An Archeological Overview and Assessment of Agate Fossil Beds National Monument, Sioux County, Nebraska

Author(s): John R. Bozell

Year: 2004


This document provides an archeological overview and assessment of Agate Fossil Beds National Monument in Sioux County, Nebraska. The study was completed under the terms of a purchase order and scope-of-work issued by the Midwest Archeological Center, National Park Service in Lincoln, Nebraska. Archeological investigations began at the park in the 1960s and have continued through the present. All fee title land within the park has been examined on at least one occasion by professional archeological teams from the Midwest Archeological Center or other agencies working under contract to the Center. Investigations were implemented in response to a need for a park-wide inventory of archeological resources as well as Section 106 (National Historic Preservation Act) compliance requirements in response to various park developments. These efforts have resulted in the identification of 92 archeological properties spanning the Paleoindian through Euroamerican periods. Several sites have been the subject of test excavations and impact mitigation data recovery programs. The majority of Agate Fossil Beds National Monument sites reflect rather ephemeral use of the upper Niobrara River valley by a variety of Native American groups. Sites are largely associated with lithic procurement and temporary camping and hunting activities. Several Native American spiritual sites and properties associated with development of the Agate Springs Ranch and Lakota Chief Red Cloud have also been documented. This study offers a description of all park archeological investigations, sites recorded, collections recovered and overall contributions the archeological resources have made to a broader understanding of High Plains archeology. Recommendations for further field and research actions are provided which focus on geomorphic and paleoenvironmental investigations, testing for deeply buried resources and updating databases and other archival materials.

Cite this Record

An Archeological Overview and Assessment of Agate Fossil Beds National Monument, Sioux County, Nebraska. John R. Bozell. Lincoln, Nebraska: Midwest Archeological Center, National Park Service, Department of the Interior. 2004 ( tDAR id: 375648) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8W095N0

This Resource is Part of the Following Collections


Archaic Arikara Caddoan Cheyenne Euroamerican Historic Historic Native American Lakota Late Pre-Contact Period Omaha-Ponca PaleoIndian Pawnee Plains Apache Plains Village Woodland

Building Materials Ceramic Chipped Stone Fauna Fire Cracked Rock Glass Human Remains Macrobotanical Metal Pollen Shell

Site Name
25SX152 25SX153 25SX154 25SX155 25SX156 25SX157 25SX158 25SX159 25SX160 25SX161 25SX162 25SX163 25SX191 25SX192 25SX193 25SX2 25SX251 25SX252 25SX253 25SX254 25SX255 25SX256 25SX257 25SX258 25SX259 Show More

Site Type
Archaeological Feature Cairn Domestic Structure or Architectural Complex Domestic Structures Hearth Non-Domestic Structures Pit Post Hole / Post Mold Quarry Refuse Pit Resource Extraction / Production / Transportation Structure or Features Road, Trail, and Related Structures or Features Roasting Pit / Oven / Horno Rock Alignment Storage Pit

Spatial Coverage

min long: -103.81; min lat: 42.598 ; max long: -103.48; max lat: 42.723 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Principal Investigator(s): John R. Bozell

Submitted To(s): National Park Center, Midwest Archeological Center

File Information

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