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The Dolores Archaeological Program

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Summary

From 1978 until 1985 the University of Colorado contracted with the Bureau of Reclamation (Contract No. 8-07-40-S0562) to mitigate the adverse impact of a large water impoundment project on the cultural resources in the project area. This complex and evolving long-term mitigation plan known as the Dolores Archaeological Program (DAP) has been called a “truly unique chapter in American archaeology” (Breternitz 1993:118) and was applauded by Lipe (1998:2) for its ability to “increase the power and efficiency of archaeological methods”.

Data and materials from the DAP and other Dolores Project contracts are curated by the Anasazi Heritage Center (AHC) through an agreement between the Bureau of Reclamation, the Bureau of Land Management, and the President’s Advisory Council. This facility has been an important means of disseminating DAP findings to general public and greater Southwestern archaeological community (Lipe 1998; Sebastian and Lipe 2009).

Since the program’s completion in 1985, the DAP has continued to provide archaeologists with a platform for understanding prehistoric culture change at local and regional levels as well as a model for structuring large-scale archaeological investigations. Recent examples of the DAP’s legacy include Schachner’s (2010) treatment of corporate groups and social differentiation in the context of pithouse-to-pueblo transition ca. A.D. 700 to 900 and Kohler and Reed’s (2011) examination of Pueblo I period village development. The consistency and quality of the DAP database that have enabled it to remain an invaluable research tool even today were made possible by a great deal of forethought and planning in the way archaeological observations were documented (Wilshusen et al. 1999).

The DAP research design was structured to systematically address broad domains of inquiry that encompass economy and adaptation, paleodemography, social organization, extraregional relationships, and cultural processes. Mid-level research designs and supporting studies were employed by task specialists in additive and reductive technologies, environmental archaeology, and survey to address more specific problem domains.

Since field and laboratory research focused on the explanation of cultural process for the prehistoric Ancestral Puebloan population of the Dolores River valley, new conventions and terminology was required to describe spatial and temporal variability that was unique to the Dolores data. These sets of archaeological units, or DAP systematics, provide a common frame of reference for the project analytical and field staffs. Due to the specific nature of this system, researchers are encouraged to consult the Final Synthetic Report of the DAP (Breternitz et al. 1986) before attempting to use DAP databases.


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Cite this Record

The Dolores Archaeological Program. ( tDAR id: 5398) ; doi:10.6067/XCV80G3MNH


Keywords


Spatial Coverage

min long: -108.59; min lat: 37.47 ; max long: -108.5; max lat: 37.57 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contributor(s): Alexis A. Hamilton ; Donald Howes ; Katherine S. Miller ; Jane A. Ward ; Barbara J. Cullington ; David H. Greenwald ; Lora VanRenselaar ; Ricky R. Lightfoot ; Joseph W. Studer ; Judith A. Southward ; Laurie A. Whiting ; Douglas, A. Goulding ; Sarah H. Schlanger ; Dorin E. Steele ; Vickie L. Clay ; Stacy A. Story ; Lynn L. Udick ; Craig F. Woodman ; Robert P. Ryan ; Phyllis A. Wolf ; Douglas, D. Dykeman ; Cathy J. Watts ; Kristin A. Kuckelman ; Raymond G Harriman ; Gregory C. Nelson ; Phillip D. Neusius ; Adrian S. White ; Melissa Gould ; Louise M. Schmidlap ; Patrick F. Hogan ; Arthur L. Rohr ; Rita Arnett ; Karen Dohm ; Alice M. Emerson ; Rysta E. Frederick ; Gail G. Snyder ; Patrick Harden ; Mary C. Etzkron ; J. Holly Hathaway ; Susan E. King ; Thirza D. Kennedy ; Nancy J. Hewitt ; Linda P. Hart ; Steven R. Dominquez ; Richard H. Wilshusen ; John P. McCarthy ; Meredith H. Matthews ; Jane L. Epstein ; Gary A. Brown ; T. Homer Hurby ; Anne M. Wolley ; Maxine M Morris ; Michael J. Hilton ; Charlotte L. Benson ; John R. Stein ; John L. Montgomery ; James H. Kleidon ; Judith L. Burk ; Carla M. Hoehn ; Hal D. Carr ; Carolyn R. Orth ; Scott E. Travis ; Maureen C. Cavanaugh ; Ivy G. Doak ; Joel M. Brisbin ; Bertand A. de Peyer ; Robert M.R. Waterworth ; Ross C. Fields ; Cory Dale Breternitz ; Thomas C. May ; Mark Varien ; Richard V. N. Ahlstrom ; M. Edward Bussard ; G. Timothy Gross ; C. Dean Wilson ; James Morris ; Margaret G. Meador ; Richard W. Yarnell ; Lynn E. Sebastian ; Ruthann Knudson ; Sarah Neusius

Field Director(s): Gay Ives ; Mark A. Stiger ; Roger N. Walkenhorst

Lab Director(s): Janet D. Orcutt ; Carl J. Phagen ; John P. Bloom ; William A. Luscius ; Deborah A. Duranceau ; Kenneth L. Petersen ; Roger A. Moore ; Paul J. Farley ; John P. Nylander ; Eric Blinman ; Bruce Benz

Principal Investigator(s): Robert A. Bye ; David A. Breternitz ; Allen E. Kane ; Timothy A. Kohler ; William D. Lipe

Project Director(s): Christine K. Robinson ; Steven E. James

Sponsor(s): Bureau of Reclamation

Repository(s): Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, Co

Submitted To(s): Bureau of Reclamation


Record Identifiers

Bureau of Reclamation(s): 8-07-40-S0562

Source Collections

Anasazi Heritage Center

Resources Inside this Project (Viewing 1-41 of 41)

Documents

  1. Additive Technologies Group Midlevel Research Design (1983)
    DOCUMENT Eric Blinman.

    This document is an extension of work begun by William A. Lucius, and its substance owes much to his foresight in the design of the Dolores Archaeological Program ceramic analysis system. Scott Travis authored a draft research design for ceramics which was helpful during the writing of portions of the present version. Dean Wilson and Rob Waterworth provided intense discussions of the interpretation of ceramic data, and their arguments and ideas have shaped and continue to shape...

  2. Dolores Archaeological Program Technical Reports: Additive Technologies (1984)
    DOCUMENT Eric Blinman. C. Dean Wilson. Robert M.R. Waterworth. Mary P. Errickson. Linda P. Hart.

    The Additive Technologies Group of the Dolores Archaeological Program is responsible for Inventory and descriptive analyses of ceramic end worked vegetal materials that are recovered as part of archaeological surveys end excavations. Procedures for the analysls of ceramic materials were established In 1978 by William A. Lucius and have been implemented, with some changes, through 1984. The ceramics analysis system records temper, selected technological attributes, vessel form class, traditional...

  3. Dolores Archaeological Program: Aceramic and Late Occupations at Dolores (1988)
    DOCUMENT Timothy Gross. Allen E. Kane.

    The area to be impacted by the Dolores Project, a large water storage and distribution system in southwestern Colorado, was intensively occupied during the Basketmaker III and Pueblo I periods (approximately A.D. 600 to 900). Although the efforts of the Dolores Archaeological Program to mitigate the loss of archaeological resources in the area have focused on sites associated with the main occupations, sites belonging to periods other than those of the densest occupation have been investigated...

  4. Dolores Archaeological Program: Anasazi Communities at Dolores: Early Small Settlements in the Dolores River Canyon and Western Sagehen Flats (1986)
    DOCUMENT Timothy A. Kohler. William D. Lipe. Allen E. Kane.

    This volume reports a series of investigations in the Dolores River canyon and the western Sagehen Flats area of the Dolores Project. Included in the collection are an overview of the Grass Mesa Locality (with a summary of Dolores Archaeological Program systematics), the results of the 1979-1980 Grass Mesa Locality Testing Program, and 6 site reports that describe excavations undertaken between 1979 and 1983. The excavated sites reported include: (l) LeMoc Shelter (5MT2151), which exposed 5...

  5. Dolores Archaeological Program: Anasazi Communities at Dolores: Grass Mesa Village (1988)
    DOCUMENT William D. Lipe. James N. Morris. Timothy A. Kohler.

    Grass Mesa Village (5MT23) is located in the Dolores River canyon at the juncture of Beaver Creek and the Dolores River. Fieldwork consisted of an intensive surface collection, a magnetometer survey, a probability sample of test pits, extensive exploralory trenching, and intensive block excavations. Work was done in the 1979, 1980, 1982, and 1983 field seasons by Washington State University, under a subcontract from the University of Colorado, as part of the Dolores Archaeological Program....

  6. Dolores Archaeological Program: Anasazi Communities at Dolores: McPhee Village (1988)
    DOCUMENT Allen E. Kane. C. K. Robinson.

    Over the span of the Dolores Archaeological Program a major portion of field mitigation efforts focused on McPhee Village, a large aggregated complex of domestic room block units and ceremonial architecture in the Dolores River valley about 7 km south of the McPhee damsite, Montezuma County, Colorado. This volume presents site-specific descriptions of the field investigations and the subsequent laboratory analyses. The first section includes the definition of the village and its natural and...

  7. Dolores Archaeological Program: Anasazi Communities at Dolores: Middle Canyon Area (1986)
    DOCUMENT Allen E. Kane. Christine K. Robinson.

    This volume is a collection of published reports from the Middle Canyon area of the Dolores Project in southwestern Colorado. Included in the volume are 4 site reports and 3 analytical chapters produced by the Dolores Archaeological Program. This volume includes information on the environmental setting of the Middle Canyon area, a summary of Dolores Archaeological Program systematics, and a brief description of Dolores cultural history.

  8. Dolores Archaeological Program: Anaszai Communities at Dolores: Early Anasazi Sites in the Sagehen Flats Area (1986)
    DOCUMENT Allen E. Kane. G. Timothy Gross.

    During the 1979 field season, 9 sites were excavated. This was to provide information about the Sagehen Flats Locality during the Sagehen Phase. Investigation revealed 5 were limited activity sites and 4 were hamlets. Tres Bobos, Site 5MT4545, is a Basketmaker III habitation. Excavations discovered 1 pithouse and 14 surface rooms. Tres Bobos was occupied between A.D. 600-850. Apricot Hamlet, Site 5MT2858, is a multiple occupation Basketmaker III/Pueblo I site. Excavations revealed a pithouse and...

  9. Dolores Archaeological Program: Field Investigations and Analysis - 1978 (1983)
    DOCUMENT D. A. Breternitz.

    This report presents the results of the Dolores Archaeological Program's initial (1978) field season. The Dolores Archaeological Program was funded by the Bureau of Reclamation as part of the Dolores Project Cultural Resource Mitigation Program, which is responsible for the mitigation of impacts to the cultural resources to be affected by the construction of a multipurpose water storage and distribution system on the Dolores River in Montezuma County, southwestern Colorado. The chapters in...

  10. Dolores Archaeological Program: Final Synthetic Report (1986)
    DOCUMENT David A. Breternitz. Christine K. Robinson. G. Timothy Gross.

    This is the final synthetic report of the Dolores Archaeological Project. It includes an overview of the project itself, as well as final reports from the additive and reductive technologies, and environmental archaeology groups. The final report also includes summation of the prehistorical context for the Dolores River Valley and modeling, resource, and population studies. Information on the various technologies---lithics, ceramics, and facilities---are also examined. This report also...

  11. The Dolores Archaeological Program: In Memoriam (1993)
    DOCUMENT David A. Breternitz.

    The Dolores Archaeological Project (DAP) encompassed a contract period from June 1978 through December 1985. Although investigations both preceded and postdated the contract period, the accomplishments, failures, positive and negative aspects of DAP, and certain comparisons with another major cultural-resource-mitigation project offer historical, methodological, and academic lessons that are instructive, particularly for future, long-term, federally (or non-federally) financed...

  12. Dolores Archaeological Program: Research Designs and Initial Survey Results (1986)
    DOCUMENT Allen E. Kane. William D. Lipe. Timothy A. Kohler. Christine E. Robinson.

    This volume is a collection of the basic planning and management documents for the Dolores Archaeological Program. The first chapter introduces the volume and provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of Dolores Archaeological Program planning efforts. Operational problems encountered by the program are also discussed.The second chapter is the "Dolores Project Cultural Resources Mitigation Design," the primary document guiding program conceptual management. The two major parts of this chapter...

  13. Dolores Archaeological Program: Studies in Environmental Archaeology (1985)
    Citation DOCUMENT Kenneth L. Petersen. Vickie L. Clay. Meredith H. Matthews. Sarah W. Neusius.

    This report presents some of the results of the Environmental Studies Group (1979-1981) and the Environmental Archaeology Group (1981-1983) of the Dolores Archaeological Program. The Dolores Archaeological Program was funded by the Bureau of Reclamation as part of the Dolores Project Cultural Resources Mitigation Program, responsible for the mitigation of impacts on cultural resources to be affected by construction of a multipurpose water storage and distribution system on the Dolores River in...

  14. Dolores Archaeological Program: Supporting Studies: Additive and Reductive Technologies (1988)
    Citation DOCUMENT Eric Blinman. Carl J. Phagan. Richard H. Wilshusen.

    Dolores Archaeological Program activities have included a variety of synthetic supporting studies in addition to descriptive analyses of excavation and survey materials. This volume includes those supporting studies that deal with material culture, dating, and architecture. Material culture papers that focus on lithic materials include typological analyses of projectile points, a study of changes in grinding tools and dietary implications, microwear analyses of flaked stone artifacts, and a...

  15. Dolores Archaeological Program: Supporting Studies: Settlement and Environment (1987)
    DOCUMENT Kenneth Lee Petersen. Janet D. Orcutt.

    This volume presents some of the final results of the Dolores Archaeological Program Environmental Archaeology Group and the Settlement Archaeology Group. Six reports outline the development of vegetational and climatic reconstructions for the project area; 8 reports focus on the agricultural potential for the area; 6 reports discuss diverse topics including faunal remains, Phaseolus remains, human bones, and unusual rocks and minerals; and finally, 5 reports on settlement archaeology and...

  16. Dolores Archaeological Program: Synthetic Report (1986)
    Citation DOCUMENT D. A. Breternitz. Christine K. Robinson. Timothy Gross.

    The Dolores Project was a large water-impoundment project constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation in southwestern Colorado. From 1978 until 1985 the University of Colorado contracted with the Bureau of Reclamation (Contract No. 8-07-40-S0562) to mitigate the adverse effects of the Dolores Project on the cultural resources in the project area; Washington State University was the major subcontractor. The mitigation program was called the Dolores Archaeological Program (DAP). This volume presents...

  17. Dolores Archaeological Program: Synthetic Report 1978-1981 (1984)
    DOCUMENT David A. Breternitz.

    The "Dolores Archaeological Program: Synthetic Report 1978-1981" is the second publication in a series of reports by the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, on the findings of the Dolores Archaeological Program including excavation activities, and the preservation and analysis of newly discovered artifacts.

  18. Dolores Archaeological Program: Synthetic Report 1978-1981 (1984)
    DOCUMENT D. A. Breternitz.

    The Dolores Project was a large water project constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation in extreme southwestern Colorado. The Dolores Archaeological Program was responsible for the Dolores Project Cultural Resources Mitigation Program under Bureau of Reclamation Contract No. 8-07-40-S0562. At the request of the Bureau of Reclamation, the Dolores Archaeological Program produced this report entitled Dolores Archaeological Program Synthetic Report 1978-1981. This report provides the Bureau of...

  19. The Dolores Legacy: A User's Guide to the Dolores Archaeological Program Data (1999)
    DOCUMENT Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    A user's guide to the Dolores Archaeological Program data, compiled with assistance from a State Historical Fund grant from the Colorado Historical Society. This is highly recommended as a point of entry into the large and complex DAP datasets. It contains a general introduction to the DAP and its datasets, by Richard Wilshusen; an introduction to the provenience data and DAP temporal-spatial taxonomy and interpretations, by Christine Ward; brief descriptions of each of the major databases; an...

  20. Reductive Technologies Manual: Preliminary Analysis Systems and Procedures (1984)
    DOCUMENT Carl J. Phagan. Thomas H. Hruby.

    This report presents the structure and procedures for the reductive technologies artifact analysis of the Dolores Archaeological Program. The theoretical perspectives which underlie the analytical structure are outlined, as is the separation of the structure into four distinct but interrelated analysis systems. These systems are flaked lithic tools, flaked lithic debitage, nonflaked lithic tools, and worked bone/shelltools. The development of each system is traced from its original state in 1978...

Datasets

  1. Botanical Resources: Corn (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    The corn dataset was used in association with an intensive botanical study designed to identify different varieties of corn in the assemblage of corn cobs and plant fragments recovered in the course of DAP fieldwork. The variables in this dataset contain information and measurements pertaining to the number or rows of kernels on an ear, its shape and size, and various details about glumes, cupules, and kernels. Variables for the CORN10 dataset have been described by Wilshusen et al. (1999);...

  2. Botanical Resources: Pollen (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    The pollen dataset contains basic provenience data for each pollen sample collected. These data are accompanied by taxonomic classification and the grain count per taxon. Detailed locational information can be obtained by linking this dataset with the provenience dataset. Variables for the corn dataset have already been described by Wilshusen et al. (1999). In most cases, their descriptions are suitable for use as metadata and have been repeated almost verbatim here. Selected resources from the...

  3. Ceramics: Temporal-Spatial Dataset (1988)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    The Additive Technologies Group (ATG) was responsible for supporting the broad research goals of the DAP through the implementation of mid-level research design governing the collection and analysis of data from “material culture that results from the technological combinations of a variety of raw materials” (Blinman 1986a:57). While these items include worked vegetal material (e.g., basketry and textiles), much of the work performed by the ATG relates to a large ceramic assemblage including...

  4. Chronometric Dating (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    The results of chronometric analysis on special specimen samples collected for dating can be found in this dataset. Samples are linked to basic provenience data such as site and field specimen number. The temporal range for each sample will be indicated by variables for earliest and latest dates. These variables give the innermost and outermost dates of wood submitted for dendrochronological dating and their corresponding Tree-Ring Lab symbols indicating how close the date provided is to the...

  5. Cottontail Procurement (1987)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    Flint and Neusius’ (1987) examination of the assemblage of cottontail remains from the Dolores Anasazi faunal record is an especially good example of synthetic research contributions to DAP research. Their study utilized the subset of the DAP faunal assemblage contained within the BUNNY10 dataset (Flint and Neusius 1987:257). Since the two species of cottontail utilized by the Dolores Anasazi have distinct habitat preferences, their relative abundances provided an opportunity to track patterns...

  6. Faunal Remains (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    The faunal dataset is comprised of 81,947 specimens, recovered from a variety of contexts within the Dolores Project area (Neusius 1985c; Petersen, Matthews et al. 1986). Nonhuman macrofaunal remains collected during site excavations are by far the most abundant in the DAP assemblage (n=76,224), followed by microfaunal specimens (n=5,723) collected by way of dry screening and flotation processing (Petersen, Matthews et al. 1986). A third set of miscellaneous remains include specimens recovered...

  7. Flaked Lithic Debitage (1985)
    DATASET Carl J. Phagan.

    The Reductive Technologies Group (RTG) was responsible for supporting the broad research goals of the DAP through the implementation of a mid-level research design governing the collection and analysis of data from “artifacts which were manufactured by reductive, or subtractive techniques” (Phagan 1986a:79). Independent datasets for each of the four preliminary analysis systems reflect the technological distinctions made between flaked lithic tools (FLT10a and FLT10b); the debitage created in...

  8. Flaked Lithic Tools: Temporal-Spatial Dataset (1985)
    DATASET Carl J. Phagan.

    The Reductive Technologies Group (RTG) was responsible for supporting the broad research goals of the DAP through the implementation of mid-level research design governing the collection and analysis of data from “artifacts which were manufactured by reductive, or subtractive techniques” (Phagan 1986a: 79). The RTG was headed by Roger A. Moore between 1978 and 1979; Carl J. Phagan assumed this position from 1979 to 1985, with the assistance of T. Homer Hruby between 1980 and 1984. Supporting...

  9. Geological Study Samples (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    The sediments dataset is a catalog of the geological samples used in a study of the physical and chemical properties of local soils. The chemical and granulometric analyses conducted on these samples contributed to an evaluation of potential for successful dry-land agriculture in the Dolores Valley. Soils in the project area are generally derived from eolian parent material and exhibit a loamy texture that indicates their suitability for agricultural production (Decker and Petersen 1987)....

  10. Hafted Items (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    The Reductive Technologies Group (RTG) was headed by Roger A. Moore between 1978 and 1979 and by Carl J. Phagan from 1979 to 1985, with the assistance of T. Homer Hruby between 1980 and 1984; supporting work was provided by crew chiefs Gail G. Snyder and Phillip D. Neusius. This DAP analysis group was responsible for supporting the broad research goals of the DAP through the implementation of mid-level research design governing the collection and analysis of data from “artifacts which were...

  11. Linked Provenience-Feature Class (2000)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Kelsey M. Reese

    The linked provenience category is an organized way to describe how a feature was excavated, and where artifacts were found within that feature. The categories are numerically based in order to systematically define excavation strategy and the execution of that strategy. Each vertical and horizontal strategy is denoted with a corresponding number---for example horizontal excavation strategies are broken down into whole study unit, locus, segment, half, strip, quadrant, etc. (Wilshusen et al....

  12. Macrobotanical Remains (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    The DAP research design was structured to systematically address broad domains of inquiry that encompass economy and adaptation, paleodemography, social organization, extra-regional relationships, and cultural process. The variables used in the botanical datasets represent the various lines of evidence needed to mitigate “bioturbation, preservation, and sampling biases” and establish the “case for cultural association of botanical remains preserved in the archaeological record” (Petersen, Clay...

  13. Maps (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    A small percentage of the maps reproduced from field data can be found in the series of published DAP reports, but a much larger collection of original material can be accessed via the Anasazi Heritage Center, Colorado. The maps dataset allows users to easily know what maps are available for any provenience. Maps were sequentially numbered within each site and later classified as one of 47 taxa, according to the type of information the map was meant to convey. Documenting the contents of a site...

  14. Miscellaneous (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    Objects in the miscellaneous dataset are grouped together because their interesting, unusual, or otherwise distinctive characteristics distinguish them from items in other DAP datasets. Wilshusen et al. (1999:99) indicate that these items include minerals, fossils, petrified wood, feathers, and eggshell. Users will also find records for human remains in this dataset. Computer instructions for accessing this dataset, on file at the Anasazi Heritage Center, are perhaps the best means of obtaining...

  15. Non-flaked Lithic Tools: Temporal-Spatial Dataset (1985)
    DATASET Carl J. Phagan.

    The Reductive Technologies Group (RTG) was responsible for supporting the broad research goals of the DAP through the implementation of mid-level research design governing the collection and analysis of data from “artifacts which were manufactured by reductive, or subtractive techniques” (Phagan 1986a:79). The RTG was headed by Roger A. Moore between 1978 and 1979 and by Carl J. Phagan from 1979 to 1985, with the assistance of T. Homer Hruby between 1980 and 1984; supporting work was provided by...

  16. Ornamental Objects (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    Designation in this project as "ornament" was utilized to classify items that held some sort of special value to the residents of the Dolores study area, including items such as beads and pendants made from turquoise, jet, bone, and shell. Such artifacts are considered significant because they were traded over very long distances and used in ritual as well as mortuary contexts. These objects can show the extent of trading relations, and allow for the recognition and documentation of possible...

  17. Photographs (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    Photographs are one of the few remaining ways to examine the now inundated archaeological sites in the DAP. Photographic images add context to specific aspects of Anasazi life in the DAP area; in a sense, DAP photography "provides the investigator with ways to understand the spatial integration of households and communities" (Wilshusen et al. 1999:115). Only a fraction of all photographs taken during the project can be found in the published series of DAP reports. Individuals wishing to access...

  18. Provenience Data: Temporal-Spatial File (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    The provenience system used by the DAP allowed field personnel and analysts to identify where each item in a dataset was located within a site, as well as its spatial relationship with other archaeological contexts. Wilshusen et al. (1999:147) indicate that primary linkage among the DAP datasets is achieved through a few shared provenience attributes including the components of a Smithsonian trinomial designation, a field specimen number, and point location numbers—a subdivision of the field...

  19. Rare Rocks (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    Items in the DAP nonflaked lithic tool assemblage and miscellaneous material files that represent “unusual materials of geologic origin” have been collected within a single rare rocks dataset (Keane and Clay 1987:507). More specifically, the dataset contains both naturally occurring and culturally modified items comprised of geological resources that are found in the Dolores Valley, or have been transported over long distances (Keane and Clay 1987). Items fashioned from rare material types are...

  20. Samples (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    Wilshusen et al. (1999) indicate that this dataset should be viewed as a comprehensive inventory of DAP samples by type and number. Samples were collected for a variety of reasons including chronometric dating, environmental and geological studies, and special documentation. Obtaining the results of their analysis requires users to consult other DAP datasets. Variables in the samples dataset have already been described by Wilshusen et al. (1999); see especially the section entitled "Samples" by...

  21. Worked Bone and Shell (1985)
    DATASET Uploaded by: Jesse Clark

    Remains from the faunal dataset that owe some aspect of their form to human modification were submitted to the Reductive Technology Group (RTG) for further analysis; these items however, did not include items modified during butchering or broken during marrow extraction (Phagan and Hurby 1984:110). The physical qualities of shell and especially bone, make these items unsuitable for most tasks in cutting, chopping, scraping, and piercing; their place in the prehistoric toolkit is for the most...

Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America