Deepwater Shipwrecks and Oil Spill Impacts: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Understanding Site Formation Processes...and in 3-D!

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  • Documents (10)

  • Corrosion and Microbiological Evaluation of a Recovered Experimental Platform from the site of DKM U166 (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Lori Johnston. Roy Cullimore.

    In 2003, an experimental corrosion platform was placed at the bow of the German submarine, U-166. This platform incorporated fifteen coupons including high carbon, low carbon steel, aluminum, and copper along with oak and mahogany wood coupons. This platform was recovered in 2014 and evaluated for microbiologically influenced corrosion. During the eleven years of deep ocean placement, the oak coupons degraded in four to six years while the mahogany disappeared after ten years. Biomass was...

  • Deep Wrecks in 3D: AUV and ROV Laser and Sonar Scans of Deepwater Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Robert Church. Daniel Warren. Robert Westrick.

    In 2013 and 2014, C&C Technologies, Inc. joined a multidisciplinary team to examine the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on deepwater shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico.  One of the primary components for C&C’s focus within this team was to collect AUV and ROV mounted 3D laser and sonar data of the wreck sites.  The shipwrecks ranged in date and type from nineteenth century wooden sailing vessels to twentieth century steel hull military and commercial vessels.  The water depths of these...

  • The Degradation of Wooden- and Steel-Hulled Shipwrecks in the Marine Environment (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only James D. Moore III. Brian A. Jordan.

    A combination of oceanographic processes continuously interact with exposed shipwreck hull surfaces.  Wood degradation primarily occurs when organisms break down cell structures, and marine borers and bacteria are the most common wood degraders found at shipwreck sites.  Wood degradation also depends on other factors including the tree species utilized, level of microbial activity, and site-specific environmental conditions.  In addition, the corrosion of steel-hulled shipwrecks does not occur...

  • Gulf of Mexico SCHEMA: Studying the Effects of a Major Oil Spill on Submerged Cultural Resources. Where Do We Go From Here? (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Leila Hamdan. Melanie Damour. Christopher Horrell.

    As a result of this project, we better understand microbial communities' role in biofilm formation, wood degradation, and metal corrosion in the deep biosphere; however, new questions were raised. More information is needed to understand the ecosystemic role of shipwrecks and long-term impacts from oil spills. The diversity of micro- and macro- infauna and their response to environmental events indicates the suitability of shipwrecks as ecosystem monitoring platforms. Microbial response to...

  • Gulf of Mexico Shipwrecks, Corrosion, Hydrocarbon Exposure, Microbiology, and Archaeology (GOM-SCHEMA): Studying the Effects of a Major Oil Spill on Submerged Cultural Resources (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Melanie Damour. Leila Hamdan. Christopher Horrell.

    Schema, broadly defined, is "a representative framework or plan." After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process began and the scientific community, along with several research consortia, flocked to the Gulf of Mexico to study the spill's impacts. In the fervor of project design, research questions, and the need to understand these impacts on various resources, shipwrecks (another potentially impacted resource) were largely ignored. Through Federal and...

  • Microbial Ecology of Gulf of Mexico Shipwrecks (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Patrick M. Gillevet. Christine McGown. Lisa A. Fitzgerald. Leila Hamdan.

    Microbiomes associated with wooden and steel shipwrecks were investigated using next generation sequencing.  Samples were derived from in situ biofilm monitoring platforms deployed for ~4 months, and sediment collected ~2-5 m from shipwrecks.  The goal of the investigation is to determine rates of recruitment and community structure at sites located within and outside of areas impacted by the Deepwater Horizon spill (DWHS). Sediments will elucidate the influence of shipwrecks on the geochemistry...

  • Morphology and Mineralogy of Consolidated Iron Corrosion Products From Historic Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Brenda J. Little. Tammie L. Gerke. Jason S. Lee. Richard I. Ray.

    Consolidated iron corrosion products (rusticles, tubercles and flakes) were collected from historic shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico before (2004) and after (2014) the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010). In all cases the iron corrosion products were stratified. Goethite and lepidocrocite were identified by powder X-ray diffraction in samples before and after the spill. The internal structure of samples collected before the spill has been examined in detail with environmental scanning electron...

  • Oil and Shipwrecks: An Overview Of Sites Selected For The Deepwater Shipwrecks And Oil Spill Impacts Project (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Daniel J Warren. Robert A Church. Robert Westrick.

    In 2013 and 2014, C & C Technologies, Inc. joined the multidisciplinary team studying the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on deepwater shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico.  C&C’s primary objective is the archaeological analysis of the selected shipwreck sites for the project.  The project shipwrecks include 19th Century wooden hull vessels and 20th Century metal-hull vessels, ranging in water depth from 470 to 4,890 feet below sea level .  This paper will discuss the wreck selection...

  • Outreaching from the Gulf: Video Documentation of the Oil Spill Impacts on Deepwater Shipwrecks (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Dennis I. Aig. Roshan Patel.

    This paper will be written from the perspective of the ten years that passed between the 2004 Deep Gulf Wrecks study and the 2014 BOEM study of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on shipwrecks. What was innovative and unexpected in 2004 has now become expected in 2014. Dr. Dennis Aig, who headed the video unit in 2004, will discuss the basic protocols, now-primitive video equipment, and improvisation involved in the 2004 project to study the wrecks as examples of developing artificial...

  • Providing Outreach that Empowers Teachers and Students to Create Integrated STEM Learning (2015)
    DOCUMENT Citation Only Sheli O. Smith.

    Utilizing the whole experience of a multi-disciplinary expedition to reach teachers and students empowers the recipients.  The Deepwater Shipwrecks and Oil Spill Impact study provided an array of information to teachers and students covering diverse topics from how do folks in the southern tip of Louisiana build homes that survive flooding to what do microorganisms tell us about the impact of the oil spill and shipwrecks they thrive upon.  Getting the information out through multiple channels...