The Roosevelt Community Development Study, Number 14, Volume 3: Paleobiological and Osteological Analyses

Part of the Roosevelt Community Development Study-Center for Desert Archaeology (DRAFT) project

Editor(s): Mark D. Elson; Jeffrey J. Clark

Year: 1995


The Roosevelt Community Development Study (RCD) involved the testing and excavation of 27 sites in the Lower Tonto Basin of central Arizona. This is one of three related data recovery projects undertaken in the Tonto Basin for the Bureau of Reclamation prior to the raising of the Roosevelt Lake dam. The results of the RCD project are presented in four Anthropological Papers of the Center for Desert Archaeology: Anthropological Papers No. 12 is the research design; Anthropological Papers No. 13 (two volumes) contains background information and the site descriptions; Anthropological Papers No. 14 (three volumes) includes the artifact and environmental analyses; and Anthropological Papers No. 15 presents the synthesis and conclusions.

The project was situated within the Tonto National Forest and covered a four-mile, continuous area along the north bank of the Salt River. Sites within the project area exhibited a great range of functional, temporal, and, possibly, cultural diversity. These included two sites with platform mounds (the Meddler Point and Pyramid Point sites); a 10Q-room masonry pueblo (the Griffin Wash site); smaller masonry compounds (e.g., the Porcupine site); and pithouse hamlets and farmsteads (e.g., the Hedge Apple and Eagle Ridge sites). Temporal components ranged from the Early Ceramic period (A.D. 100-600), at Locus B of the Eagle Ridge site, through the Roosevelt phase (A.D. 1250-1350) of the Classic period. The Early Ceramic component of the Eagle Ridge site is now the earliest documented ceramic period site in the Tonto Basin and provides definitive evidence for an indigenous ceramic-using population. The project area was inhabited most intensively during the Roosevelt phase, when platform mounds, pueblo room blocks, and small masonry compounds were occupied. Architectural and artifact variability suggest the presence of several different cultural groups co-residing in the Tonto Basin at this time, and migration is believed to have been a significant process in Tonto Basin prehistory. The RCD project area was largely abandoned by A.D. 1325, prior to the large-scale aggregation that occurred during the Gila phase; very few Gila Polychrome sherds were recovered from project area sites.

The mandate of the RCD project, as spedfied by the Bureau of Reclamation, was to investigate the temporal and developmental sequence of the prehistoric populations within this area. To meet these goals, six sites were intensively examined through full-scale excavation, and an extensive data set was gathered from the remaining 21 sites.

The three volumes in Anthropological Papers No. 14 contain the artifact and environmental analyses. More than 150,000 artifacts were recovered from the RCD excavations. This volume (Volume 3) presents the paleobotanical and osteological data. Included are analyses of the pollen (Chapter 18), flotation (Chapter 19), faunal (Chapter 20), and mortuary (Chapter 21) assemblages. Data from the subsistence analyses are combined and synthesized in Chapter 22. Volume 1 of Anthropological Papers No. 14 presents the analyses of the chipped stone, ground stone, jewelry and personal ornament, and shell assemblages. The ceramic artifact assemblage is examined in Volume 2 More spedfic information on the individual sites and the project background can be found in Anthropological Papers No. 13. Anthropological Papers No. 15 integrates and synthesizes these data to provide a more inclusive view of the prehistoric occupation of the RCD project area and the Tonto Basin.

Cite this Record

The Roosevelt Community Development Study, Number 14, Volume 3: Paleobiological and Osteological Analyses. Mark D. Elson, Jeffrey J. Clark. Anthropological Papers ,14, Volume 3. Tucson, AZ: Center for Desert Archaeology. 1995 ( tDAR id: 405613) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8R21382


Ancestral Puebloan Hohokam Salado

Abies concolor Abies sp. Acacia Acacia sp. Acacua greggii Accipitrid Accipitridae Agave Agave sp. Agrostis sp. Alder Algal Spore Alnus sp. Amaranth Amaranthus sp. Ammospermophilus harrisii Ammospermophilus sp. Amphibia Amphibian Anacardiaceae Apiaceae Aquatic Snail Ara sp. Arctostaphylos sp. Arizona Poppy Arrowweed Artemisia sp. Artiodactyl Artiodactyla Ash Astragalus sp. Atriplex sp. Aves Baccharis sp. Banana Yucca Beaver Bentgrass Bighorn Sheep Bird Black-on-Whiteware Black-tailed Jackrabbit Bobcat Boerhaavia sp. Bone Bonytail Chub Bos taurus Botta's Pocket Gopher Bouleloua sp. Bromegrass Bromus sp. Bubo virginianus Buffware Bufo alvarius Bufo cognatus Bursage Buteo jamicensis Callipepla gambelii Callipepla sp. Callipepla squamata Canavalia ensiformis Canavalia sp. Canis familiaris Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis sp. Canotia holacantha Canotia sp. Carnegiea gigantea Carnivora Carnivore Carrot Caryophyllaceae Casa Grande Red-on-Buffware Cashew Castor canadensis Catclaw Acacia Catostomidae Catostomus clarki Catostomus insignis Catostomus sp. Cattail Celtis reticulata Celtis sp. Century Plant Ceramic Cercidium sp. Cereus gigantea Cereus sp. Chamaesyce sp. Chara sp. Cheno-Am Chenopod Chenopodium sp. Chia Chilopsis linearis Chipped Stone Cholla Cibola Black-on-Whiteware Clammy Weed Collared Lizard Colorado River Toad Colorado Squawfish Colubrid Colubridae Columbidae Columbiformes Common Bean Common Reed Condalia sp. Corn Cotton Cotton Rat Cottonttail Cottonwood Cow Coyote Creosote Creosotebush Crotalus sp. Crotaphytus collaris Cruciferae Crucifixion Thorn Cuculidae Cuculiformes Cucurbita pepo Cucurbita sp. Cylindropuntia Cyperaceae Cyprinidae Dandelion Deer Descurainia sp. Desert Broom Desert Cottontail Desert-Mountain Sucker Desert Tortoise Desert Willow Dipodomys sp. Dog Domestic Dog Douglas Fir Dove Dropseed Grass Eagle Echinocactus sp. Elymus sp. Ephedra sp. Eragrostis sp. Eriogonum sp. Erodium sp. Euphorbia sp. Evening Primrose Fabaceae False Purslane Fauna Felis rufus Filaree Fir Fish Fishhook Cactus Fraximus pennsylvanica Fraximus velutina Frazinus sp. Galliformes Gallinaceous Bird Gambel's Quail Garrya wrightii Gastrocopta pellucida Geococcyx californianus Gila Butte Red-on-Buffware Gila Coarse-Scaled Sucker Gila elegans Gilia sp. Globe Mallow Goosefoot Gopher Snake Gopherus agassizi Gossypium hirsutum Gossypium sp. Grain Grama Grass Gramineae Grass Gray Fox Gray Wolf Great Horned Owl Great Plains Toad Grebe Greythorn Groundcherry Ground Squirrel Hackberry Harris Antelope Squirrel Hawaiia miniscula Hawk Hedgehog Cactus Helisoma tenue Heron Bill High Spine Compositae Hoffmanseggia sp. Hog Potato Hordeum pusillum Horned Lizard Human Remains Indian Buckwheat Indian Wheat Inkweed Jack Bean Jojoba Juglans major Juniper Juniperus sp. Kallstroemia sp. Kangaroo Rat Kinosternon sonoriense Knotweed Lagomorph Lagomorpha Land Snail Larrea divaricata Larrea sp. Larrea tridentata Legume Leguminosae Lepus californicus Liguliflorae Liliaceae Lily Little Barley Lizard Locoweed Lovegrass Low Spine Compositae Lutra canadensis Macaw Macrobotanical Maize Mallow Malvaceae Mammalaria sp. Manzanita Maygrass Mesquite Mimidae Minnow Mormon Tea Mourning Dove Muhlenbergia sp. Muskrat Mustard Neotoma albigula Neotoma sp. Oak Odocoileus sp. Odocoileus virginianus Onagraceae Ondatra zibethicus Opuntia sp. Osteichthyes Ostracoda Ostracode Pollen Shell Wood Show More

Site Name
AZ V:5:1 (ASM) AZ V:5:100 (ASM) AZ V:5:101 (ASM) AZ V:5:103 (ASM) AZ V:5:104 (ASM) AZ V:5:105 (ASM) AZ V:5:106 (ASM) AZ V:5:107 (ASM) AZ V:5:110 (ASM) AZ V:5:122 (ASM) AZ V:5:123 (ASM) AZ V:5:131 (ASM) AZ V:5:176 (ASM) AZ V:5:177 (ASM) AZ V:5:178 (ASM) AZ V:5:189 (ASM) AZ V:5:4 (ASM) AZ V:5:90 (ASM) AZ V:5:91 (ASM) AZ V:5:92 (ASM) AZ V:5:93 (ASM) AZ V:5:94 (ASM) AZ V:5:95 (ASM) AZ V:5:96 (ASM) AZ V:5:97 (ASM) AZ V:5:98 (ASM) AZ V:5:99 (ASM) Eagle Ridge Griffin Wash Hedge Apple Meddler Point Procupine Pyramid Point Show More

Site Type
Adult Cremation Agricultural or Herding Cemetery Compound Cremation Domestic Structure or Architectural Complex Domestic Structures Farmstead Funerary and Burial Structures or Features Hamlet Hamlet / Village Infant Cremation Inhumation Masonry Compound Masonry Pueblo Masonry Room Platform Mound Pueblo Resource Extraction / Production / Transportation Structure or Features Room Room Block Room Block / Compound / Pueblo Settlements Subadult Cremation

Investigation Types
Data Recovery / Excavation

Anterior Tooth (Human) Anterior Tooth Root (Human) Antler Flaker Auditory Meatus (Human) Awl Axis (Human) Bean Bone (Animal) Bone (Human) Bone Awl Bone Gaming Piece Bone Hairpin Bone Needle Bone Rasp Bone Ring Bone Tube Bone Whistle Bowl Branch Branch (Mesquite) Branch (Prosopis velutina) Bud (Cholla) Bud (Opuntia sp.) Canine (Human) Carpal (Human) Censer Ceramic Bowl Ceramic Censer Ceramic Jar Ceramic Pitcher Cervical Vertebra (Human) Charcoal Clavicle (Human) Corrugated Ware Cupule Cupule (Maize) Cupule (Zea mays) Deciduous Molar (Human) Deciduous Tooth (Human) Epidermis (Agave) Epidermis (Agave sp.) Epiphysis (Human) Feces Femur (Human) Fiber Fiber (Agave) Fiber (Agave sp.) Figurine Flotation Sample Gaming Piece Hairpin Heart (Agave) Heart (Agave sp.) Humerus (Human) Incisor (Human) Innominate (Human) Insect Part Jar Jewelry Kernel Kernel (Maize) Kernel (Zea mays) Leaf Leaf (Agave) Leaf (Agave sp.) Long Bone (Human) Lower Incisor (Human) Lower Third Molar (Human) Lumbar (Human) Lunate (Human) Mandible (Human) Mastoid (Human) McDonald Corrugated Ware Metatarsal (Human) Molar (Human) Molar Root (Human) Needle Occipital (Human) Palette Pellet Phalange (Human) Pitcher Pod Pod (Mesquite) Pod (Prosopis velutina) Posterior Tooth Crown (Human) Premolar (Human) Projectile Point Radius (Human) Rasp Rat Pellet RCD Rib (Human) Rind Rind (Cucurbita sp.) Rind (Squash) Ring Roosevelt Community Development Study Root Root (Mesquite) Root (Prosopis velutina) Sacral Body (Human) Scapula (Human) Seed Seed (Banana Yucca) Seed (Cholla) Seed (Cucurbita pepo) Seed (Mesquite) Seed (Opuntia sp.) Seed (Prosopis velutina) Seed (Squash) Seed (Yuccca baccata) Shank Shank (Maize) Shank (Zea mays) Shell Shell (Juglans major) Shell (Walnut) Shell Jewelry Skull (Human) Spine Spine (Agave) Spine (Agave sp.) Stalk Stalk (Agave) Stalk (Agave sp.) Stalk (Maize) Stalk (Zea mays) Stem Stem (Grass) Stem (Poaceae) Stone Bowl Stone Censer Stone Jewelry Talus (Human) Tarsal (Human) Temporal (Human) Termite Feces Third Molar (Human) Third Molar Root (Human) Thoracic Vertebra (Human) Thorn Thorn (Agave) Thorn (Agave sp.) Tibia (Human) Tooth (Human) Tooth Crown (Human) Tooth Root (Human) Tube Turtle Shell Artifact Ulna (Human) Upper Second Incisor (Human) Upper Vertebra (Human) Vertebra (Human) Vessel Whistle Worked antler Worked Bone Worked Long Bone Show More

Geographic Keywords
Arizona (State / Territory) Lower Tonto Basin Roosevelt Lake Salt River Tonto Basin Tonto National Forest

Temporal Keywords
Ash Creek Phase Classic Period Colonial Period Early Ceramic Early Classic Period Gila Butte Phase Miami Phase Prehistoric Roosevelt Phase Sacaton Phase Santa Cruz Phase Sedentary Period

Spatial Coverage

min long: -111.015; min lat: 33.625 ; max long: -110.949; max lat: 33.673 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contact(s): USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

Contributor(s): Suzanne K. Fish; Dana Hartman; Steven R. James; Charles Miksicek; Penny Dufoe Mintum; Deborah L. Swartz; Gerald Dawavendewa; Tom Lincoln; Teresa Hoffman; Kathy Pedrick; Jon Czaplicki; Scott Wood; Ben Nelson; Bill Doelle; Dave Gregory; James Heidke; Miriam Stark; Henry Wallace; Jeff Shipman; Helga Teiwes; Ron Beckwith; Jim Holmlund; Trish Castalia; Chip Colwell; Dylan Cooper; Lisa Eppley; Jean Kramer; Sara Lely; Debbie Swartz; Chip Warren; Michael Wiley; Donna Breckenridge; Elizabeth Black; Jerry Fallenberg; Catherine Gilman; Irina Hayes; Kathleen Maher; Linda Pearl

Landowner(s): U. S Forest Service

Sponsor(s): U. S. Bureau of Reclamation

Permitting Agency(s): Tonto National Forest

Repository(s): Center for Archaeology and Society, Arizona State University

Submitted To(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Arizona Projects Office

Record Identifiers

Contract No.(s): 1-CS-32-01220


Redaction Note: In the public version of the report: Figure P.2 has been redacted due to the level of detail it contains about site locations. Detailed site features in Figure P.4 have been retained, but geographical information has been redacted.

File Information

  Name Size Creation Date Date Uploaded Access
CCRS-1996-004-Roos-Comm-Dev-Study-No-14-Volume-3-Paleobotanica... 13.57mb Jul 27, 2017 1:49:19 PM Confidential
This file is unredacted.
CCRS-1996-004-Roos-Comm-Dev-Study-No-14-Volume-3-Paleobotanica... 16.98mb Jul 27, 2017 1:49:19 PM Public
In the public version of the report: Figure P.2 has been redacted due to the level of detail it contains about site locations. Detailed site features in Figure P.4 have been retained, but geographical information has been redacted.

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Contact(s): USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

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