Formation Processes of Maritime Archaeological Landscapes and Sites

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  • Documents (11)

  • Assessing Environmental Impacts on Shipwreck Sites: Results & Lessons Learned from the 2009-2012 Gulf of Mexico Shipwreck Study (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Matthew E Keith. Amanda M Evans.

    Shipwreck sites are subject to large scale oceanographic and environmental processes which can impact interpretation of the site as well as the stability of the wreck itself.  Along the Outer Continental Shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico, alluvial deposits comprised of varying quantities of clays, silts, and sands dominate the seafloor.  The movement of these deposits through both ongoing processes (such as currents and waves) and punctuated events (such as hurricanes) significantly impact...

  • The Formation of a West African Maritime Seascape: Atlantic Trade, Shipwrecks, and Formation Processes on the Coast of Ghana (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Rachel Horlings.

    Vessels engaged in the Atlantic trade with West Africa contended with rough seas and dangerous shorelines that offered few natural harbors. To combat this, ships generally anchored offshore in deeper water and used small vessels for trade and communication with trading establishments on shore. While the underwater seascape was a determining factor in navigation, the surface landscape was both fashioned by, and played dramatic roles in, the development of trade and navigation.  The intersection...

  • Formation Processes of Maritime Archaeological Sites in the French West Indies Through the Example of Guadeloupe: A First Approach  (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Jean-Sébastien Guibert. Christian Stouvenot. Frédéric Leroy.

    A broad point of view is applied in order to present this first approach on the formation processes of submerged  and coastal archaeological sites in Guadeloupe. Evidence from historical analysis to archaeological observation help to explain formation processes associated with coastal and submerged archaeological sites. This paper presents a typological approach linked with the site location: underwater, coastal and micro island sites. The formation processes of shipwreck sites incorporate...

  • Geoarchaeological and Historical Research on theRedistribution of Beeswax Galleon Wreck Debris by the Cascadia Earthquake and Tsunami (!A.D. 1700), Oregon, USA (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Scott S Williams. Curt D Peterson. Mitch W Marken.

    Geoarchaeological and historical research indicate the wreck of a Manila galleon in northwest Oregon (USA) occurred prior to the last Cascadia earthquake tsunami and coastal subsidence at A.D. 1700, which redistributed and buried wreck artifacts on the Nehalem Bay spit. research has focused on site formation processes associated with the tsunami impacts. Wreck debris was initially scattered along the spit ocean beaches, then washed over the spit by nearfield tsunami (6–8 m elevation), and...

  • High-Precision Chronology Building at Coastal Sites on California’s Channel Islands (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Chistopher S. Jazwa. Douglas J. Kennett. Lynn Gamble.

    Using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) techniques and chronology building calibration software that incorporates Bayesian statistics, it is possible to establish high-precision chronologies for complex sites. This includes shell midden sites, which are common along coastlines in the United States and often contain multiple distinct strata. We present the example of SCRI-333, on the western end of Santa Cruz Island, California. At this site, we selected carbonized twig and marine shell...

  • A New Maritime Archaeological Landscape Formation Model (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Alicia Caporaso.

    Underwater archaeology tends to be particularistic focusing on the human activities associated with an event, however; human behavior and its resultant material remains exist on a physical and cultural landscape and cannot be separated from it. Studying known archaeological sites within the landscape reveals patterns of human behavior that can only be identified within that context. The natural environment constrains and informs human behavior and plays an important role in the development of...

  • Potential Diver Impacts on Underwater Cultural Heritage: Case Studies from Asia-Pacific (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Joanne L Edney.

    Underwater cultural heritage sites, particularly ship and aircraft wrecks, are becoming increasingly popular and important attractions for recreational scuba divers. However, use of these sites by divers can result in a range of adverse impacts such as boat anchor damage, disturbance to and removal of artefacts, deliberate and accidental contacts with wrecks and artefacts, as well as exhaled air bubbles. Whilst these impacts may not present a major threat in comparison to other human impacts,...

  • Riverine Site Formation Process of Steamboat Wreck Sites in the Western United States (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Kristen Vogel.

    Museum exhibits for both the artifact collections of both the steamboats Arabia and Bertrand liken the steamboat wrecks as time capsules, preserving moments frozen in time. For an archaeologist, it oversimplifies the nature of shipwrecks to regard them as a moments frozen in time. This study examines the dynamic riverine site formation process of steamboat wreck sites in the western United States, considering the cultural and environmental factors that impact such sites. The cultural and...

  • Sediment Identification Challenges: Is That Really Ancient Bilge Mud? (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Meko Kofahl.

    Excavations of shipwrecks at Tantura Lagoon in Israel between 1995 and 1997 resulted in a rich collection of sediment specimens which have been catalogued as ‘bilge mud’ – the residue that collects in the bottom of a ship’s hold. Some of these samples have been analyzed for the presence of pollen, seeds, insects and other organic materials, but the body of the sediment itself also holds important clues to the past travels of the vessels. Using techniques more common to oceanography and...

  • Shipwreck 43 and the formation of the ship graveyard in the central basin at Thonis-Heraclion, Egypt (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Damian J Robinson. David Fabre.

    Investigations into the submerged port-city of Thonis-Heraclion by the European Institute for Underwater Archaeology, under the direction of Franck Goddio, have revealed a complex maritime landscape. Topographic and geoarchaeological research at this site has revealed the shape of the port, the major monumental structures of the city and how it all came to be submerged, as well as the wrecks of sixty-four ancient ships dating from the 8th to the 2nd centuries BC. This paper will investigate a...

  • Shipwreck Site Formation Processes of Commercial Fish Trawling and Dredging (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Joyce H. Steinmetz.

    This regional thesis documents that 1) commercial bottom fishing gear damages shipwrecks and 2) shipwrecks negatively affect commercial bottom fishing. From a 52-wreck sample, 69% of mid-Atlantic shipwrecks have 1 or more derelict trawl nets or scallop dredges on site. Deeper than 150 ft. (46 m), all metal wrecks have 1 to 5 scallop dredges, increasing at scallop rotational access areas. Sadly, wood wrecks do not survive towed dredge impacts. An enhanced shipwreck site formation process diagram...