Guns, Provisions, and the Governor: The Wreck of the Warwick, Bermuda 1619

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  • Documents (11)

  • The Artifact Assemblage of the Warwick (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Joshua T. Harden.

    This paper is a preliminary analysis of the artifacts recovered from the Warwick shipwreck. Over the course of three field seasons from 2010 to 2012, numerous artifacts were recovered from the site. Artifact types will be described briefly and a historical context given. Basic groups will be created to categorize the artifacts and will include cargo, armament, and rigging. Statistics will be compiled for each category and for individual artifact types within the groups. The ultimate goal is to...

  • Buoyancy and Stability of the Warwick: Analytical Study of Ballast  (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Jeffrey R Delsescaux. Piotr T Bojakowski.

    For the past three years, archaeologists have been carefully excavating the remains of the early 17th-Century English vessel Warwick on the bottom of Castle Harbor, Bermuda.  Although the wreck was partially salvaged in the 1970’s, leaving much of the ballast rocks scattered around the site and unrecorded, there was a small portion of ballast found intact during the 2011 field season. This intact section yielded some interesting artifacts and allowed for better insights into 17th-Century...

  • Galleons for a Transatlantic World (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Jon Adams.

    Galleons for a Transatlantic World The late 16th and early 17th centuries was a period in which English shipping saw the emergence of what might be termed a second generation of carvel construction in which the ‘galleon’ was developed from the carrack derivatives and galleases of Henry VIII’s time. Nowhere are these more beautifully portrayed than in Matthew Baker’s Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry preserved in the Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge. But astonishingly the...

  • The Merchant Weights of the Warwick (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Ammandeep K Mahal.

    The merchant weights of the Warwick offer a unique insight into the nature of the voyage which brought the ship to Bermuda. Three lead pan weights were discovered at the site and, although the assemblage is small, it represents an important mercantile collection. The lead weights bear the ciphers of English trade guilds, marks, and regal stamps. The smallest weight was stamped with three emblems: the sword of St. Paul, which was the mark of London; an ‘I’ surmounted by the crown which...

  • Structural Analysis of the Warwick  (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Piotr T Bojakowski.

     The remains of the Warwick are one of the largest and most coherent fragments of an early 17th century English ship. Notwithstanding the historical designation of the vessel as the "magazine" ship, the Warwick was far from being an ordinary freighter. As the analysis of its structurecontinues, it appears this ship was a finely crafted and finished vessel and a powerful fighting machine. It was built in a more traditional style, perhaps a style going back to such notable examples as the Mary...

  • The Warwick 1619: Historical Background (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Emily Rose.

    The Warwick ship was owned by Robert Rich, a leading member of the Virginia and Somers Island companies and commissioned to deliver the new governor and workers for the Bermuda plantation. This paper considers the political and financial context in which the ship sailed, and differentiates it from contemporary ships of the same name with which it has often been confused. Time permitting, the paper will also address the legal aftermath of the sinking.

  • Timber Analysis of the Warwick: Dating, Provenance and Resources (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Nigel Nayling.

    The Warwick was extensively sampled for tree-ring analysis and species identification in the final field season in 2012, following promising results from analysis of a small number of samples taken in 2011. The results of dating and provenance analysis of the structural hull timbers will be presented and discussed in the context of contemporary North-Western European shipbuilding and forestry practice. Additional results from selective sampling of stave built containers (barrels) will also be...

  • Warwick in the Context of 17th Century Sail (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Douglas Inglis.

    This paper examines rigging elements from the 1619 Warwick shipwreck in the broader context of 17th century sailing technology. Warwick's crew would have committed the majority of their efforts to maintaining the ship's rig and interacting with her sails. Although only a small assemblage of rigging elements survived the wrecking process, they provide important clues to how the ship's rig was designed and operated. Warwick's assemblage of rigging elements contains several varieties of three-hole...

  • The Warwick Plain Scale: An Early Seventeenth-Century Navigational Instrument (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Michael J Gilbart.

    One of the most intriguing artifacts recovered from the Warwick, is a wooden, mathematical instrument called a plain or ‘plaine’ scale.  Plain scales were small, wooden instruments used by ships in the early-17th century.  The plain scale allowed pilots and navigators to determine a ship’s position with dividers and the graduated markings on the scale.  This paper examines the history of plain scales, the use of the plain scale for navigational and astronomical purposes, and how the Warwick...

  • The Warwick Project (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Katie Custer.

    The Warwick which carried the new governor, settlers, their possession, tools, and provisions across the Atlantic to the nascent Bermuda colony in 1619 sank during a hurricane while at anchorage in Castle Harbour. Over the course of four field seasons, a team of archaeologists, students, and volunteers from the Atlantic World Marine Archaeology Research Institute, the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and the Center for Maritime Archaeology and Conservation at Texas A&M University, the National...

  • The Weapons of Warwick (2013)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Maureen C. Merrigan.

    At the beginning of the 17th century, Sir Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, christened his most recent venture. The Warwick was a mid-sized English vessel designed to ply the warm waters of the Caribbean and Bermuda. In the fall of 1619 she carried a cargo of supplies into Castle Harbour, Bermuda. While at anchor, a hurricane tore her from her anchors and dashed her against the reefs. Although salvaged after her sinking, recent excavation of the Warwick has revealed a wide variety of armament and...