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Koster Site, IL (11GE4)

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Summary

The Koster site is an important open-air, deeply stratified site located in Greene County, Illinois that contains deposits dating from approximately 9000 BP to the Historic period. Although twenty-five cultural horizons have been recognized, the most important part of the sequence is the well-preserved Archaic Period sequence divided as follows: Early Archaic 1 (ca. 9000 BP, Horizon 13), Early Archaic 2 ( 8700-8450 BP, Horizons 12 and 11), Middle Archaic 1 (8300-7600 BP, Horizons 10B-8E), Middle Archaic 2 (7300-6850 BP, Horizons 8D-8B), Middle Archaic 3 (5800-4900 BP, Horizons 7B-6A) and Late Archaic (3950-2950 BP, Horizon 4). There are also Woodland and Mississippian deposits at the Koster site and an early Historic period farmstead existed at this location as well.

The Koster site is located in Section 21, T 9 N, R 13 W Greene County in the lower Illinois Valley. The site was test excavated in the summer of 1969, under the direction of Stuart Struever of Northwestern University. Originally it was defined on the basis of debris from a Late Woodland occupation on a ridge top. The 1969 tests at Koster also identified possible older occupations beneath the Late Woodland occupation. Between 1969 and 1978 major excavations were conducted at the Koster site by Northwestern University, and significant interdisciplinary research was carried out at Koster into the 1980s. Significant data on Archaic period subsistence, settlement, technology and lifestyle were generated by this project. New research on Koster site faunal remains has been undertaken in the twenty-first century. Datasets included in tDAR are faunal in nature.

During the 1970s the Koster site excavations were a public attraction and thousands of people were introduced to archaeology by observing these excavations. The educational programs of the Center for American Archaeology (formerly the Foundation for Illinois Archaeology) based in Kampsville, IL originally grew in association with the Koster Project.


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Cite this Record

Koster Site, IL (11GE4). ( tDAR id: 2970) ; doi:10.6067/XCV87P90SQ


Keywords

Geographic Keywords
Green County, Illinois

Temporal Keywords
Archaic


Temporal Coverage

Radiocarbon Date: 5136 to 5046 (DAMS-020639 Horizon 6A2 5091+/-45 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 6940 to 6780 (ISGS-835 Horizon 8A 6860+/-80 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5795 to 5645 (ISGS-209 Horizon 6B 5720+/-75 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8520 to 8370 (ISGS 292 Horizon 11 8445+/-75 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 4994 to 4896 (DAMS-020641 Horizon 6AB 4945+/-49 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7040 to 6880 (ISGS-848 Horizon 8B 6960+/-80 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7840 to 7420 (ISGS-210 Horizon 8E 7630+/210 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8205 to 8055 (ISGS-337 Horizon 10B 8130+/-75 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5540 to 5240 (ISGS-233 Horizon 6B 5440+/-100 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5335 to 5255 (DAMS-023294 Horizon 6B 5295+/-40 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8295 to 8145 (ISGS 336 Horizon 9D 8220+/-75 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5262 to 5198 (DAMS-020638 Horizon 6A2 5230+/-32 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5264 to 5190 (DAMS-020635 Horizon 6A1 5227+/-37)

Radiocarbon Date: 7390 to 7250 (ISGS-859 Horizon 8D 7320+/-70 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8070 to 7770 (ISGS-923 Horizon 9B 7920+/-150 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 4975 to 4863 (DAMS-020643 Horizon 4 FT 1500 4919+/-56 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7367 to 7231 (DAMS-020632 Horizon 8C 7299+/-68 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7195 to 7117 (DAMS-020633 Horizon 8C 7156+/-39 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7780 to 7560 (ISGS-303 Horizon 8F 7670+/-110 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 6904 to 6798 (DAMS-020629 Horizon 8C 6851+/-53 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8530 to 8330 (ISGS-231 Horizon 11 8430+/-100 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5139 to 5033 (DAMS-020636 Horizon 6A2 5086+/-53 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7474 to 7362 (DAMS-020634 Horizon 8C 7417+/-57 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5380 to 5230 (ISGS-237 Horizon 6B 5305+/-75 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 3925 to 3775 (ISGS-329 Horizon 4B 3850+/-75 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 3060 to 2910 (ISGS-956 Horizon 4A 2980+/-70 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5160 to 4980 (ISGS 199 Horizon 6A2 5070+/-90 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5113 to 5035 (DAMS-023296 Horizon 6AB 5074+/-39 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5254 to 5202 (DAMS-023021 Horizon 6A1 5228+/-26 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7120 to 6820 (ISGS-800 Horizon 8C 6970+/-150 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 4885 to 4817 (DAMS-020640 Horizon 6A 4851 +/-34 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8590 to 8370 (ISGS 236 Horizon 11 8480+/-110 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5905 to 5745 (ISGS-414 Horizon 7A 5825/-80 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7139 to 7069 (DAMS-020630 Horizon 8C 7104+/-35 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5500 to 5000 (ISGS-198 Horizon 6A2 5250+/-250 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7960 to 7640 (ISGS-316 Horizon 9A 7800+/160 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7135 to 7053 (DAMS-020631 Horizon 8C 7094+/-41 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8820 to 8640 (ISGS-328 Horizon 12 8730+/-90 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5268 to 5170 (DAMS-020642 Horizon 6B 5219+/-49 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5260 to 5190 (ISGS-197 Horizon 6A2 5175+/-85 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7080 to 6920 (ISGS-809 Horizon 8B 7000+/-80 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5208 to 5132 (DAMS-020637 Horizon 6A2 5170+/-38 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5328 to 5256 (DAMS-023295 Horizon 6A2 5292+/-36 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 7190 to 6850 (ISGS-338 Horizon 8C 7020+/-170 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8010 to 7810 (ISGS-229 Horizon 9A/9B 7910+/100 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8350 to 8110 (ISGS-783 Horizon 10A 8230+/-120 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5215 to 5065 (ISGS-235 Horizon 6A2 5140+/-75 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5050 to 4550 (ISGS-202 Horizon 6A1 4880+/-250 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8520 to 8340 (ISGS-230 Horizon 11 8430+/-90 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 8580 to 8360 (ISGS 1762 Horizon 11 8470+/-110 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 6820 to 6200 (ISGS-1000 Horizon 8B 6510+/-310 RCYBP)

Radiocarbon Date: 5115 to 5045 (DAMS-023020 Horizon 6A2 5080+/-35 RCYBP)


Spatial Coverage

min long: -90.582; min lat: 39.173 ; max long: -90.495; max lat: 39.265 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Project Director(s): Sarah Neusius

Prepared By(s): Indiana University of Penn.


Notes

General Note: The Koster faunal databases loaded in tDAR were identified by several zooarchaeologists. Frederick C. Hill and his assistants identified much of the early material collected in test units dug in 1969 as well as materials from the excavation of Horizons 1-6. Hill's 1975 dissertation (see reference list associated with this project) is a primary source for this material. Sarah W. Neusius identified faunal remains from Horizons 8-10B as well as a small sample of materials from Horizon 11. Her 1982 dissertation as well as a 1986 article (see references) are the primary sources for this material. John Hewitt created the faunal file for Horizons 8-10B identifications in conjunction with his own 1982 dissertation (see references) Andrea L. Boon completed a MA thesis on a large sample of materials from Horizon 11 and reported on this research in her 2011 thesis (see references).


Source Collections

The Koster fauna remains are held by the Illinois State Museum, although some materials may remain with the Center for American Archaeology in Kampsville, IL.

Resources Inside this Project (Viewing 1-100 of 120)

Documents

  1. Aquatic Exploitation in the Lower Illinois River Valley: The Role of Paleoecological Change (1986)
  2. EARLY-MIDDLE ARCHAIC SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES: CHANGES IN FAUNAL EXPLOITATION AT THE KOSTER SITE (1982)
  3. Generalized and Specialized Resource Utilization During the Archaic Period: Implications of the Koster Site Faunal Record (1986)
  4. Koster Site References (2015)

Datasets

  1. Boon Horizon Eleven Dataset (2010)
  2. Hill Horizon 11 (2015)
  3. Horizon Eleven Trial Dataset (1979)
  4. Koster-N HILL Other Horizons (4,6,9AB and 12) Macro (2015)
  5. Koster-N Horizon 11 Flotation (2011)
  6. Koster-N Horizon 11 Macro (2016)
  7. Koster-N Horizon 8A-10B Macro Identified File (1981)
  8. Koster-N Horizon 8A-10B Macro Indeterminate File (2015)
  9. Koster-N Horizons 8A-10B Micro (2016)

Ontologies

  1. EAFWG Chronology Ontology (2015)
  2. EAFWG Recovery Method Ontology (2105)
  3. Eastern Archaic Context Types (2015)
  4. Eastern Archaic Excavation Level/Unit Type (2016)
  5. Eastern Archaic Site Type (2015)
  6. Eastern Archiac Resource type ontology (2015)

Coding Sheets

  1. Boon Hor 11 Age (2010)
  2. Boon Hor 11 Animal Modification (2010)
  3. Boon Hor 11 Axiality (2010)
  4. Boon Hor 11 Breakage (2010)
  5. Boon Hor 11 Burning (2010)
  6. Boon Hor 11 Butcher Marks (2010)
  7. Boon Hor 11 Certainty (2010)
  8. Boon Hor 11 Completeness (2010)
  9. Boon Hor 11 Cultural Modification (2010)
  10. Boon Hor 11 Fracture Pattern (2010)
  11. Boon Hor 11 Laterality (2010)
  12. Boon Hor 11 Proximity (2010)
  13. Boon Hor 11 Side (2010)
  14. Boon hor 11 Structure (2010)
  15. Boon Hor 11 Weathering (2010)
  16. Coding sheet for Age (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
  17. Coding sheet for Animal Mod (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  18. Coding sheet for Burn (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
  19. Coding sheet for Burning Modification (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  20. Coding sheet for Butcher Mark (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  21. Coding sheet for Complt (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
  22. Coding sheet for Context (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  23. Coding sheet for CultMod (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  24. Coding sheet for Hor (Koster-N Horizons 8A-10B Micro) (2016)
  25. Coding sheet for Horizon (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
  26. Coding sheet for Horizon (Hill Horizon 11) (2016)
  27. Coding sheet for Horizon (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  28. Coding sheet for Horizon (Kos-N Priority Horizon Indet File) (2015)
  29. Coding sheet for Horizon (Koster - Hill Combined 4 and 6 Horizons) (2016)
  30. Coding sheet for Horizon (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
  31. Coding sheet for Horizon (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
  32. Coding sheet for HZ (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
  33. Coding sheet for HZ (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
  34. Coding sheet for Number of Items (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
  35. Coding sheet for ProvStat (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
  36. Coding sheet for Recov (Koster-N Horizons 8A-10B Micro) (2016)
  37. Coding sheet for Recovery (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
  38. Coding sheet for Recovery (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
  39. Coding sheet for Recovery (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
  40. Coding sheet for Recovery (Hor 11 Boon Flotation ) (2016)
  41. Coding sheet for Recovery (Hor 11 Boon Flotation ) (2016)
  42. Coding sheet for Recovery (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  43. Coding sheet for Recovery (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
  44. Coding sheet for Recovery (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
  45. Coding sheet for Species Eastern Taxa (KOS-N Priority Horizon Identified) (2016)
  46. Coding sheet for Taxon (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  47. Coding sheet for Taxon 1 (Kos-N Combined Hor 11 Dataset- Macro) (2016)
  48. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
  49. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Combined Horizon Eleven Dataset) (2016)
  50. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Hill Horizon 11) (2016)
  51. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Hor 11 Boon Flotation ) (2016)
  52. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
  53. Coding sheet for Taxon 2 (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
  54. Coding sheet for Unit (Koster-N Horizon 11 Flotation ) (2016)
  55. Coding sheet for Unit (Koster-N Horizon 11 Macro) (2016)
  56. Coding sheet for Unit (Koster-N Horizons 8A-10B Micro) (2016)
  57. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  58. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Koster-N Hill Other Horizon (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
  59. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Koster-N HILL Other Horizons (4,6,9AB and 12) Macro) (2017)
  60. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Koster-N HILL Other Horizons (4,6,9AB and 12) Macro) (2017)
  61. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Koster-N HILL Other Horizons (4,6,9AB and 12) Macro) (2017)
  62. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
  63. Coding sheet for Unit Number (Koster-N Other Horizons (4,6, and 12) Macro ) (2016)
  64. Coding sheet for Weath (KOS-N Horizon 8A-10B Identified) (2016)
  65. Coding sheet for Weathering (Kos-N Hor 8A-10B Indet File) (2016)
  66. Horizon 11 Recovery Technique (1979)
  67. IUP Cult Modification (2016)
  68. IUP ELEMENT CODING SHEET (2010)
  69. IUP TAXON CODING SHEET (2010)
  70. Kos-N Priority Ident Portion Coding (2016)
  71. Koster Burning test2
  72. Koster Horizon 11 Abnormality (1979)
  73. Koster Horizon 11 Axiality (1979)
  74. Koster Horizon 11 Burning (1979)
  75. Koster Horizon 11 Burning Location (1979)
  76. Koster Horizon 11 class (1979)
  77. Koster Horizon 11 Completeness (1979)
  78. Koster Horizon 11 Deliberate Modification (1979)
  79. Koster Horizon 11 Element (1979)
  80. Koster Horizon 11 Element Digestion (1979)
  81. Koster Horizon 11 Element Preservation (1979)
Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America