Regional Perspectives on the Tiwanaku Collapse: "Post-expansive" chronology, cultural transformation and ethnogenesis in the south central Andes

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  • Cabuza y Maytas (Norte de Chile): ¿Tiwanaku, Post-Tiwanaku o No-Tiwanaku en Arica? (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Mauricio Uribe.

    A partir de nuestros estudios de la cerámica de Arica en la década de 1990, propusimos la existencia de dos tradiciones de producción local que se desarrollaron a lo largo del período Medio, en mayor o menor grado, por el impacto de Tiwanaku en los Valles Occidentales. En aquella oportunidad, definimos una Tradición Altiplánica tecnológica, estilística y contextualmente integrada a Tiwanaku, por lo que llegó a desaparecer junto con esa entidad. En gran medida paralela, aunque un poco más tardía,...

  • Diáspora y Etnogénesis durante el Tiwanaku Terminal en el la región de Cohoni, La Paz, Bolivia (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Juan Villanueva.

    Esta ponencia se centra en las poblaciones del Tiwanaku Terminal – Intermedio Tardío Temprano (ap. 900 – 1200 d.C.) en la región de Cohoni, en los valles orientales del río La Paz, en Bolivia. Se resumen los antecedentes investigativos de la región, y especialmente las excavaciones realizadas por nosotros en contextos habitacionales del sitio de Chullpa Loma, uno de los más grandes y complejos de Cohoni. Consideramos datos sobre la arquitectura habitacional y funeraria del sitio, así como los...

  • Establishing Chemical Signatures for Cabuza Style Pottery and the Tiwanaku Tradition Using Portable X-ray Florescence (pXRF) (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only James Daniels. Paul Goldstein.

    Portable X-ray Florescence (pXRF)was used to analyze the chemical composition of 60 Tiwanaku and derived style ceramic sherds from different locations in the south central Andes. The results indicate that there are four distinct geochemical groups and that the local Cabuza style pottery from survey collections in the Azapa Valley in Chile has a distinct chemical composition from all other Tiwanaku tradition ceramics. The results also indicate that pXRF is a viable technique for distinguishing...

  • Feasting, exchange, sociopolitical interaction: Assessing the Tiwanaku presence in the Kallawaya region (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Rebecca Friedel. Sonia Alconini. Maria Bruno.

    In the Tiwanaku era, the Kallawaya territory was part of a web of an inter-ecologic exchange networks that provided altiplanic polities with a myriad of resources flowing from the valleys and tropical Yunga mountains. In this context, Tiwanaku centers were important places of exchange, storage, and ritual celebrations. By looking at the botanical remains, this paper will explore the changes in feasting and consumption patterns, and the ways in which various resources were utilized in funerary...

  • From Dispersal to "Disappearance": AD 1000-1250 in the Upper Moquegua Valley, Peru (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Nicola Sharratt.

    In the Moquegua Valley, Peru, the decline of the greater Tiwanaku system circa AD 1000 was accompanied by a shift to a more dispersed settlement pattern, as populations moved out of the large towns of the middle valley and established smaller sites on the coast and in the upper valley. In this paper I focus on the upper valley, where the longevity of occupation at post-expansive sites and the presence of secondary occupations offer an opportunity to examine the centuries’ long trajectory of...

  • On the Absolute Chronology of Late Tiwanaku / Early Late Intermediate Period Ceramic Traditions: Case Studies from the Bolivian Altiplano and North Chile (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Antti Korpisaari.

    Although the timing of the Tiwanaku collapse is debated and probably varied somewhat from one region to another, this process probably took place in the 10th and 11th centuries AD. In 1998-2006, I worked at two Tiwanaku heartland sites which produced long series of radiocarbon dates corresponding to this critical period. At the cemetery site of Tiraska, ceramic grave goods in a style closely resembling Tiwanaku V were present from the early 10th until the mid-13th century AD. On the island of...

  • Post-Collapse Change and Continuity in Bolivia’s Desaguadero Valley (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Jennifer Zovar.

    There is often a discontinuity between studies of ‘collapse’ and studies of post-collapse periods. This can lead to the periods following collapse being defined by a "lack" of what came before. In the southern Titicaca basin, for example, the period following the collapse of the Tiwanaku state has been defined by a lack of monumental construction, raised fields, large-scale feasting events, or Tiwanaku-style iconography. Nevertheless, recent explorations have demonstrated that while "collapse"...

  • Post-Tiwanaku Settlement Patterns in the Peaceful Coastal Osmore Valley and the Tense Upper Valleys (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Bruce Owen.

    Some refugees from the collapsing Tiwanaku province in Moquegua settled in the coastal Osmore valley, where they appear to have integrated peacefully with the Chiribaya population, living in seemingly undefended settlements closely intermixed with their ethnically distinct neighbors. Others moved into the upper valleys of the Osmore drainage, where they apparently experienced a competitive, fearful social environment, living on defensible high points, some with vestiges of what may have been...

  • Second-Hand Spaces: abandonment and reoccupation during the final stages of a Tiwanaku provincial temple (Omo M10A) (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Matthew Sitek. Sarah Baitzel. Kathleen Huggins. Paul Goldstein.

    The Tiwanaku colonies in Moquegua, Peru represent some of the best preserved archaeological remains left by this south central Andean polity. This has led to a detailed understanding of daily life and ceremonial practices of these Tiwanaku colonists. However, our understanding of how these lifestyles and practices were transformed during and after the disintegration the highland core is still relatively limited. This paper will take a site-specific approach to explore this enigmatic period of...

  • Tiwanaku in Arequipa (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Augusto Cardona. María Cecilia Lozada. Hans Barnard.

    Although Tiwanaku expansion outside the Titicaca Basin has been documented extensively in southern Peru, specifically in Moquegua, the influence and/or presence of this highland state in the Arequipa region is not well known. In this paper, we evaluate work in Arequipa over the past 15 years regarding Tiwanaku in light of our work in the Vitor valley about 40 km from the city of Arequipa as part of the Vitor Archaeological Project. In Arequipa, we have identified relatively small Tiwanaku...

  • "Tiwanaku VI" revisited: Postcolonialism and Ethnogenesis in the middle Moquegua Valley Province (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Paul Goldstein.

    The Middle Moquegua Valley was home to between 10,000 and 20,000 Tiwanaku colonists during the Tiwanaku IV and V periods. This paper examines what became of these populations in Tiwanaku’s postcolonial period. Three decades ago, the name "Tiwanaku VI" was briefly proposed to describe Moquegua’s diverse "post-expansive" ceramic styles. Subsequent full coverage survey in the and excavations in the middle valley indicate that after Tiwanaku V settlements, temple, and cemeteries were largely...

  • Transformation and Continuity: Late Tiwanaku to Post Tiwanaku traditions in the Central Valley of Cochabamba (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Karen Anderson.

    This paper presents evidence from the Central Valley of Cochabamba, a key peripheral region of the Tiwanaku state. It addresses Tiwanaku expansion, state collapse and post-Tiwanaku transformation and continuity using data from ceramic styles and other material culture traditions. Also presented are new radio-carbon dates from the Central Valley site of Piñami covering Tiwanaku expansion and collapse and how these dates fit into the larger regional context and suggest that Tiwanaku influence...