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Central Arizona Project

Part of: USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office (PXAO)

The Bureau of Reclamation’s Central Arizona Project (CAP) collection presents results of the extensive cultural resource investigations conducted during the planning, construction, and maintenance of the project’s water delivery systems and associated infrastructure. The wide scope and expansive scale of CAP archaeology represent an impressive and now integral contribution to Southwestern archaeology, and much of the work changed and challenged many conceptions of Arizona’s prehistory. The collection’s materials are organized according to the CAP’s water delivery systems and other structures. Within each of these delivery system collections, materials are further divided into archaeological projects and tasks that were conducted to investigate cultural resources

The CAP is a multipurpose water resource development and management project that provides irrigation, municipal and industrial water, power, flood control, outdoor recreation, environmental enhancement and sediment control. The project also provides delivery of Tribal homeland water, partial settlement of Indian water rights claims, and economic benefits accruing from the leasing of Indian agricultural water rights to municipal entities. Water is provided to lands in Maricopa, Pinal and Pima counties, and to several communities, including the metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson. Authorization also was included for development of facilities to deliver water to Catron, Hidalgo, and Grant Counties in New Mexico. In addition to water delivery systems, the CAP includes power generation infrastructure, principally participation in the Navajo Generation Station and a transmission system to supply power to pumping plants and check structures of the Hayden-Rhodes, Fannin-McFarland and Tucson aqueducts

For administration and construction purposes, the CAP was divided into the Granite Reef, Orme, Salt-Gila, Gila River, Tucson, and the Indian and Non-Indian Distribution divisions. During project construction, the Orme Division was re-formulated and renamed the Regulatory Storage Division; it includes New Waddell Dam and Camp Dyer Diversion Dam. Upon completion, the Granite Reef Division was re-named the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, and the Salt-Gila Division was renamed the Fannin-McFarland Aqueduct.

The CAP was authorized by the Colorado River Basin Project Act of 1968. Construction of the project began in 1973 with the award of a contract for the Havasu Intake Channel Dike and excavation for the Havasu Pumping Plant (Mark Wilmer Pumping Plant) on the shores of Lake Havasu. Construction of the other project features followed. The backbone aqueduct system, which runs about 336 miles from Lake Havasu to a terminus southwest of Tucson, was declared substantially complete in 1993. The new and modified dams constructed as part of the project were declared substantially complete in 1994. All of the non-Indian agricultural water distribution systems were completed in the late 1980s, as were most of the municipal water delivery systems. Several Indian distribution systems are either under construction or remain to be built; it is estimated that full development of these systems could require another 20 years or longer.

When authorized, the plan included the construction of Hooker Dam and Buttes Dam on the Gila River to provide conservation storage, flood and sediment control, and recreation opportunities, and the construction of Orme Dam at the junction of the Salt and Verde Rivers to provide flood protection and water conservation. None of these facilities were built. Although authorized, Buttes Dam and Hooker Dam on the Gila River (in New Mexico) and Charleston Dam on the San Pedro River were not constructed because of cost considerations, a lack of demand for the water, lack of repayment capability by the users, and environmental constraints. To fulfill the authorized functions of Orme Dam, Plan 6 was developed. Plan 6 is the Regulatory Storage Division of the project and includes New Waddell Dam and Camp Dryer Diversion Dam located on the Agua Fria River, a tributary of the Gila River, and a modified Roosevelt and Stewart Mountain dams on the Salt River. These two dams predate the project and have been modified for safety and increased storage capacity.


Resources Inside This Collection (Viewing 1-100 of 319)

Ak-Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Data Recovery Project

  1. Ak-Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Data Recovery Project
  2. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: Material Cultural and Human Remains (1990)
  3. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: Research Design (1986)
  4. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: Subsistence Studies and Synthesis and Interpretation (1990)
  5. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: The Archaeological Data Recovery Program (1990)
  6. Archaeology of the Ak Chin Indian Community West Side Farms Project: The Land and the People (1990)

Archaeological Assessment of 16 Sites at Lake Pleasant Regional Park

  1. Archaeological Assessment of 16 Sites at Lake Pleasant Regional Park
  2. Archaeological Assessment of 16 Sites at Lake Pleasant Regional Park: Photo Log (2008)
  3. Archaeological Assessment of 16 Sites at Lake Pleasant Regional Park: Select Photos (2008)

An Archaeological Reassessment and Evaluation of Eight Site Clusters Around Horseshoe Reservoir, Tonto National Forest

  1. An Archaeological Reassessment and Evaluation of Eight Site Clusters Around Horseshoe Reservoir, Tonto National Forest
  2. An Archaeological Reassessment and Evaluation of Eight Site Clusters Around Horseshoe Reservoir, Tonto National Forest (1993)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 1, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 1, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 1 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1980)
  3. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 1 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 10, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 10, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
  2. An Archaeological Survey of the Reach 10 Realignment of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1976)
  3. Investigation of Archaeological Sites Along Reach 10, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona (1976)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 11, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 11, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 11 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
  3. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 11 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 12, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 12, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 12 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1980)
  3. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 12 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 2, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 2, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations of Cultural Resources Located Along Reach 2 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)
  3. Archaeological Survey Results from Reach 2 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 3, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 3, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 3 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)
  3. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 3 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 4, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 4, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 4 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
  3. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 4, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5 Within a Borrow Area, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5 Within a Borrow Area, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona
  2. An Archaeological Clearance Survey of a Borrow Area Associated with Reach 5, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona (1976)
  3. Archaeological Investigations Within a Borrow Area Associated with Reach 5, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona (1976)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5A, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5A, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Within a Floodwater Detention Basin, Reach 5A, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona (1976)
  3. An Archaeological Survey of the Floodwater Retention Basin, Reach 5A, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Yuma and Maricopa Counties, Arizona (1976)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5B, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 5B, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 5B of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
  3. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 5B of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 6, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 6, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
  2. An Archaeological Survey of Reach 6, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona (1977)
  3. A Cultural Resource Inventory of the Proposed Temporary Maintenance Yard near Reach 6 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 7, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 7, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 7 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)
  3. Cultural Resource Survey Results from Reach 7 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 8, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 8, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along Reach 8 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)
  3. A Cultural Resource Survey of Reach 8 of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, (1978)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 9, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along Reach 9, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations at AZ T:4:53 (ASU), A Site Located Along the Reach 9 Completion of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
  3. An Archaeological Survey of the Reach 9 Realignment, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona (1977)
  4. A Cultural Resource Survey of the Reach 9 Completion, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1979)
  5. Investigations of Archaeological Sites Along Reach 9 Realignment, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona (1977)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along the Bouse Hills-Harcuvar-Little Harquahala 115 kV Transmission Lines, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along the Bouse Hills-Harcuvar-Little Harquahala 115 kV Transmission Lines, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along the Bouse Hills-Harcuvar-Little Harquahala Transmission Lines, Features of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1980)
  3. A Cultural Resource Survey of the Bouse Hills-Harcuvar-Little Harquahala 115 kV Transmission Lines, Central Arizona Project (1979)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along the Liberty-Parker-Hassayampa Transmission Line, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz and Maricopa Counties, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along the Liberty-Parker-Hassayampa Transmission Line, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, La Paz and Maricopa Counties, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along the Liberty-Parker 230 kV Transmission Line, Central Arizona Project (1978)
  3. A Cultural Resource "Re-Survey" of the Liberty-Parker 230 kV Transmission Line Right-of-Way, Central Arizona Project (1978)
  4. A Cultural Resource Survey of Realigned Portions of the Liberty-Parker and Parker-Havasu Transmission Lines and Harcuvar Substation (1978)
  5. A Cultural Resource Survey of the Liberty-Parker-Hassayampa Transmission Line (1980)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along the McCullough-Davis 230 kV Transmission Line, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Clark County, Nevada and Mohave County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations Along the McCullough-Davis 230 kV Transmission Line, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Clark County, Nevada and Mohave County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations Along the McCullough-Davis Transmission Line, a Feature of the Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1980)
  3. A Cultural Resource Survey of the McCullough-Davis 230 kV Transmission Line, Clark County, Nevada, A Feature of the Granite Reef Transmission System, Central Arizona Project (1979)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations of the Burnt Mountain and Agua Fria Tunnels, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations of the Burnt Mountain and Agua Fria Tunnels, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project, Maricopa County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations of Cultural Resources Located in the Burnt Mountain and Agua Fria Tunnels Right-of-Way, Central Arizona Project (1978)
  3. Archaeological Survey of Burnt Mountain and Agua Fria Tunnels, Granite Reef Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project (1978)

Archaeological Survey and Investigations of the Havasu Pumping Plant Borrow Area, Mohave County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey and Investigations of the Havasu Pumping Plant Borrow Area, Mohave County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Investigations of Cultural Resources Located in the Havasu Pumping Plant Borrow Area, Central Arizona Project (1978)
  3. Cultural Resources Survey Results from the Proposed Havasu Pumping Plant Borrow Area, Central Arizona Project (1978)

Archaeological Survey for the Tucson Aqueduct System Reliability Investigations (TASRI) Reservoir, Pima County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Survey for the Tucson Aqueduct System Reliability Investigations (TASRI) Reservoir, Pima County, Arizona
  2. An Archaeological Survey of Nearly 1000 Acres for the Tucson Aqueduct System Reliability Investigations Avra Valley, Pima County, Arizona (1994)
  3. Final Report on an Archaeological Survey of 880 Acres for the Tucson Aqueduct System Reliability Investigations Within the Avra Valley (1993)
  4. Final Report on Archaeological Survey of 320 Acres on the Pascua Yaqui Reservation (1993)
  5. Letter Report: Class III (Intensive) Cultural Resource Survey of 320 Acres for New Land Recently Identified for the Tucson Aqueduct System Reliability Investigations (1995)

Archaeological Survey of Five Parcels Around Roosevelt Lake

  1. Archaeological Survey of Five Parcels Around Roosevelt Lake
  2. Archaeological Survey of the Salt River and Windy Hill Parcels Around Roosevelt Lake, Tonto Basin Ranger District, Tonto National Forest, Gila County, Arizona (1992)
  3. Archaeological Survey of the Schoolhouse Point, Cottonwood Wash, and Indian Point Parcels Around Roosevelt Lake, Tonto Basin Ranger District, Tonto National Forest, Gila County, Arizona (1992)

Archaeological Survey on the Ak Chin Indian Reservation, West Half

  1. Archaeological Survey on the Ak Chin Indian Reservation, West Half
  2. The Ak Chin Farm Project: Archaeological Survey on the Ak Chin Indian Reservation, West Half (1983)

Archaeological Testing at AZ T:3:79(ASM) in Lake Pleasant Regional Park, Yavapai County, Arizona

  1. Archaeological Testing at AZ T:3:79(ASM) in Lake Pleasant Regional Park, Yavapai County, Arizona
  2. Archaeological Testing at AZ T:3:79(ASM) in Lake Pleasant Regional Park, Yavapai County, Arizona (1993)

Cultural Resource Assessment of 13 Sites in Lake Pleasant Regional Park, Yavapai County, Arizona

  1. Cultural Resource Assessment of 13 Sites in Lake Pleasant Regional Park, Yavapai County, Arizona
  2. Cultural Resource Assessment of 13 Archaeological Sites Located in Lake Pleasant Regional Park (2006)
  3. Cultural Resource Assessment of 13 Archaeological Sites Located in Lake Pleasant Regional Park: Photo Log (2006)
  4. Cultural Resource Assessment of 13 Archaeological Sites Located in Lake Pleasant Regional Park: Select Photos (2006)

Cultural Resources Assessment of 22 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reaches 1 and 2 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal

  1. Cultural Resources Assessment of 22 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reaches 1 and 2 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal
  2. Cultural Resources Assessment of 22 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reaches 1 and 2 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal (2006)
  3. Photolog for Photos from Cultural Resources Assessment of 22 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reaches 1 and 2 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal (2006)
  4. Photos from the Cultural Resources Assessment of 22 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reaches 1 and 2 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal (2006)

Cultural Resources Assessment of 23 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 3 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal

  1. Cultural Resources Assessment of 23 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 3 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal
  2. Cultural Resources Assessment of 23 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 3 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal (2007)
  3. Photolog for the Photos from the Cultural Resources Assessment of 23 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 3 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal (2007)
  4. Photos from the Cultural Resources Assessment of 23 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 3 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal (2007)

Cultural Resources Assessment of 28 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 4 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal

  1. Cultural Resources Assessment of 28 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 4 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal
  2. Cultural Resources Assessment of 28 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 4 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal (2009)
  3. Photolog for Photos from the Cultural Resources Assessment of 28 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 4 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal (2009)
  4. Photos from the Cultural Resources Assessment of 28 Archaeological Sites Located Along Reach 4 of the Fannin-McFarland Portion of the CAP Canal (2009)
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Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America