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Hohokam Archaeology along the Salt-Gila Aqueduct Central Arizona Project, Volume III: Specialized Activity Sites

Editor(s): Lynn S. Teague ; Patricia L. Crown

Year: 1983

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Summary

This volume is the third in a nine volume series reporting the results of archaeological investigations conducted along the right-of-way of the Salt-Gila Aqueduct. The aqueduct, under construction by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), is part of the Central Arizona Project. The emphasis of this volume is directed toward specialized activity sites, most of which relate to wild plant or lithic processing or agriculture. All are located along Reaches 1 through 4 of the aqueduct, from just south of Apache Junction to the area of the Picacho Reservoir, south of Florence. The area under investigation is largely low desert drained by intermittent washes of variable size, the largest being Siphon Draw and Queen Creek. The single major stream is the Gila River. Chronologically, the sites range largely from the Colonial to the Classic periods of the Hohokam sequence; however, precise temporal placement of many is not possible. Part I presents the results of investigations at 12 sites along Reaches 1 and 2. These include a small, possible habitation site and 11 artifact scatters, four of which contained roasting pits. Evidence exists at several of the sites for the processing of yucca, choIla, and "hog potato." Models for the interpretation of plant processing loci presented in other recent studies are critically examined. Part II reports on nine sites along Reach 3. All are artifact scatters, several including rock clusters. Plant remains recovered from some of the sites suggest they were used for wild plant processing on a year-round basis and that similar plant resources were exploited at both Queen Creek and Gila River sites. Part III examines seven small sites south of the Gila River along Reach 4. The prehistoric sites include two with small structures, three with roasting pits, and one with a hearth; all include artifact scatters. All apparently functioned primarily as locations for gathering or processing wild plants including mesquite, cholla, and Plantago. Remains of maize and cotton suggest farming, perhaps using floodwater techniques at nearby washes. The single historic site located was apparently occupied for a short time in the early twentieth century, probably between 1915 and 1925. Part IV represents an intensive study of prehistoric agricultural and water control features along the aqueduct. Archaeological evidence suggests three different prehistoric agricultural strategies: irrigation, rainfall conservation, and floodwater farming making use of ephemeral streams. Three large, prehistoric reservoirs were discovered and are described in detail. Finally, several probable prehistoric fields were located. Remains recovered from the various sites suggest a wide variety of plants were being utilized.


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Cite this Record

Hohokam Archaeology along the Salt-Gila Aqueduct Central Arizona Project, Volume III: Specialized Activity Sites. Lynn S. Teague, Patricia L. Crown. Archaeological Series ,No. 150. 1983 ( tDAR id: 376361) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8BG2PVX


Keywords

Culture
Historic Hohokam

Material
Building Materials Ceramic Chipped Stone Fauna Fire Cracked Rock Glass Ground Stone Human Remains Macrobotanical Pollen Shell Wood

Site Name
AZ AA:3:20(ASM) AZ AA:3:21(ASM) AZ AA:3:22(ASM) AZ AA:3:26(ASM) AZ U:10:10(MNA) AZ U:10:11(ASM) AZ U:10:11(MNA) AZ U:10:12(ASM) AZ U:10:13(ASM) AZ U:10:13(MNA) AZ U:10:14(ASM) AZ U:10:14(MNA) AZ U:10:15(ASM) AZ U:10:15(MNA) AZ U:10:16(ASM) AZ U:10:16(MNA) AZ U:10:17(ASM) AZ U:10:18(ASM) AZ U:10:18(MNA) AZ U:10:20(ASM) AZ U:10:21(ASM) AZ U:10:3(MNA) AZ U:10:30(ASM) AZ U:10:5(ASM) AZ U:10:5(MNA) AZ U:10:7(MNA) AZ U:10:8(ASM) AZ U:10:8(MNA) AZ U:10:9(MNA) AZ U:14:73(ASM) AZ U:15:100(ASM) AZ U:15:102(ASM) AZ U:15:103(ASM) AZ U:15:46(ASM) AZ U:15:48(ASM) AZ U:15:57(ASM) AZ U:15:61(ASM) AZ U:15:64(ASM) AZ U:15:67(ASM) AZ U:15:68(ASM) AZ U:15:69(ASM) AZ U:15:71(ASM) AZ U:15:72(ASM) AZ U:15:73(ASM) AZ U:15:74(ASM) AZ U:15:75(ASM) AZ U:15:98(ASM) Frog Pond Smiley's Well

Site Type
Agricultural Field or Field Feature Agricultural Terrace Bordered Garden Canal or Canal Feature Checkdam Hamlet / Village Land Snails Pit House / Earth Lodge Reservoir Roasting Pit / Oven / Horno Rock Alignment Room Block / Compound / Pueblo Specialized Activity Sites Water Control Feature


Temporal Coverage

Calendar Date: 700 to 1450


Spatial Coverage

min long: -111.695; min lat: 32.87 ; max long: -111.247; max lat: 33.522 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contact(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

Contributor(s): Earl W. Sires, Jr. ; Frank Hull ; Allen Dart ; William Deaver ; Suzanne K. Fish ; Charles H. Miksicek ; Russell J. Barber ; Richard J. Harrington

Principal Investigator(s): Lynn S. Teague

Sponsor(s): USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

Prepared By(s): Cultural Resource Management Division, Arizona State Museum ; University of Arizona

Submitted To(s): USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office


Record Identifiers

NADB document id number(s): 2203981

Bureau of Reclamation Contract No.(s): 0-07-32-V0101

NADB citation id number(s): 000000168083

File Information

  Name Size Creation Date Date Uploaded Access
sgavolume3.pdf 26.76mb Apr 22, 2013 2:13:08 PM Public
Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America