.

    Classic Maya regal palaces were political institutions with many functions, ranging from domestic and ceremonial to administrative. This paper presents the results of the multi-facetted study of three adjoining patios of the palace at the Classic Maya Center of La Corona, Guatemala. Research suggests that these patios, dating to final phases of occupation in the Late Classic (8th and 9th centuries AD), were open spaces dedicated to activities relating to the preparation of food, the manufacture...

  • Exploring the Changing Roles of Maya E-groups: Geochemical Analysis of E-group Plaster Floors at Actuncan, Belize (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 431433] Borislava Simova. E. Christian Wells. Lisa LeCount.

    E-Groups were among the first monumental spaces constructed in Middle Preclassic Maya centers and served as important venues for negotiating social interactions and political integration of newly settled peoples. Starting in the Late Preclassic period, their roles began to shift. At some sites, such as Tikal and Uaxactun, votive offerings signifying communal ritual were replaced with dedicatory stelas or royal interments marking exclusionary practices and political appropriation of these spaces....

  • Hadiya:wa: Do You Hear What Traditional Pueblo Cultural Advisors Are Saying? (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430097] Kurt F. Anschuetz. Kurt E. Dongoske.

    Archaeological collaboration with traditional Pueblo communities faces many practical challenges. Archaeologists typically expect cultural practitioners to accept what archaeology entails as a scientific discipline and its approach to understanding the past. Within traditional Pueblo perspectives, archaeological excavation might not be an appropriate measure for mitigating adverse effects in the federal Section 106 compliance process. Rather than asserting the primacy of their preferences and...

  • Fortifying A Community through Public Archaeology: The Collaboration of Public and Private Organizations to Preserve, Protect, and Promote a Spanish-American War Fort on a South Carolina Sea Island. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430095] Phillip Ashlock. Dawn Chapman Ashlock.

    In a collaborative partnership among the surrounding community, local government, private non-profit groups, and professional organizations, the first archaeological investigations involving Phase III data recovery excavations were conducted at Fort Fremont in advance of the development of a local government sponsored interpretive center. Entrenched in a maritime forest along the Port Royal Sound, Fort Fremont is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and enhances the coastal...

  • Managing Cultural Resources within Protected Areas (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430092] Sunny Ngirmang. Camilla Borrevik. Calvin Emesiochel. Errolflynn Kloulechad. Derek Benjamin.

    A goal for cultural heritage management is to advance the comprehensive preservation, conservation and management of cultural resources, defined as the broad array of stories, knowledge, people, places, structures, objects, and the associated environment that contribute to the maintenance of cultural identity and/or reveal the prehistoric, historic and contemporary human interactions with an ecosystem. Involving the state and local community in regular management, activities, and projects should...

  • "Come Together, Right Now:" The Oklahoma Public Archaeology Network and Its Role in Oklahoma Public Archaeology (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430085] Meghan Dudley. Allison Douglas. Bonnie Pitblado.

    Like many other states, Oklahoma has a long history of productive public archaeology, with citizen and professional stakeholders working side-by-side to further archaeological research and preservation. However, the changing nature of archaeology (most particularly the shift to a heavy emphasis on compliance work) has led to miscommunication and misunderstanding among the many stakeholders in Oklahoma’s archaeological community and to less-productive working relationship among them than existed...

  • Local Archaeology Societies in the UK (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430082] Hayley Roberts.

    Local archaeology societies in the UK are unique. They are a product of the British political and legal system combined with cultural attitudes to the past and the development of the archaeological profession. They are a melting pot of inexperienced beginners, expert volunteers, professional archaeologists and everybody in between. As a unique form of public and community archaeology, they allow volunteers to have a significant positive impact for and on both archaeology and society. This...

  • Displays of identity: A community-engaged approach to studying identity through photo diaries (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430080] Shaina Molano. Kimberly Munro.

    This study is part of a larger research project, which looks at displays of social identity and the effects of influence from outside contemporaneous groups in pre-Columbian Peru. In studying past communities, we look beyond our own interpretations of "who" we perceived people to be and begin asking questions that reveal who they thought they were and how they chose to advertise that to those deemed "other." The nature of this research requires working closely with contemporary local...

  • Exploring 'Helicopter' Consulting (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430078] James Herbert. Sean Connuaghton.

    Large-scale cultural resource management on the Northwest Coast stands at the crossroads among resource development, for-profit resource management, and Indigenous control and consent. Recent legal cases, specifically in British Columbia, highlight the need for consultants, industry and Indigenous governments to plan for future development together. This paper follows a line of inquiry from our previous work, exploring how the ‘fly in, fly out’ nature of consulting practices alienates...

  • Empowering Tribal Youth in Cultural Heritage Management (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430076] David Guilfoyle. Genevieve Carey. Raven Willoya-Williams. Michael Bernard. Sherry Kime.

    We examine a multi-year cultural heritage training program developed by Elders, youth and archaeologists in the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The program aims to embed cultural protocols and knowledge into methods of cultural heritage management (CHM). The program demonstrates the benefits of collaborative approaches that provide the foundation for more effective CHM, while at the same time providing direct social outcomes. We examine how this was established via a case study of one of the...

  • Introduction to session and opening remarks (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430089] Charles Bello.

    Introduction to session and opening remarks

  • Long Days Journey into Night, Government to Government Consultation under Section 106, on the Navajo Nation (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430084] Ronald Maldonado.

    Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended requires that the Federal Agencies consult with American Indian Tribes on a Government to Government basis. There are numerous guidelines and trainings on how this should be accomplished under the law, but these do not consider the Tribal point of view. American Indian Tribes are sovereign Nations and expect to be treated as such, expecting long term relationships with Federal Agencies. During my tenure with the Navajo...

  • The Jemez Mountains Ethnohistoric Assessment: a Critical Examination of an Alternative Approach to Consultation (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430071] Howard Higgins. J. Michael Bremer.

    Most consultation occurs as part of NEPA and/or Section 106 compliance. That is, there is a predefined, location specific undertaking that concerns traditional communities, such as Native American entities, who are contacted and with whom consultation occurs. This is not, however, the only, or even the best, process by which traditional peoples may be included in consultations with land managers. Some land managing agencies have recently been adopting more proactive approaches. One example of...

  • Community Archaeology at the Heart Mountain Relocation Camp, Park County, Wyoming (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430075] J. Gregory Smith. Lawrence Todd. Brian Liesinger.

    Heart Mountain was one of ten confinement camps established by the U.S. government during World War Two to incarcerate Japanese Americans living on the West Coast of the United States. Located in northwest Wyoming, the camp had a peak population of nearly 11,000 incarcerees, making it the third largest settlement in the state at that time. The Park County Historic Preservation Commission recently partnered with the Heart Mountain Interpretive Center to carry out mapping and test excavations at...

  • Working Together to Save Our Culture: Creating a Tribal Register of Historical Places (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430087] Robert O'Boyle. Erich Longie. Dianne Desrosiers.

    Not long ago, the Spirit Lake Oyate and Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate were a single band, part of the Dakota Nation, living in the homeland we had occupied for millennia. Manifest Destiny, greed, and racism led to war and the establishment of reservations. Over the decades, the US Government separated our people as they divided the land for settlement. Today, we are working together to bring our people back together based on the places that matter the most. Together the Spirit Lake Tribe and the...

  • Collaboration Continues: Revisiting Archaeology between CRM Archaeologists and First Nations Communities in the Pacific Northwest (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 430073] Stephanie Huddlestan. Amanda Marshall.

    First Nation’s heritage concerns are at the forefront of many large-scale and controversial development projects across the province of British Columbia. How developers and Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Archaeologists choose to address these concerns can significantly impact working and political relationships. CRM archaeologists are on the front lines balancing and navigating complex, and sensitive socio-political heritage issues. Our small CRM company, Kleanza Consulting Ltd. (Kleanza),...

  • Cheval Bonnet: A Crow Calling Card in Blackfeet Country (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429201] James Keyser.

    Cheval Bonnet is a small petroglyph site on Cut Bank Creek, just east of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation that shows a Crow Indian coup counting scene and three other horses, two of which can be identified as the products of Crow artists by their form and the stylized war bonnet worn by each animal. Located in a hidden canyon adjacent to a major stream crossing, the site represents a "calling card" similar to other biographic images drawn both as petroglyphs and arborglyphs during the late...

  • It’s all a bit retro: Investigating early phase rock art on the Dampier Archipelago, Northwest Australia. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429199] Meg Berry.

    Murujuga, located off the northwest coast of Australia, possesses one of the largest and most vibrant open air rock art galleries on the planet. On Murujuga, low erosion rates, durable geology, and growing evidence from the wider region has allowed for archaeological contextualization of rock art into deep time; giving researchers the opportunity to investigate both the changing social dynamics of groups and the stimuli for this change over thousands of years. The main objective of this paper is...

  • Landscape, settlement patterns and rain and fertility symbolism in rock art: a comparative analysis between Chalcatzingo and Cerros de Trincheras in Mexico (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429197] Julio Amador.

    Abstract In this paper we present a systematic comparative analysis of the most characteristic cultural traits of sites, apparently distant in time and space, that share fundamental aspects, concerning basic geomorphological and landscape features, settlement patterns, and rain and fertility symbolism depicted in rock art. The direct association between political power and religious authority, social prestige and the privilege of presiding ritual performances appears to be evident. While in...

  • Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF) and Photogrammetric Studies In Illinois Rock Art Research (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429196] Mark Wagner. Kayleigh Sharp.

    Illinois rock art studies conducted in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries typically used drawings, tracings, and print photography to record prehistoric petroglyphs and pictographs. These types of studies have been replaced in recent years by a variety of new methods including digital photography, DSTRETCH enhancement, photogrammetry, pXRF analysis, and other technologies. These new techniques have greatly enhanced our ability to quickly and accurately record rock art sites in comparison to...

  • Apishapa Rock Art and Soul Capture (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429188] Thomas Huffman. Frank Earley.

    Rather than a western extension of the Plains Village tradition, the Apishapa phase was more likely an eastern extension of the Great Basin Desert culture. Among other things, Great Basin origins explain the Apishapa foraging economy that focused on small mammals, antelope and deer, and meager horticulture. Insubstantial structures and temporary rock shelter habitations attest to residential mobility. As others have noted, Archaic rock art in the Great Basin and Apishapa areas are remarkably...

  • Rock Art as Ritual Communicator: A Theoretical Evaluation (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429192] Mary Brown.

    Archaeologists typically dissect rock art stylistically, symbolically, and chronologically. Symbols, in particular, lead to studies of representational imagery, entoptic phenomena, or religious icons. What remains underexplored is the concept of animism and its related behavioral activities. This paper applies a behavioral theory of communication to study the interactions between people and things. It uses performance characteristics analysis to determine the activities associated with...

  • Tobacco Related Imagery in Montana and Wyoming (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429181] Lawrence Loendorf.

    Pictographs and a few petroglyphs of tobacco plants, tobacco gardens and tobacco headdresses are found at a dozen sites across Montana and Wyoming. Very similar images painted on Crow Indian Tobacco Society pipe bags, moccasins and other clothing strongly suggest the pictographs and petroglyphs were made by the Crow. High concentrations of tobacco pollen at one site suggest it was the location of a tobacco garden

  • Advanced Imaging of Saudi Arabian Petroglyphs: How Science Informs Art. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429205] Sandra Olsen.

    How petroglyph images are recorded in the field is instrumental for analysis, archiving and publishing data. Being prepared to implement multiple advanced imaging techniques provides numerous advantages. Because lighting conditions, preservation and manufacturing techniques vary from one petroglyph locality to the next, having the flexibility to apply different imaging options as appropriate greatly facilitates data retrieval. Many archaeological projects require that the bulk of the image...

  • Recording and Interpreting Mississippian Rock Imagery at Painted Bluff, Alabama (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429203] Johannes Loubser.

    As part an overall effort by the Tennessee Valley Authority to conserve, manage, and present Middle Mississippian era pictographs and petroglyphs to a visiting public, Stratum Unlimited recorded 101 motifs from 47 panels at Painted Bluff, a steep south-facing limestone cliff overlooking the Tennessee River in northeastern Alabama. Results from the recording include an assessment of pictograph and petroglyph techniques, types and numbers of motifs, stratigraphic overlap and sequencing of...

  • Lesser Antillean Windward Island Rock Art and Prehistoric Cultural Systems (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429189] Michele Hayward. Frank Schieppati. Michael Cinquino.

    Two data sets-Jonsson Marquet's proposed chronological framework for rock art of the Windward Islands and Alistair Bright's reconstruction of settlement, socio-political and exchange networks within the same region-provide a context for examining the interrelationships among the material cultural correlates (petroglyphs, settlement types, pottery) of various aspects of the area's, as well as inter-area prehistoric cultural components.

  • The Shaman in the Cave? Testing for entoptic imagery in Upper Paleolithic geometric rock art. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429194] Genevieve Von Petzinger.

    It has been proposed that much of the rock art of Upper Paleolithic (UP) Europe can be interpreted as the result of shamanistic visions and related spiritual practices (e.g., Lewis-Williams and Dowson 1998; Clottes and Lewis-Williams 2001; Lewis-Williams 2002; Whitley 2005). This theory is based on a combination of analogy with modern hunter-gatherer groups, and recent neuroscience studies on the universality of human physiological response when in a trance state. Specific geometric signs found...

  • Neandertal artists? Exploring misconceptions about Neandertal symbolic capacities through rock art studies. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429191] Amy Chase. Genevieve von Petzinger. Oscar Moro Abadia.

    The question of whether Neandertals created art is one that is currently under debate within the field of prehistoric art studies. Originally thought to be brutish and unintelligent, Neandertals have recently come to be acknowledged as complex humans with symbolic capacities, through discoveries of Neandertal-associated modern behaviours including burials, pigment use, and ornament creation. One of the last hold outs separating the symbolic and artistic abilities of Neandertals from those of...

  • Memory and Materiality in Rock Art and Ghost Dance Performances (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429186] Alex Ruuska.

    In this paper, I examine the materiality of memory practices as expressed in rock art associated with the Ghost Dance in the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Eastern California. Building on Jeff Malpas’ (2010) claim that "place is perhaps the key term for interdisciplinary research in the arts, humanities, and social sciences in the 21st C." (Creswell 2015:1), and Susan Kuchler’s perspective of ‘landscape as memory’ in which embodied experiences "govern the mnemonic transmission of land-based...

  • Places, paths and territories: Exploring the multifunctional nature of northeastern Ontario rock art (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429184] François Gagnon. Dagmara Zawadzka.

    The rock art of northeastern Ontario is less well-known than its counterpart in northwestern Ontario. However, recent explorations of the numerous lakes and meandering rivers in the Canadian Shield have led to the identification of previously unknown sites, as well as to the proper documentation of previously known sites, thus increasing greatly the sample and allowing for the emergence of a more complex regional picture. As an example, the rock art of Temagami area is discussed. This large...

  • The Rock Art of Haitian Vodou (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429179] Patrick Wilkinson.

    This research is part of a larger ethno-archaeological investigation of the use of caves in modern Haitian Vodou rituals in Northern Haiti. This paper explores the modern rock art left in the caves as a result of Vodou ceremonies, in particular paint and veve (veve are symbols drawn out with cornstarch used to call various spirits to ceremonies, and are an intrinsic part of Vodou). The art in question included both permanent and ephemeral works, ranging from simple graffiti to caves painted...

  • Method and Theory in the Archaeology of Interior Salish Rock Art Sites on the British Columbia Plateau. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429183] Chris Arnett.

    Interior Salish rock art sites on the British Columbia Plateau are multi-component assemblages which include the geomorphology, the rock art and other surface and subsurface elements such as trails, manuports, petroforms, hearths, lithics, radiocarbon dates, flora and fauna. Defining the inter-relationships of these components is essential to understanding the site formation process. In addition, direct historical and cultural continuity between these sites and Interior Salish descendant...

  • "An Arson, A Wig, and a Murder": The Search for Particia Calloway (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429108] Dana D. Kollmann.

    Patricia Calloway was reported missing from Henderson, Kentucky on March 3, 1993. She was last seen in the company of her brother-in-law, Gene Calloway. On October 17, 2012, arrest warrants were executed for Gene and his wife Debra for the felony counts of homicide, kidnapping, tampering with evidence, and retaliation against a participant in a legal process. Debra was convicted, but Gene died while awaiting trial. Prior to his death, Gene prepared a crudely drawn map of the body disposal...

  • Searching for Standards: Federal Efforts Regarding Crime Scene Investigation with Input from Archaeology (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429106] Kimberlee S. Moran.

    In 2009 the National Research Council released a damning report on the state of forensic science in the United States. The end result has been a six year mission to develop national standards and best practice for the myriad of forensic specialties. Coordinated by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), scientific working groups (SWGs) brought together practitioners, academics, and other stakeholders from around the country to draft documents outlining standard terminology...

  • Forensic Techniques to Investigate Museum and Archaeological Samples (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429105] Shanan S. Tobe. Courtney Mower. Anna Dhody. Carolyn Rando. Kimberlee S. Moran.

    Forensic biologists utilize the latest DNA technologies to deal with low level, difficult, and degraded samples on a regular basis. In fact, forensic testing is specifically designed and validated to be robust under conditions that would cause most other genetic testing to fail. It is therefore no surprise that forensic genetic techniques can assist museums with research questions regarding their collections. Here we discuss how, using forensic techniques and testing, we were able to analyze...

  • A Student’s Perspective on the Unidentified Persons Project, San Bernardino, California (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429103] Molly Kaplan.

    Beginning in 2006 as a response to California Senate Bill 297, the Unidentified Persons Project is the first statewide attempt to apply modern DNA analysis to cold cases in San Bernardino County. In 2014 the project became an accredited field school through the Institute of Field Research and proceeded to have two consecutive field seasons in the summers of 2014 and 2015. This paper will present a student’s perspective on the most-recent 2015 field season and will discuss both the rewards and...

  • Authentication of Museum-Curated Tsantsas Utilizing Next Generation Sequencing Technology (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429101] Courtney Mower. Anna Dhody. Kimberlee S. Moran. Shanan S. Tobe.

    The Shuar, native to Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, prepared shrunken heads to serve as trophies following battle, in response to their cultural beliefs. Authentic shrunken heads (tsantsas) were prepared in a precise manner and exhibit key morphological characteristics. Forgeries, including primates and inauthentic human preparations, were marketed to tourists and private collectors to profit from the "savage" image surrounding the Shuar. Inauthentic shrunken heads were prepared in a...

  • Further Defining the Role of the Forensic Archaeologist (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429100] Eric E. Young.

    As the use of archaeologists in forensic matters grows, it is important to define the role the archaeologist ought to play in such situations. Archaeologists should educate law enforcement personnel as to their utility in investigations. It is important that archaeologists understand their usefulness in criminal matters, and even more importantly, archaeologists should understand their limitations in investigations. There is a need to establish guidelines as to what archaeologists should/should...

  • Is There Strength in Numbers? An Evaluation of the Complementary Roles of Archaeologists and Anthropologists in Forensic Contexts (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 429098] Craig T. Goralski.

    This paper explores the training and education that forensic anthropologists and forensic archaeologists have traditionally received, and how it is put into practice in forensic contexts. The substantial differences in theory, method, and practice between the two sub-disciplines will be summarized and how these differences shape what each can contribute in the field will be discussed. This paper will argue that although some overlap between the two sub-disciplines exists, contemporary...

  • Micro Analyses of 17th Century Adobe Bricks from the “New” Church at Pecos, New Mexico (2015)
    DOCUMENT [ID: 398453] Linda Scott Cummings. Peter Kováčik. Jennifer Milligan. Cody Dalpra. R. A. Varney.

    The clash of Pueblo farmers and Spanish missionaries in central New Mexico marks the transition from prehistoric maize farming to the modern era along the Rio Grande River. The interaction between Native Americans and Spanish was not totally either peaceful or confrontational. The first church, built in the 1620s, was later burned during the Pueblo Revolt when Spanish were forced to leave, then rebuilt when relations improved. Four bricks from the new church (Mission de Nuestra Senora de los...

  • Variability in Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios in Banana Yucca (Yucca Baccata) from Cedar Mesa, Utah: Environmental, Inter-Organ and Processing-based Effects (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 397626] Michael Lewis. RE Burrillo. Joan Brenner Coltrain.

    Recent stable isotope and phytolith studies suggest that desert succulents (in particular Yucca sp. and Opuntia sp.) were a non-trivial component of Ancestral Puebloan diets. However, isotopic variability in such resources is poorly documented. We present 𝜹C13 and 𝜹N15 values for fruits and seeds of thirty modern Banana Yucca (Yucca baccata) specimens from Cedar Mesa, Utah. Experimental roasting and simulated mastication of yucca ‘crowns’ allow separate assays of whole tissue, fiber, and...

  • Martu Ethnoarchaeology: Foraging, Site Structure and the Scales of Constraint on Human Behavior (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 394845] Brian Codding. Christopher Parker. Rebecca Bliege Bird. David Zeanah. Douglas Bird.

    In his watershed 1995 publication, O’Connell outlined the utility of approaching ethnoarchaeology through a general theory of behavior by noting the disparity between studies examining faunal remains and those attempting to explain site structure. While the former was finding great success by drawing on models from behavioral ecology, the later was stagnant and lacking a general theory of behavior. Drawing on ethnoarchaeological data collected with Martu Aboriginal foragers, we highlight a...

  • Lo ritual y lo doméstico: estudios químicos de suelos y paleoetnobotánicos en distintas esferas de actividad en la hacienda San Pedro Cholul, Yucatán. (2015)
    DOCUMENT [ID: 395818] Anaïs Dervanian. Lilia Fernández Souza. Mario Zimmermann. Héctor Hernández Álvarez. Carlos Matos Llanes.

    Si bien existen registros escritos sobre aspectos económicos y productivos en contextos históricos mexicanos, haciendas específicamente, es importante subrayar que dichos registros hacen mención breve o nula acerca de la vida cotidiana y situación económica en la que los peones acasillados vivían. Ante la presente problemática, nos planteamos evaluar y discutir las actividades cotidianas realizadas en una vivienda de construcción humilde (Solar 30), por un lado, y en la capilla de la hacienda...

  • Evaluating a Cooperative Approach to the Management of Digital Archaeological Records (ECAMDAR): A Defense Legacy Project Assessing tDAR for the Department of Defense (2015)
    DOCUMENT [ID: 396940] Sara Rivers Cofield. Jodi Reeves Eyre.

    The Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory (MAC Lab) and the Regional Archaeological Curation Laboratory (RACF) in Ft. Lee, Virginia are archaeological repositories that meet high professional standards for the care of artifacts and paper records. Unfortunately, neither facility has the expert technical staff and specialized infrastructure necessary to qualify as permanent repositories for digital records, despite the exponential rise in site documentation that exists in digital form...

  • The application of strontium isotope analysis to historic cemetery contexts: a case study for the creation of robust individual identifications (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 396091] Shannon K. Freire. Alexis M. Jordan.

    Following the 1991-1992 excavation of the Milwaukee County Institutional Grounds Cemetery (1878-1925), up to 190 individuals were preliminarily identified using historical documentation, material culture, and geospatial analysis. Subsequent bioarchaeological analyses have provided an additional line of evidence for the identification of these individuals. The cemetery population of Western European immigrants and local/nonlocal native born Americans is composed of paupers, the institutionalized,...

  • The Blind Spot: An Early Later Stone Age perspective on the Agulhas Bank from Knysna Eastern Heads Cave 1, South Africa (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 396793] Naomi Cleghorn. Thalassa Matthews. Christopher Shelton.

    The exposure of the wide continental shelf of the Agulhas Bank during the gradual regression of the shoreline from 45,000 years ago, culminating in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), opened up a vast new area for foragers. Humans with well-established coastal resource exploitation strategies would have naturally shifted their foraging range to the south, following the regressing shoreline. During this period, the South African technological record underwent a critical transition from the prepared...

  • Recent archaeological excavations at the Aklis Site, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 398181] Derek T. Anderson. Molly K. Zuckerman. Nicholas P. Herrmann. Felicia Peña. D. Shane Miller.

    The Aklis site (12VAm1-42) is a multicomponent prehistoric conch shell midden containing cemetery and habitation components. Large portions of the site are currently subject to damage from rising sea levels and modern disturbances, including looting. Salvage excavations of two sets of human remains in 2012 led to the development of an archaeological field school in 2014, offered by Mississippi State University and in conjunction with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Survey and excavation...

  • Using computer models and art stylistic similarities to evaluate the impacts of geography and social processes on Magdalenian social networks (2015)
    DOCUMENT [ID: 395601] Claudine Gravel-Miguel.

    Anthropological research has demonstrated the influence of climate and environmental resources on the lifestyle of hunter-gatherers. While most previous work has focused on environmental influences on hunter-gatherer economic and ecological behaviors, this research will evaluate the impact of different geographical and social environments on the social networks formed therein. This project will use an agent-based model to generate test expectations related to the processes that shaped the social...

  • Prehistoric Plant Utilization in Southeastern New Mexico: A unique publication merging academic and public interests (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 397836] William Whitehead.

    The investigation of plant use, in southeastern New Mexico, in prehistory has been widely covered, this project continues this tradition by synthesizing and compiling all of the information to date in the region. The Carlsbad Field Office of the Bureau of Land Management, administrators of the Permian Basin Mitigation Program, is sponsoring the publication of a reference book on prehistoric plant use in Southeastern New Mexico. This free text will bring together recent work in radiocarbon...

  • A New View of the Desert - The Permian Basin Programmatic Agreement Research Program in Southeastern New Mexico (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 396455] Martin Stein.

    The research program described in this paper is providing much needed new information for a portion of southeastern New Mexico that was previously understudied. The program is funded by an innovative approach to Section 106 compliance which trades redundant survey information for monetary contributions to a dedicated research account. The Permian Basin Programmatic Agreement (PA) has been in effect for six years. The purpose of the PA (formerly the Permian Basin Memorandum of Agreement or MOA)...

  • Best Practices for Good Digital Curation (2015)
    DOCUMENT [ID: 396936] Francis McManamon. Julian Richards.

    Archaeology is awash in digital data. Archaeologists generate large numbers of digital files in their field, laboratory, and records investigations. We use digital mapping, digital photography, digital means of data analysis, and our reports are drafted and produced digitally. Good curation of digital data provides easy means by which it can be discovered and accessed, as well as ensuring that it is preserved for future uses. In many ways the planning for and carrying out good digital involves...

  • Modeling Behavior in Digital Places Using Low-Level Perceptual Cues (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 395147] Rachel Opitz.

    Serious games and detailed 3D virtual models that allow researchers to explore multiple scenarios and reflect on different hypotheses or potential reconstructions are growing in number and increasingly viewed as serious scholarly tools. These reconstructions tend to heavily foreground the spatial and visual aspects of a place, a natural reflection of the character of the digital media in use. Studies of potential past experiences of these places, typically focused on movement through them and...

  • On Swiddening and Pigs: The Management of Micronesian Agroforests (2016)
    DOCUMENT [ID: 403178] Maureece Levin. Molly Shelton. William Ayres.

    Agroforestry, or the growing of tree crops, is a long-standing and key food production practice throughout much of the world. As with all systems of food production, the way that humans manage agroforests has a profound impact on their composition as well as their sustainability. For over 2,000 years, eastern Micronesians have relied largely on tree crop production, vegeculture, and fishing for subsistence. In this study, we focus on late prehistoric manipulation of floral environments on the...

  • Understanding the Relationship Between Sample Size and Variation in Ceramic Relative Chronologies at the Petrified Forest National Park (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 404451] Christina Stewart.

    Petrified Forest National Park contains an extensive prehistoric ceramic variability, exhibiting ceramics from multiple regions at later prehistoric sites. Like much of the Southwest, most of the research at the park is survey oriented, recording only a sample of ceramics on site. The high diversity of ceramics and small sample sizes has the potential to create a recording bias when using ceramics to relatively date sites. This project investigates the relationship between site diversity and...

  • Pithouses, Pueblos, Projectile Points, Petroglyphs, and Possible Plazas: An Update on the 2015 Petrified Forest National Park Boundary Expansion Survey (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 404450] Emilio Santiago. Reuven Sinensky.

    Petrified Forest National Park is in the third and final year of its Boundary Expansion Survey, which has nearly doubled the park’s size to 221,552 acres. Over the last three years researchers have identified and recorded over 300 archaeological sites in a variety of ecological zones. Our survey focuses on a 640-acre parcel that encompasses flat grasslands, dune-covered Triassic ridges, washes, and mesa tops. Site types range from large Basketmaker II habitation sites, to Pueblo II and Pueblo...

  • Three Seasons of Survey in the Painted Desert: An Update of the Petrified Forest Boundary Expansion Survey (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 404449] William Reitze. Amy Schott. Iva Lee Lehmkuhl.

    In 2004 Congress authorized Petrified Forest National Park to more than double in size, in part to protect unique cultural resources. This poster introduces the preliminary results of the third and final season of pedestrian survey in these new lands. So far this research has recorded archaeological sites dating from the Archaic through the Late Pueblo periods. Sites range from lithic landscapes covering hundreds of acres to multi-room masonry or adobe structures. Survey methodology has focused...

  • It's a Slippery Slope: The Impacts of Erosion on the Spatial Distribution of Artifacts (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 404448] Ashley Packard.

    This project looks at the spatial distribution of lithic and ceramic artifacts on slopes in Petrified Forest National Park to examine erosional impacts on distribution. Archaeologists use the spatial distribution of artifacts to identify features and their functions. Therefore, it is important that the affect of erosion moving artifacts out of their primary contexts is understood. It is hypothesized that patterns exist in the way artifacts erode downslope. Transects are put across site slopes...

  • Sourcing and Trade of Basalt and Turquoise to Petrified Forest National Park (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 404447] Mary M. Hagen.

    This project seeks to understand how the basalt and turquoise found at Petrified Forest National Park fits into the trade networks of the Southwest. The procurement and subsequent movement of basalt and turquoise materials have been studied in the Southwest, but not at Petrified Forest National Park. Basalt axe heads, vesicular basalt pipes, and turquoise beads/pendants were recovered from multiple sites but no natural outcrops of either source have been found within the park boundaries. For...

  • Petroglyphs of East Tank Mesa and the Mac Stod Great House: Using Rock Art to Gauge Regional Influences in Petrified Forest National Park (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 404446] Maxwell Forton.

    East Tank Mesa is a prominent landform located within the new expansion lands of Petrified Forest National Park: harboring a high concentration of Pueblo II-Pueblo III petroglyph panels and one of the region’s few possible Chacoan outliers. This possible outlier is the Mac Stod site: a seven-room pueblo possessing some of the hallmarks of Chacoan architecture (core veneer masonry, large rooms, long straight walls, and well constructed rectangular doorways). The nature of Mac Stod, and whether it...

  • From Ocean to Desert: Analysis of Prehistoric Shell Through Type, Use, and Trade Routes to Petrified Forest National Park (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 404445] Alexandra Covert.

    Shell jewelry at Petrified Forest National Park has been found from Basketmaker II through Pueblo IV. Since there are no local sources of marine shell, it is important to understand how trade routes from the Gulf of California and the Gulf of Mexico directly affected how shell was traded to this region. Shell recovered from archaeological contexts curated in the Petrified Forest National Park collections were typed according to class, genus, and species and were sourced to the Gulf of California...

  • Clarifying Late Archaic, Basketmaker, and Pueblo I Project Point Types at Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 404444] Cody Dalpra. Brian Harmon. Reuven Sinensky.

    Late Archaic, Basketmaker, and Pueblo I time period projectile point types are problematic in the greater Southwest because many exhibit considerable morphological overlap. The sizable collections from Petrified Forest National Park represent an excellent test case where all of these time periods are well represented. To characterize their considerable morphological range we analyze over 80 projectile points from cross dated surface finds and the excavated sites of the Basketmaker-era Flattop...

  • Extraction of Soil Biomarkers from the Sacred Cacao Groves of the Maya (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 403186] Richard Terry. Bryce M. Brown. Aline Magnoni. Tanya Carino.

    In Post Classic and Colonial times, cacao was an important crop to the Maya. Landa and others reported sacred groves of trees in the Yucatan region, and among these groves they saw cacao growing. When the Spanish arrived in Mexico, cacao seeds were even used as a form of currency near Chichen Itza. Cacao typically grows in hot, humid climates. The Yucatan region is too dry and humidity is too low during the winter months to sustain cacao, but it has been found to grow in the humid microclimates...

  • Root, Fruit and Dirt: using ethnoarchaeology and archaebotany for constructing reference collections of plants in activity areas in Eastern Amazon (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 403185] Leandro Cascon. Rui Murrieta.

    In the Brazilian State of Pará, Eastern Amazon, indigenous Asurini populations living in the middle course of the Xingú River currently face the challenge of maintaining traditional lifeways in a situation of great ecological and social change, due to the construction of Belo Monte, one of the world’s largest hydroelectric dams. Amongst their practices, the cultivation of diverse varieties of manihot, sweet-potato, beans, maize and other crops is an important aspect of Asurini culture, and one...

  • Spatial Analysis of Domestic Structures (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 403184] Linda Scott Cummings.

    Cooking, food processing, and consumption all contribute anthropic activity markers traceable using archaeobotanic analyses and chemical signatures. Grid square sampling illuminates patterns for comparison with distribution of artifacts and architectural elements, revealing patterned activities that identify food storage in vessels, grinding, and cooking. Multiple lines of evidence, each providing only a portion of the record, contribute to better understanding economic activity and provide...

  • Combining residue analysis of floors and ceramics to identify activity areas and the use of space (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 403183] Alessandra Pecci. Fernanda Inserra.

    Residue analyses have been applied for more than 40 years to the study of ceramics and floors (Barba, Bello 1978; Condamin et al. 1976). This has allowed to better understand ceramic contents, on the one side, and the traces left by human activities on floors, on the other. Both these disciplines provide important information on human activity markers, focusing on the use of ceramics in the first case and the use of space and the function of structures in the second. However, a deeper...

  • Microarchaeology applied to foumier deposits: the use of phytoliths, spherulites and ash pseudomorphs as a tool for reconstruct livestock practices. (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 403182] Mónica Alonso Eguíluz. Rosa María Albert. Javier Fernández Eraso.

    Fumier deposits are important sources of information to better understand past livestock practices. The Neolithic site of Los Husos II (Álava, Spain), in the upper Ebro Basin, is the oldest Basque Country site where livestock practices were detected dating to 6990-6760 cal B.P. Hence, the site offers a unique opportunity to study the adaptation of early livestock practices and their expansion to the western Pyreness, as the Ebro Basin is the main route by which the new economic system...

  • Activity Area Analysis of Elite and Commoner Spaces in the Ancient Maya City of Actuncan, Belize (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 403181] Lisa LeCount. Kara A. Fulton. David W. Mixter. E. Christian Wells. Thomas R. Jamison.

    This report describes the results of a geochemical analysis of nearly 1,000 samples from earthen and plaster surfaces at Actuncan, a prehispanic Maya city in western Belize. Studies of the social, political, and economic relationships between elites and commoners demonstrate that the lived experiences of both groups were dramatically different. However, we know little about how social roles and relationships impacted the organization and daily use of domestic and public spaces. Multivariate...

  • Supper’s ready. Preparing and cooking food in Italian Protohistory (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 403180] Anna Depalmas. Francesco di Gennaro.

    The paper focuses on some aspects of food production and preparation of meals in the poorly equipped context of the protohistoric village in Italian territory. Some arrangements that have already been observed or reconstructed on archaeological basis, specifically when connected to particular found tools are discussed. With specific reference to the Italian protohistory, research on these items has been sometimes supported by ethnographic comparisons. In this search some already stated...

  • Untangling Activity Areas in Open Spaces: Ethnography at Jandhala, North Gujarat, India (part II (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 403179] Carla Lancelotti. Jonas Alcaina Mateos. Javier Ruiz perez. Alessandra Pecci. Marco Madella.

    Jandhala is a small village in the rural countryside of North Gujarat (India) where many of the activities related to food processing are still non-mechanized. One compound within the village has been investigated ethnographically to test a novel methodology to unravel activity areas. In this paper we present the results of investigations in the courtyard of the compound. Over 170 samples were collected, in a regular grid of 2x2 meters, and analyzed for multi-element geochemistry. We compare our...

  • Lessons Learned from the Courts: Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology in Recent United States Jurisprudence (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 402976] Ryan Seidemann. Christine Halling.

    Unlike many other aspects of archaeology, forensic archaeology and anthropology is, in part, only as effective as the courts believe it to be. While peer review is the gold standard for assessing the integrity and viability of the scientific aspects of forensic archaeology and anthropology, passing muster in a court of law can be a different—and sometimes counterintuitive—standard. Although some recent research in this area has examined the impact of court attempts to “police” the integrity of...

  • Can we all get along? Bridging the divide between forensic anthropologists, forensic archaeologists, and law enforcement personnel (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 402975] Craig Goralski. Alexis Gray.

    Despite being stakeholders with many shared goals, the working relationships between forensic anthropologists, forensic archaeologists, and their colleagues in law enforcement are often strained. The authors argue that cultural differences among the groups have contributed to the underuse and misuse of forensic anthropologists and archaeologists both in the United States and elsewhere, resulting in investigations that are neither as anthropological nor as scientific as juries and the public are...

  • An Examination of the Spatial Distribution of the Tissue Fragments created during an Explosive Event (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 402974] Erin DuBois. Tony Waldron. Kate Bowers. Carolyn Rando.

    In the field of forensic science, the investigation that follows an explosive attack is one of extreme importance. There are, however, few universally accepted methods for the location and recovery of human remains after an explosion, especial in the cases of an IED or suicide bomb attack. This explains the paucity of available research and guidance on the subject. The research presented here aims to improve practice both in terms of recovery of the victims and in determining the characteristics...

  • Being Found: A Fundamental Human Right (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 402973] Ann Marie Mires. Claire Gold.

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) database lists approximately 100,000 missing persons in the United States. Many of the people who go missing in the United States are victims of homicide. In many cases, the investigation begins only when human remains are found. DNA technology has helped decrease the number of unidentified cases but still, many “unfound” cases remain unsolved. Victims of homicide have no choice as to where their bodies are placed and often suffer violations before and...

  • The Value of Forensic Archaeology Training for All Law Enforcement Officers: A Case Example (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 402972] Martin McAllister. Brent Kober.

    Law enforcement officers working for agencies not directly involved in land management, such as county sheriff’s departments, traditionally have not been trained to recognize evidence of crimes related to resource protection, for example, artifacts and human remains stolen in the commission of archaeological crimes. In a recent class presented by our firm and cohosted by the Lake County, California Sheriff’s Department and two California tribes, sheriff’s deputies and evidence technicians...

  • Life Among the Tombstones: Forensics Crosses Paths with Hoodoo (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 402971] Sharon Moses.

    African magic rituals among the graves of the recently dead in the South and elsewhere may not be as rare as one might think. This paper is an exploration of a case wherein the author was called in as a forensic archaeologist and consultant to law enforcement investigating a case of cemetery desecrations with supernatural overtones. Further, during the course of this investigation, possible connections between the author's historical archaeological research excavation of a slave street on a...

  • To Dig or Not to Dig? A Case Study of Suspected Remains Buried under Concrete (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 402970] Paul Martin. Blair Tormey.

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) results can factor into the decision to excavate in the search for a clandestine grave. Most published research and case studies focus on the successful location and recovery of human remains, while relatively few examples have been published showing negative results. This presentation highlights a cold case where the data interpretation led to excavation, but did not produce the target sought. Information from a confidential informant led investigators to...

  • Bridging the Gap: Bringing Archaeology into the Forensic Forum (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 402969] Dana Kollmann.

    Archaeological excavations are much like crime scene investigations in that to study them, is to destroy them. Consequently, full-scale documentation, cataloguing, and proper packaging techniques are critical components of archaeological and forensic fieldwork. Archaeologists have the additional benefit to law enforcement of being trained to conduct line and grid searches, interpret soils for evidence of disturbance, and perform exhumations using standardized excavation techniques. Law...

  • Protest Graffiti at the Historic Nevada Peace Camp (2015)
    Citation DOCUMENT [ID: 397376] Harold Drollinger. Lauren W. Falvey. Colleen Beck.

    The Peace Camp, near the Nevada National Security Site, is the location where protesters have gathered for several decades to voice their opposition to nuclear testing and environmental issues. This National Register eligible property contains an abundance of archaeological features, such as rock cairns, tent pads, sweat lodges, and geoglyphs. Associated with these features are two concrete highway drainage tunnels that served as a passageway and a place of respite from the desert conditions. In...

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