Macrobotanical Remains

Part of the Dolores Archaeological Program project

Year: 1985

Summary

The DAP research design was structured to systematically address broad domains of inquiry that encompass economy and adaptation, paleodemography, social organization, extra-regional relationships, and cultural process. The variables used in the botanical datasets represent the various lines of evidence needed to mitigate “bioturbation, preservation, and sampling biases” and establish the “case for cultural association of botanical remains preserved in the archaeological record” (Petersen, Clay et al. 1986:99). These details were an important avenue for achieving “a better understanding of the relationships between prehistoric people and their environment” and were absolutely critical in reconstructing the availability of these resources “in fulfilling the nutritional, medicinal, ceremonial, and material needs of the Anaszai” (Petersen, Matthews et al. 1986: 150).

These mid-level research goals were partially accomplished under the direction of Bruce Benz, as head of the Environmental Studies Group (ESG). Before being re-assembled into the Environmental Archaeology Group (EAG) in 1981, the ESG worked towards building a collection of contemporary environmental data that would provide the framework for any investigation of “prehistoric lifeways, processes, and ecological adaptations in the Dolores River valley” (Petersen, Clay et al. 1986:95). As director of the EAG from 1981 to 1985, Kenneth Petersen approached the general goals of the DAP from the archaeological record. During this time, Meredith Matthews conducted botanical research and supporting geological and faunal studies were respectively provided by crew chiefs Vickie Clay and Sarah Neusius.

The complete DAP botanical database is separated into two sizes classes; one containing the microbotanical remains of pollen grains and opal phytoliths (POLLEN10 dataset); and a second, larger class dominated by the charred remnants of structural materials and potential fuel sources (Petersen, Clay et al. 1986:101), but also including beans, corn kernels, and composite artifacts (MACRO10 and POLLEN10 datasets). Although these larger vegetal remains were consistently recovered in the course of excavation, several specimens have also been procured through flotation processing of bulk soil samples and can be identified among the macrobotanical datasets.

Variables in the macrobotanical dataset have been described by Wilshusen et al. (1999); see especially the section in Chapter 3 entitled "Botanical Resources" by Joel Tyberg. In most cases, his descriptions are suitable for use as metadata and have been repeated almost verbatim here. Selected resources from the collection of published and unpublished DAP reports may have been used for clarification in some cases and will be appropriately referenced.

Cite this Record

Macrobotanical Remains. 1985 ( tDAR id: 6161) ; doi:10.6067/XCV86Q1WJ3

Data Set Structure

Measurement Column
Count Column
Coded Column
Filename Column
Integration Column (has Ontology)

Table Information: dap-macro10

Column Name Data Type Type Category Coding Sheet Ontology
fs The most basic type of provenience data recorded for all information obtained during DAP fieldwork is the field specimen number. These values are sequentially assigned to unique vertical and horizontal locations within each site.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Provenience and Context : Context none none
cobjectid The Anasazi Heritage Center has given each specimen three unique codes, including cobjectid, to facilitate management of their DAP collections. Since this value is used in association with the AHC ARGUS database for tracking the location of a record, it is important for any researcher requesting objects from the curator.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Lookup : Code none none
ssno The special specimen number values are assigned sequentially within each site to indicate items recovered as isolated finds, or while processing samples such as bulk soil collections.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Lookup : Code none none
quant This variable specifies the quantity of items in each record.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Count none none
process This variable indicates the method used to recover each record and the number of times the record was subjected to that process.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Provenience and Context : Recovery Method none none
pl The point location variable is a subdivision of the field specimen number that denotes an item or group of items of a significant type and/or context.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Provenience and Context : Context none none
whole This variable is a rough measure of the completeness of a record.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Other none none
taxon1 This modified version of the taxon variable is recoded so that scientific names are listed alphabetically.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Taxon none none
csiteid The Anasazi Heritage Center has given each specimen three unique codes, including csiteid, to facilitate management of their DAP collections. This value denotes the entry's corresponding Smithsonian site number.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Provenience and Context : Horizontal Location none none
conf This variable refers to the degree of confidence with which DAP analysts assessed each record.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Other none none
commnt2 DAP analysts were able to select from a range of fifty comments if additional description of an entry was necessary.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Other none none
taxon This variable indicates the scientific name of each record.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Taxon none none
commnt1 DAP analysts were able to select from a range of fifty comments if additional description of an entry was necessary.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Other none none
sstype The special specimen type indicates whether items were recovered as isolated finds, or while processing samples such as bulk soil collections.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Provenience and Context : Recovery Method none none
charred This variable indicates the degree of charring on a specimen, if present.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Other none none
caccnid The Anasazi Heritage Center has given each specimen three unique codes, including caccnid, to facilitate management of their DAP collections. The first digits of this value indicate the year that it was accessioned.
DOUBLE  Uncoded Value Lookup : Code none none
site Site number refers only to the sequential position of a site within a single Smithsonian state and county designation. To obtain a full site number for any entry, this value must be appended to the Smithsonian state and county designation.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Provenience and Context : Horizontal Location none none
cdept The Anasazi Heritage Center has given each specimen three unique codes, including cdept, to facilitate management of their DAP collections. This value specifies the tool department to which each record belongs.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Lookup : Code none none
frag This variable indicates that the specimen is a fragment.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value uncategorized none none
stco To obtain a full site designation for any entry, append the Smithsonian site number to this variable.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Provenience and Context : Horizontal Location none none
parts DAP analysts selected from 32 possible values when describing the parts of a plant represented by each record.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Other none none
catno A unique catalog item number used by DAP analysts, for identification in the laboratory.
BIGINT  Uncoded Value Lookup : Code none none
damage DAP analysts were able to select from ten values when describing the damage sustained by a particular record.
VARCHAR  Uncoded Value Macrobotanical : Other none none

Spatial Coverage

min long: -108.59; min lat: 37.47 ; max long: -108.5; max lat: 37.57 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contributor(s): Meredith H. Matthews; Vickie L. Clay

Lab Director(s): Bruce Benz; Kenneth L. Petersen; Sarah Neusius

Record Identifiers

Bureau of Reclamation(s): 8-07-40-S0562

Notes

General Note: Variables indicating the family, genus, and species of each specimen were removed. Translation of these DAP coded values was not possible with the resources available.

Source Collections

DAP collections are curated at the Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, CO

File Information

  Name Size Creation Date Date Uploaded Access
dap-macro10.csv 5.31mb Jul 30, 2012 2:59:36 PM Public