Unit 14_BG23_Demography & Paleopathology

Summary

Pueblo Grande demography/paleopathology data sets are by burial group (BG) under each project heading. If the burial group for a feature is unknown, the data are identified only at the project area or stripping area level. Data contained include age, sex, stature, and presence/absence of various indicators of stress and infectious disease listing elements affected. Stature estimates (when preservation allowed for measurements of femur and/or tibia length) were calculated using corrected regression formulae (del Angel and Cisneros, 2004) originally derived by Genoves (1967). Indication of presence/absence of some diseases (e.g., scurvy, rickets, tuberculsosis, coccidioidomycosis, treponematosis) is followed by presence/absence information of specific skeletal indicators associated with that disease (e.g., bowed long bones, vertebral lytic lesions, caries sicca).

This particular data set is for BG 23, which includes information on 230 burial features.

del Angel A, Cisneros HB. 2004. Technical note: modification of regression equations used to estimate stature in Mesoamerican skeletal remains. Am J Phys Anthropol 125:264-265.

Genoves S. 1967. Proportionality of long bones and their relationship to stature among Mesoamericans. Am J Phys Anthropol 26:67-77.

Cite this Record

Unit 14_BG23_Demography & Paleopathology. Rebecca Hill. 2011 ( tDAR id: 394756) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8HH6M67

Restricted Access Some or all of this resource's attached file(s) are not publicly accessible. They will be released on Mar 27, 2020

Data Set Structure

Measurement Column
Count Column
Coded Column
Filename Column
Integration Column (has Ontology)

Table Information: PG_paleopath

Column Name Data Type Type Category Coding Sheet Ontology
Cortex to Diploe Ratio The ratio of cortical bone to diploe in the cranium measured in millimeters. This measure is used to determine the presence/absence of abnormal cranial thickness, a possible indication of anemic condition.
VARCHAR  Measurement (millimeter) Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma none none
Extreme Frontal & Parietal Bossing Indicates the presence/absence of extreme frontal & parietal bossing. This is one of the criteria useful in diagnosing rickets.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Burial Type Indicates burial type, such as inhumation or cremation (primary, secondary).
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Burial : Body Preparation Soil Systems, Inc. Pueblo Grande Burial Types Coding Sheet none
Anterior Teeth Present Indicates the number of observable permanent anterior teeth, specifically the maxillary incisors and both maxillary and mandibular canines.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Enamel Defects none none
Anterior Teeth Affected Indicates presence/absence of enamel hypoplasia in permanent anterior teeth, specifically the maxillary central incisors and both maxillary and mandibular canines.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Dental : Enamel Defects Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Cribira Orbitalia - porotic Indicates the presence/absence of porotic cribra orbitalia, a possible indicator of malnutrition (i.e., iron-deficiency anemia or rickets).
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Cribra Orbitalia - proliferative Indicates the presence/absence of proliferative cribra orbitalia, a possible indicator of malnutrition (i.e., iron deficiency anemia or scurvy).
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
vertebral lytic lesions Indicates the presence/absence of vertebral lytic lesions, which may be an indicator of tuberculosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Coccidioidomycosis Indicates presence/absence of coccidioidomycosis based on criteria such as vertebral lytic lesions, lytic lesions on bony prominenences, "scooped out" lytic lesions of the hands & feet, and pathological fractures.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
single element affected Indicates the presence/absence of only a single element affected by periostitis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Multiple elements affected Indicates the presence/absence of multiple elements affected by periostitis in an individual.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Bilateral/symmetrical - periostitis Indicates presence/absence of bilateral or symmetrical involvement in cases of periostitis. Information could be useful in differential diagnosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
osteomyeltis Indicates the presence/absence of osteomyelitis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Feature Number The feature number assigned to the burial.
DOUBLE  Uncoded Value Human Burial none none
Age Indicates age range category.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Age Soil Systems, Inc. Pueblo Grande Age at death coding sheet none
Enamel Hypoplasia Indicates presence/absence of enamel hypoplasia.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Dental : Enamel Defects Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Dental Caries Indicates the presence/absence of dental caries.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
# Maxillary With Pulp Exposed Indicates number of carious maxillary teeth that have the pulp chamber exposed.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies none none
#Mandibular with Pulp Exposed Indicates number of carious mandibular teeth that have the pulp chamber exposed.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies none none
Dental Abscess Indicates the presence/absence of dental abscesses.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
#Maxillary Teeth Lost Indicates the number of permanent maxillary teeth lost antemortem.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies none none
Porotic Hyperostosis Indicates the presence/absence of porotic hyperostosis. In individuals less than 15 years of age, the presence of porotic hyperostosis may indicate an anemic condition.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Ectocranial Porosity Indicates the presence/absence of ectocranial porosity in adults, which may be an indicator of an anemic condition.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Angular rib "beading" Indicates presence/absence of angular rib "beading," a product of pathological fractures, as one of the criteria for diagnosing scurvy.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Rickets Indicates the presence/absence of rickets, which may be indicated by porotic cribra orbitalia, cupped long bone metaphyses, knobby "beading" of the ribs, bowed long bones, extreme flattening of the occipital, and extreme frontal and parietal bossing.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Tuberculosis Indicates the presence/absence of tuberculosis, based on the following criteria: vertebral lytic lesions, vertebral collapse, kyphosis, rib nodules or plaques, pleural plaques, and joint destruction.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
vertebral collapse Indicates the presence/absence of vertebral collapse, a diagnostic criterion of tuberculosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
kyphosis Indicates the presence/absence of vertebral kyphosis, a diagnostic criterion for tuberculosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
rib nodules or plaques Indicates the presence/absence of nodules or plaques on the ribs, which may be an indicator of tuberculosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
pleural plaques Indicates the presence/absence of pleural plaques recovered from within the rib cage, which may be an indicator of tuberculosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
joint destruction - TB Indicates the presence/absence of joint destruction in association with tuberculosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Treponematosis Indicates the presence/absence of treponematosis, based on the following criteria: caries sicca, postcranial focal cavitations, exuberant new bone growth, saber shins, and joint destruction.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
caries sicca Indicates the presence/absence of caries sicca, cranial lesions diagnostic of treponematosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Focal cavitations - infracranial Indicates the presence/absence of focal cavitations in the postcranial (or infracranial) elements. This is a criteria used in diagnosing treponematosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Exuberant new bone growth Indicates the presence/absence of exuberant new bone growth, which is useful in diagnosing treponematosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
lattice-like bone growth Indicates whether or not the exuberant new bone growth is "lattice-like," which may be an indicator of treponematosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Bilateral/symmetrical Indicates presence/absence of bilateral or symmetrical involvement of exuberant new bone growth in potential cases of treponematosis. Information could be useful in differential diagnosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Saber shins Indicates the presence/absence of "saber shins," which is useful in diagnosisng treponematosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
joint destruction - trep Indicates the presence/absence of joint destruction in association with treponematosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
vertebral lytic lesions - cocci Indicates the presence/absence of vertebral lytic lesions, which may be an indicator of coccidioidomycosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
lesions on bony prominences Indicates the presence/absence of lytic lesions on bony prominences (e.g., coracoid or acromion of scapula), which may be useful in diagnosing coccidioidomycosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
"Scooped out" lesions on hands & feet Indicates presence/absence of lytic lesions on hand & foot elements that appear to be "scooped out." This is one of the criteria used in diagnosing coccidiodomycosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
pathological fractures - cocci Indicates the presence/absence of pathological fractures associated with coccidioidomycosis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Periostitis - nonspecific Indicates the presence/absence of periostitis of unknown etiology.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Sinusitis Indicates the presence/absence of maxillary sinusitis. This could only be evaluated in individuals with a fortuitous break of the maxilla. No scoping of sinuses was undertaken for intact specimens.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
meningitis Indicates the presence/absence of evidence of meningitis.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
#Mandibular Teeth Lost Indicates the number of permanent mandibular teeth lost antemortem.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies none none
Elements Affected Lists the elements displaying exuberant bone growth, which is one of the criteria for diagnosing treponematosis.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma none none
Elements afffected - TB Lists elements that have potential diagnostic lesions of tuberculosis.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma none none
#Maxillary positions affected Indicates number of maxillary alveolar spaces displaying abscesses.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies none none
Elements affected - periostitis Lists elements displaying periosteal reaction.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma none none
# Maxillary Teeth Affected Indicates the number of maxillary teeth displaying dental caries.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies none none
Sex Sex identification cateogry.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Sex Soil Systems, Inc. Pueblo Grande Sex Identification Coding Sheet none
#Mandibular positions affected Indicates the number of alveolor spaces displaying abscesses.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies none none
Antemortem Tooth Loss Indicates the presence/absence of antemortem tooth loss.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Consult other notes? Indicates if researcher needs to consult original documentation for other notes/illustrations regarding a pathological condition.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. True/False Coding Sheet none
Porotic sphenoid greater wing Indicates the presence/absence of porosity on the greater wings of the sphenoid. This may be an indicator of scurvy.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Stature (Femur) Stature estimate based on maximum length of the femur. Regression formulae used were the corrected versions (del Angel & Cisneros 2004) of the Genoves (1967) equations.
DOUBLE  Measurement (centimeter) Human Skeletal : Measurement none none
#Mandibular Teeth Affected Indicates the number of mandibular teeth with dental caries.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Dental Pathologies none none
Total Number of Teeth Observable Number of teeth present.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Human Dental : Count none none
Stature (Tibia) Stature estimate based on the maximum length of the tibia.Regression formulae used were the corrected versions (del Angel & Cisneros 2004) of the Genoves (1967) equations.
DOUBLE  Measurement (centimeter) Human Skeletal : Measurement none none
Extreme Flattening of Occipital Indicates presence/absence of extreme occipital flattening beyond normal cultural cranial modification. This is one of the criteria used in diagnosing rickets.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Bowed Long Bones Indicates presence/absence of bowing in long bones, which is one of the criteria useful in diagnosing rickets.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Cupped Long Bone Metaphyses Indicates the presence/absence of cupped long bone metaphyses or flared metaphyses often found in cases of rickets.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Abnormal Cranial Thickness Indicates presence/absence of abnormal cranial thickness in adults, perhaps an indication of an anemic condition. Presence of abnormal cranial thickness is indicated by a cortex to diploe ratio greater than 1:2.3, which is based on a clinical study by Reynolds (1962). This measure was first applied to the adult inhumed individuals from the Pueblo Grande Hohokam Expressway Project.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Burial Group Indicates the burial group number where this particular individual was found.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Human Burial none none
Knobby Rib "Beading" Indicates presence/absence of knobby rib "beading," produced by the flaring of the sternal end of the ribs. This is potentially useful in diagnosing rickets.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Pathological Fractures - scurvy Indicates the presence/absence of pathological fractures that may help diagnose scurvy.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Periostitis from Hematoma Indicates the presence/absence of periostitis caused by internal bleeding. This is useful in diagnosing scurvy.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Scurvy Indicates the presence/absence of scurvy, which may be indicated by proliferative cribra orbitalia, porosity of the sphenoid greater wings, angular "beading" of the ribs, pathological fractures, and periostitis as the result of hematoma.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Skeletal : Pathologies/Trauma Soil Systems, Inc. Presence/Absence Coding Sheet none
Time Period Time period assignment based on ceramic seriation.
VARCHAR  Coded Value Human Burial Soil Systems, Inc. Pueblo Grande Burial Time Period Assignments Coding Sheet none
. Alveoli observed BIGINT  Uncoded Value uncategorized none none

Spatial Coverage

min long: -111.995; min lat: 33.429 ; max long: -111.964; max lat: 33.469 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contact(s): Rebecca Hill

Principal Investigator(s): Cory D. Breternitz

Project Director(s): Banks L. Leonard

Prepared By(s): Soil Systems, Inc.

Submitted To(s): SunAmerica, Inc.

Record Identifiers

Soil Systems Project No.(s): 97-24

Notes

General Note: Please note that SSI recorded the Pueblo Grande number as AZ U:9:7(ASM), which is the designation for a portion of Pueblo Grande. The correct number for the site as a whole is AZ U:9:1(ASM).

File Information

  Name Size Creation Date Date Uploaded Access
Unit-14_BG23_PG-paleopath.xlsx 70.28kb Mar 29, 2015 Mar 29, 2015 3:01:37 PM Embargoed Five Years
Demography & paleopathology data for BG23, Unit 14, Pueblo Grande
  • Translated version Unit-14_BG23_PG-paleopath_translated.xls (391.50kb)
    Data column(s) in this dataset have been associated with coding sheet(s) and translated:
  • Accessing Restricted Files

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    Contact(s): Rebecca Hill