The Roosevelt Community Development Study, Number 14, Volume 1: Stone and Shell Artifacts


The Roosevelt Community Development Study (RCD) involved the testing and excavation of 27 sites in the Lower Tonto Basin of central Arizona. This is one of three related data recovery projects undertaken in the Tonto Basin for the Bureau of Reclamation prior to the raising of the Roosevelt Lake dam. The results of the RCD project are presented in four Anthropological Papers of the Center for Desert Archaeology: Anthropological Papers No. 12 is the research design; Anthropological Papers No. 13 (two volumes) contains background information and the site descriptions; Anthropological Papers No. 14 (three volumes) includes the artifact and environmental analyses; and Anthropological Papers No. 15 presents the synthesis and conclusions.

The project was situated within the Tonto National Forest and covered a four-mile, continuous area along the north bank of the Salt River. Sites within the project area exhibited a great range of functional, temporal, and, possibly, cultural diversity. These sites included two with platform mounds (the Meddler Point and Pyramid Point sites), a 100-room masonry pueblo (the Griffin Wash site), smaller masonry compounds (e.g., the Porcupine site), and pithouse hamlets and farmsteads (e.g., the Hedge Apple and Eagle Ridge sites). Temporal components ranged from the Early Ceramic period (A.D. 100...600) at Locus B of the Eagle Ridge site, through the Roosevelt phase (A.D. 1250-1350) of the Classic period. The Early Ceramic component of the Eagle Ridge site is now the earliest documented ceramic period site in the Tonto Basin and provides definitive evidence for an indigenous ceramic-using population. The project area was the most intensively inhabited during the Roosevelt phase, when platform mounds, large pueblos, and small masonry compounds were occupied. Architectural and artifact variability suggest the presence of several different cultural groups co-residing in the Tonto Basin at this time. The RCD project area was largely abandoned by A.D. 1325, prior to the large-scale aggregation that occurred during the Gila phase; very few Gila Polychrome sherds were recovered from project area sites.

The mandate of the RCD project, as specified by the Bureau of Reclamation, was to investigate the temporal and developmental sequence of the prehistoric populations within this area. To meet these goals, six sites were intensively examined through full-scale excavation, and an extensive data set was gathered from the remaining 21 sites.

The three volumes in Anthropological Papers No. 14 present the artifact and environmental analyses. More than 150,000 artifacts were recovered from the RCD excavations. This volume (Volume 1) includes analyses of the chipped stone (Chapter 1), ground stone (Chapter 2), jewelry and personal ornament (Chapter 3), and shell (Chapter 4) assemblages. The ceramic artifact assemblage is examined in Volume 2, and Volume 3 presents an analysis of the paleobotanical and osteological data. More specific information on the individual sites and the project background can be found in Anthropological Papers No. 13. Anthropological Papers No. 15 integrates and synthesizes these data to provide a more inclusive view of the prehistoric occupation of the RCD project area and the Tonto Basin.

Cite this Record

The Roosevelt Community Development Study, Number 14, Volume 1: Stone and Shell Artifacts. Mark D. Elson, Jeffrey J. Clark. Anthropological Papers ,14, Volume 1. Tucson, AZ: Center for Desert Archaeology. 1995 ( tDAR id: 405610) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8ZK5JH7


Ancestral Puebloan Hohokam Salado

Anodonta californiensis Argillite Argopecten circularis Asbestos Azurite Basalt Calcite Cerithidea sp. Chalcedony Chama sp. Chert Chipped Stone Chrysocolla Conus perplexus Conus regularis Conus sp. Conus ximenes Copper Course-Grained Igneous Rock Course-Grained Metamorphic Rock Cryptocrystalline Material Dentalium neohexagonum Diabase EDXRF Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Show More

Site Name
AZ V:5:1 (ASM) AZ V:5:100 (ASM) AZ V:5:101 (ASM) AZ V:5:103 (ASM) AZ V:5:104 (ASM) AZ V:5:105 (ASM) AZ V:5:106 (ASM) AZ V:5:107 (ASM) AZ V:5:110 (ASM) AZ V:5:122 (ASM) AZ V:5:123 (ASM) AZ V:5:131 (ASM) AZ V:5:176 (ASM) AZ V:5:177 (ASM) AZ V:5:178 (ASM) AZ V:5:189 (ASM) AZ V:5:4 (ASM) AZ V:5:90 (ASM) AZ V:5:91 (ASM) AZ V:5:92 (ASM) AZ V:5:93 (ASM) AZ V:5:94 (ASM) AZ V:5:95 (ASM) AZ V:5:96 (ASM) AZ V:5:97 (ASM) Show More

Site Type
Agricultural or Herding Archaeological Feature Compound Domestic Structure or Architectural Complex Domestic Structures Farmstead Hamlet Hamlet / Village Masonry Room Masonry Roomblock Pit House Pit House / Earth Lodge Platform Mound Resource Extraction / Production / Transportation Structure or Features Roasting Area Room Roomblock Room Block / Compound / Pueblo Settlements Village

Investigation Types
Data Recovery / Excavation

2D Figurine 3D Figurine 3D Pendant Abrader Anvil Architectural Artifact Argillite Disk Argillite Pigment Argillite Polishing Stone Avian-Shaped Pendant Awl Axe Ball Barrel Bead Basalt Handstone Basalt Hoe Basalt Lapstone Basalt Mano Basalt Metate Basalt Polishing Stone Bead Bell Biface Bilobed Bead Blank Show More

Geographic Keywords
Arizona (State / Territory) Lower Tonto Basin Roosevelt Lake Salt River Tonto Basin Tonto National Forest

Temporal Keywords
Ash Creek Phase Classic Period Colonial Period Early Ceramic Early Classic Period Gila Butte Phase Miami Phase Roosevelt Pase Roosevelt Phase Sacaton Phase Santa Cruz Phase Sedentary Period

Temporal Coverage

Calendar Date: 100 to 1350 (Date range of sites with the Roosevelt Community Development Study included in artifact analyses.)

Spatial Coverage

min long: -111.015; min lat: 33.625 ; max long: -110.949; max lat: 33.673 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contact(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

Contributor(s): Jenny L. Adams; Mark D. Elson; Michael Lindeman; M. Steven Shackley; Arthur W. Vokes; Gerald Dawavendewa; Tom Lincoln; Teresa Hoffman; Kathy Pedrick; Jon Czaplicki; Scott Wood; Steve Leksen; Ben Nelson; David Wilcox; Bill Doelle; Dave Gregory; Jim Heidke; Miriam Stark; Henry Wallace; Doug Craig; Helga Teiwes; Marian Rohmann; Ron Beckwith; Becky Quayle-Craig; Jim Holmlund; Trish Castalia; Chip Colwell; Lisa Eppley; Jean Kramer; Sara Lely; Debbie Swartz; Michael Wiley; Donna Breckenridge; Elizabeth Black; Jerry Fallenberg; Catherine Gilman; Irina Hayes; Linda Pearl

Landowner(s): U. S. Forest Service

Sponsor(s): Bureau of Reclamation

Permitting Agency(s): Tonto National Forest

Repository(s): Arizona State University, Center for Archaeology and Society

Submitted To(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Arizona Projects Office

Record Identifiers

Contract No.(s): 1-CS-32-01220


Redaction Note: In the public version of the report: Figure P.1 has been redacted due to the level of detail it contains about site locations. Detailed site features in Figures P.5, P.6, and P.7 have been retained, but geographical information has been redacted.

File Information

  Name Size Creation Date Date Uploaded Access
CCRS-1996-002-The-Roosevelt-Community-Development-Study-No-14-... 7.57mb Jul 25, 2017 3:15:52 PM Confidential
This file is unredacted.
CCRS-1996-002-The-Roosevelt-Community-Development-Study-No-14-... 7.85mb Jul 25, 2017 3:15:52 PM Public
In the public version of the report: Figure P.1 has been redacted due to the level of detail it contains about site locations. Detailed site features in Figures P.5, P.6, and P.7 have been retained, but geographical information has been redacted.

Accessing Restricted Files

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Contact(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office