The Roosevelt Community Development Study, Number 14, Volume 1: Stone and Shell Artifacts
Part of the Roosevelt Community Development Study-Center for Desert Archaeology project
The Roosevelt Community Development Study (RCD) involved the testing and excavation of 27 sites in the Lower Tonto Basin of central Arizona. This is one of three related data recovery projects undertaken in the Tonto Basin for the Bureau of Reclamation prior to the raising of the Roosevelt Lake dam. The results of the RCD project are presented in four Anthropological Papers of the Center for Desert Archaeology: Anthropological Papers No. 12 is the research design; Anthropological Papers No. 13 (two volumes) contains background information and the site descriptions; Anthropological Papers No. 14 (three volumes) includes the artifact and environmental analyses; and Anthropological Papers No. 15 presents the synthesis and conclusions.
The project was situated within the Tonto National Forest and covered a four-mile, continuous area along the north bank of the Salt River. Sites within the project area exhibited a great range of functional, temporal, and, possibly, cultural diversity. These sites included two with platform mounds (the Meddler Point and Pyramid Point sites), a 100-room masonry pueblo (the Griffin Wash site), smaller masonry compounds (e.g., the Porcupine site), and pithouse hamlets and farmsteads (e.g., the Hedge Apple and Eagle Ridge sites). Temporal components ranged from the Early Ceramic period (A.D. 100...600) at Locus B of the Eagle Ridge site, through the Roosevelt phase (A.D. 1250-1350) of the Classic period. The Early Ceramic component of the Eagle Ridge site is now the earliest documented ceramic period site in the Tonto Basin and provides definitive evidence for an indigenous ceramic-using population. The project area was the most intensively inhabited during the Roosevelt phase, when platform mounds, large pueblos, and small masonry compounds were occupied. Architectural and artifact variability suggest the presence of several different cultural groups co-residing in the Tonto Basin at this time. The RCD project area was largely abandoned by A.D. 1325, prior to the large-scale aggregation that occurred during the Gila phase; very few Gila Polychrome sherds were recovered from project area sites.
The mandate of the RCD project, as specified by the Bureau of Reclamation, was to investigate the temporal and developmental sequence of the prehistoric populations within this area. To meet these goals, six sites were intensively examined through full-scale excavation, and an extensive data set was gathered from the remaining 21 sites.
The three volumes in Anthropological Papers No. 14 present the artifact and environmental analyses. More than 150,000 artifacts were recovered from the RCD excavations. This volume (Volume 1) includes analyses of the chipped stone (Chapter 1), ground stone (Chapter 2), jewelry and personal ornament (Chapter 3), and shell (Chapter 4) assemblages. The ceramic artifact assemblage is examined in Volume 2, and Volume 3 presents an analysis of the paleobotanical and osteological data. More specific information on the individual sites and the project background can be found in Anthropological Papers No. 13. Anthropological Papers No. 15 integrates and synthesizes these data to provide a more inclusive view of the prehistoric occupation of the RCD project area and the Tonto Basin.
This Resource is Part of the Following Collections
- Theodore Roosevelt Dam: Roosevelt Community Development Study •
- Theodore Roosevelt Dam and Lake Roosevelt •
- Roosevelt Community Development Study-Center for Desert Archaeology •
- Theodore Roosevelt Dam Archaeological Project •
- Center for Archaeology & Society
Cite this Record
The Roosevelt Community Development Study, Number 14, Volume 1: Stone and Shell Artifacts. Mark D. Elson, Jeffrey J. Clark. Anthropological Papers ,14, Volume 1. Tucson, AZ: Center for Desert Archaeology. 1995 ( tDAR id: 405610) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8ZK5JH7
Anodonta californiensis • Argillite • Argopecten circularis • Asbestos • Azurite • Basalt • Calcite • Cerithidea sp. • Chalcedony • Chama sp. • Chert • Chipped Stone • Chrysocolla • Conus perplexus • Conus regularis • Conus sp. • Conus ximenes • Copper • Course-Grained Igneous Rock • Course-Grained Metamorphic Rock • Cryptocrystalline Material • Dentalium neohexagonum • Diabase • EDXRF • Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence • Fine-Grained Igneous Rock • Fluorite • Freshwater Pelecypod • Freshwater Univalve • Fulgurite • Galena • Glass • Glycymeris gigantea • Glycymeris multicostata • Glycymeris sp. • Gneiss • Granite • Ground Stone • Gypsum • Haliotis cracherodii • Haliotis sp. • Hematite • Igneous Rock • Indurated Limestone • Laevidcardium elatum • Limestone • Limonite • Malachite • Marine Bivalve • Marine Gastropod • Marine Pelecypod • Marine Scaphopod • Marine Shell • Marine Univalve • Metal • Metamorphic Rock • Mineral • Mudstone • Muricanthus nigritus • Muscovite • Nacreous Shell • Nassarius sp. • Obsidian • Oliva sp. • Olivella dama • Olivella sp. • Pecten vogdesi • Pinctada mazatlanka • Quartz • Quartzite • Rhyolite • Schist • Sedimentary Rock • Shell • Soapstone • Specular Hematite • Spondylus sp. • Steatite • Succinea sp. • Terrestrial Gastropod • Terrestrial Univalve • Theodoxus luteofasciatus • Trachycardium sp. • Trivia sp. • Turquoise • Turritella leucostoma • Turritella sp. • Vermetidae • Vesicular Basalt • Volcanic Ash • Welded Tuff
AZ V:5:1 (ASM) • AZ V:5:100 (ASM) • AZ V:5:101 (ASM) • AZ V:5:103 (ASM) • AZ V:5:104 (ASM) • AZ V:5:105 (ASM) • AZ V:5:106 (ASM) • AZ V:5:107 (ASM) • AZ V:5:110 (ASM) • AZ V:5:122 (ASM) • AZ V:5:123 (ASM) • AZ V:5:131 (ASM) • AZ V:5:176 (ASM) • AZ V:5:177 (ASM) • AZ V:5:178 (ASM) • AZ V:5:189 (ASM) • AZ V:5:4 (ASM) • AZ V:5:90 (ASM) • AZ V:5:91 (ASM) • AZ V:5:92 (ASM) • AZ V:5:93 (ASM) • AZ V:5:94 (ASM) • AZ V:5:95 (ASM) • AZ V:5:96 (ASM) • AZ V:5:97 (ASM) • AZ V:5:98 (ASM) • AZ V:5:99 (ASM) • Eagle Ridge • Griffin Wash • Hedge Apple • Las Manos • Meddler Point • Porcupine • Pyramid Point
Agricultural or Herding • Archaeological Feature • Compound • Domestic Structure or Architectural Complex • Domestic Structures • Farmstead • Hamlet • Hamlet / Village • Masonry Room • Masonry Roomblock • Pit House • Pit House / Earth Lodge • Platform Mound • Resource Extraction / Production / Transportation Structure or Features • Roasting Area • Room • Roomblock • Room Block / Compound / Pueblo • Settlements • Village
Data Recovery / Excavation
2D Figurine • 3D Figurine • 3D Pendant • Abrader • Anvil • Architectural Artifact • Argillite Disk • Argillite Pigment • Argillite Polishing Stone • Avian-Shaped Pendant • Awl • Axe • Ball • Barrel Bead • Basalt Handstone • Basalt Hoe • Basalt Lapstone • Basalt Mano • Basalt Metate • Basalt Polishing Stone • Bead • Bell • Biface • Bilobed Bead • Blank • Bowl • Bracelet • Button • Buzzer • Carved Anodonta • Carved Shell • Censer • Chisel • Chopper • Copper Bell • Core • Cut Shell Pendant • Debitage • Denticulate • Diabase Abrader • Diabase Axe • Diabase Handstone • Diabase Lapstone • Diabase Mano • Diabase Maul • Diabase Netherstone • Diabase Pestle • Diabase Polishing Stone • Diamond-Shaped Pendant • Disk • Disk Bead • Drill • Earring • Fergolith • Figurine • Flake • Flaked Tool • Flat Pendant • Gneiss Disk • Gneiss Pestle • Gneiss Polishing Stone • Gniess Palette • Granite Handstone • Granite Mano • Graver • Grinding Slab • Grooved Rhyolite • Grooved Stone • Hammerstone • Handstone • Hematite Pigment • Hoe • Knife • Lapstone • Limestone Abrader • Limestone Handstone • Limestone Mano • Limestone Polishing Stone • Limonite Pigment • Lizard-Shaped Pendant • Malachite Pigment • Mano • Maul • Medallion • Metate • Mosaic Pendant • Natural-Shaped Ground Stone • Necklace • Netherstone • Nose Ring • Obsidian Biface • Obsidian Debitage • Obsidian Flake • Obsidian Graver • Obsidian Projectile Point • Oval Pendant • Painted Shell • Palette • Pendant • Perforated Shell • Pigment • Plane • Polishing Stone • Projectile Point • Quadruped-Shaped Pendant • Quartzite Abrader • Quartzite Grinding Slab • Quartzite Handstone • Quartzite Lapstone • Quartzite Mano • Quartzite Pestle • Quartzite Polishing Stone • Quartz Polishing Stone • Reamer • Rectangular Pendant • Rhyolite Bowl • Rhyolite Grinding Slab • Rhyolite Handstone • Rhyolite Lapstone • Rhyolite Mano • Rhyolite Metate • Rhyolite Netherstone • Rhyolite Pestle • Ring • Schist Disk • Schist Palette • Schist Pestle • Schist Polishing Stone • Scraper • Shaped Stone • Shell Awl • Shell Bead • Shell Bracelet • Shell Pendant • Shell Ring • Shell Tinkler • Slab • Snake-Shaped Pendant • Spokeshave • Steatite Abrader • Steatite Bead • Steatite Censer • Steatite Disk • Steatite Polishing Stone • Steatite Ring • Tessera • Toggle • Tool • Triangular Pendant • Tube Bead • Turquoise Pigment • Utilized Flake • Washer-Shaped Pendant • Welded Tuff Bowl • Welded Tuff Mano • Welded Tuff Polishing Stone • Zoomorphic Bead • Zoomorphic Pendant
Ash Creek Phase • Classic Period • Colonial Period • Early Ceramic • Early Classic Period • Gila Butte Phase • Miami Phase • Roosevelt Pase • Roosevelt Phase • Sacaton Phase • Santa Cruz Phase • Sedentary Period
Calendar Date: 100 to 1350 (Date range of sites with the Roosevelt Community Development Study included in artifact analyses.)
min long: -111.015; min lat: 33.625 ; max long: -110.949; max lat: 33.673 ;
Individual & Institutional Roles
Contact(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office
Contributor(s): Jenny L. Adams ; Mark D. Elson ; Michael Lindeman ; M. Steven Shackley ; Arthur W. Vokes ; Gerald Dawavendewa ; Tom Lincoln ; Teresa Hoffman ; Kathy Pedrick ; Jon Czaplicki ; Scott Wood ; Steve Leksen ; Ben Nelson ; David Wilcox ; Bill Doelle ; Dave Gregory ; Jim Heidke ; Miriam Stark ; Henry Wallace ; Doug Craig ; Helga Teiwes ; Marian Rohmann ; Ron Beckwith ; Becky Quayle-Craig ; Jim Holmlund ; Trish Castalia ; Chip Colwell ; Lisa Eppley ; Jean Kramer ; Sara Lely ; Debbie Swartz ; Michael Wiley ; Donna Breckenridge ; Elizabeth Black ; Jerry Fallenberg ; Catherine Gilman ; Irina Hayes ; Linda Pearl
Landowner(s): U. S. Forest Service
Sponsor(s): Bureau of Reclamation
Permitting Agency(s): Tonto National Forest
Repository(s): Arizona State University, Center for Archaeology and Society
Submitted To(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Arizona Projects Office
Contract No.(s): 1-CS-32-01220
Redaction Note: In the public version of the report: Figure P.1 has been redacted due to the level of detail it contains about site locations. Detailed site features in Figures P.5, P.6, and P.7 have been retained, but geographical information has been redacted.
|Name||Size||Creation Date||Date Uploaded||Access|
|CCRS-1996-002-The-Roosevelt-Community-Development-Study-No-14-...||7.57mb||Jul 25, 2017 3:15:52 PM||Confidential|
|This file is unredacted.|
|CCRS-1996-002-The-Roosevelt-Community-Development-Study-No-14-...||7.85mb||Jul 25, 2017 3:15:52 PM||Public|
|In the public version of the report: Figure P.1 has been redacted due to the level of detail it contains about site locations. Detailed site features in Figures P.5, P.6, and P.7 have been retained, but geographical information has been redacted.|