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Society for American Archaeology 82nd Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC (2017)

Part of: Society for American Archaeology

The Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology provides a forum for the dissemination of knowledge and discussion. The 82nd Annual Meeting was held in Vancouver, BC, Canada from March 29–April 2, 2017.


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Documents

  • $1.87 Each, Four Feet Long and Over; $0.87 Each, Less than Four Feet: A Spatial Analysis of Coffin Type and Coffin Hardware from the Milwaukee County Poor Farm Cemetery. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Excavations at the Milwaukee County Poor Farm Cemetery (MCPFC) in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin in 1991 and 1992 recovered 1649 individuals associated with Milwaukee County’s practice from the mid-1800s through 1974 of providing burial for institutional residents, unidentified or unclaimed individuals sent from the Coroner’s Office, and community poor. In 2013, Historic Resource Management Services of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee recovered an additional 632 individual coffin burials representing...

  • A 1000-Year Record of Cahokia Region Population Change through Fecal Stanol Biomarker Analysis (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Determining the timing and magnitude of Cahokia’s demographic rise and fall is crucial to understanding the reasons for its advance and collapse. Fecal stanol biomarker analysis is an emergent geoarchaeological method that may provide a more direct record of Cahokia region population change than previous population estimates. This study analyzed sediment from Horseshoe Lake, Illinois for fecal stanol content to establish a population proxy of the Cahokia region. The stanol record indicates...

  • 13,000 Years of Obsidian Prospecting in Eastern Beringia: A Status Report on Obsidian Source Studies in Alaska and Yukon (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The archaeological record of Eastern Beringia plays an important role in understanding global human dispersals and settlement, and is a proving ground for testing ideas about high latitude hunter-gatherer land use, technology, and socioeconomic interaction. Obsidian provenance studies provide an excellent means to address these issues. Since 2006 we have compiled, organized and generated new obsidian geochemical analyses for more than 11,000 artifacts from 1200 sites across Alaska and Yukon...

  • 1300 years of a Classic Maya ceramic tradition at El Perú-Waka’, Guatemala (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    In the course of 13 field seasons, archaeologists have carried out 23 operations across the ruined city of El Perú-Waka’. During these investigations, excavators recovered upwards of a million ceramic sherds from a wide variety of contexts; palaces, pyramids, residences, sheet middens, construction fill, ritual deposits, spoil piles, termination deposits, votive deposits, surface collections, burials, caches, and tombs. The excavation contexts are good enough, the quality of preservation...

  • 2000 Years of Eating: Continuity and change in food practices among the Puuc Maya (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This paper examines the evidence for what and how the Maya of the Puuc region ate during the long history of occupation of this region. Data collected from almost two decades of research by the Bolonchen Regional Archaeological Project and covering close to two millennium of occupation are used in this exploration of eating. Household archaeology primarily from the site of Kiuic and the suburban site of Stairway to Heaven, and ceramic data from throughout the BRAP study area provide insights...

  • The 2016 Season at El Rayo, Nicaragua: Civic-Ceremonial Structures, Tombs, and Feasting from the Bagaces to Sapoa Transition (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Expanding on prior field seasons, the 2016 field school at El Rayo, with the support of the Institute for Field Research, continued the exploration of the unique Bagaces to Sapoa transition period site, located on the Asese Peninsula, Lake Nicaragua. This season focused of the excavation of four loci, continuing to explore previous questions regarding cultural activities in Pacific Nicaragua. Loci 2 and 4, which had been studied in previous field seasons were expanded, while new Loci 6 and 7...

  • 3D Archaeology at MAE/USP (Brazil): Practices and Perspectives (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The use of digital photogrammetry and 3D scanning as tools for archaeological heritage record, analysis and dissemination has increased markedly in recent years. Using these technologies a post-doctoral project is currently in progress at the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (MAE) of São Paulo University, Brazil with the scope to document, record and analyse the animal stone figurines collection at the Museum. The objects are threefold: 1) to use photogrammetry and 3D scanner technologies to...

  • A 3D Method for Measuring Platform Angles on Lithic Flakes (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The measurement of platform angles on lithic flakes by hand is notoriously difficult, and is plagued by intra- and inter-observer variability. The measurement method proposed in this poster uses 3D models of flakes loaded into Blender, a free open-source 3D design program. After identifying the platform, two points (a) and (b) are defined at the intersections of the left and right lateral margins and the platform. A line (a-b) is drawn between these two points, ignoring any platform roundedness...

  • 3D Modeling and Virtual Reality for Condition Assessments and Educational Outreach Tools Documenting Rock Art in Little Petroglyph Canyon, Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, California (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Aerial photography with unmanned aerial systems (UASs), 3D modeling through photogrammetry, and the development of virtual reality environments are methods that are taking root within the discipline of archaeology. Developments in hardware and software over the past several years have led greater numbers of archaeologists to adopt these methods with more diverse applications. PaleoWest Archaeology, working under contract with our partners at PacArctic for Naval Facilities Engineering Command...

  • 3D Modeling the Sites of the Virgin Branch Ancestral Puebloan with Photogrammetry and BIM (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    On the Shivwits Plateau, there is scarce information concerning how the Virgin Branch Ancestral Puebloan people constructed their pueblos. This is a result of post-depositional processes that have destroyed much of the building materials. To overcome this hurdle, 3D Building Information Modeling (BIM) is allowing archaeologists to reconstruct these ancient structures digitally. These digital 3D models output volumetric data that are used to estimate material quantities, labor investments, and to...

  • 4,000 years of animal translocations: Mocha Island and its zooarchaeological record (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Islands are territories that allow us to assess phenomena and processes in a way that is impossible to do in the mainland. One of these concerns the human interaction with animals that are usually considered as wild. The case of Mocha Island (Chile; South Pacific, 38,36°S) is remarkable because of its small size (50 km2), proximity to the mainland (30 km), three different and independent human occupation events, and an endemic terrestrial fauna constituted only by small reptiles, amphibians,...

  • 400 Years of History and Cross-cultural Interactions in a Ritually Mounded Landscape of South Tanna, Vanuatu (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    A mounded landscape in south Vanuatu provides archaeological evidence relating to chiefly performance, voyaging, and ritual transformation during a period of cross-cultural contacts spanning 400 years or more. The site of Kwaraka is located at the southern end of Tanna Island. The area has a view on clear days of the neighbouring islands Futuna and Aniwa, and there is ethnohistoric evidence of long-term patterns of interaction between Tannese people and the people of these nearby islands....

  • 7x105 Dimensions of Pottery: Multivariate Analyses of Pottery Assemblages from the Lower Town Site of Mycenae, Greece (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    During excavation, it is often safer to record areas separately and later identify associations between strata across a site. Such practice waits until detailed analyses can be conducted and avoids erroneously comparing material from separate depositions. However, the process can lead to more identified strata than are truly present. This project considered relative frequencies of pottery fabrics as a multivariate dataset to characterize and analyze site formation at the Lower Town site of...

  • 9,000-year-old cereal meals: new methods for the analysis of charred food remains from Çatalhöyük East (Turkey) (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Remains of archaeological cereal preparations are often recovered from archaeological Neolithic sites across the Near East and Europe through flotation. These are recognizable as seemingly amorphous charred fragments of plant material. The study of these charred fragments of ancient meals is of considerable importance because the identification of their components allows the characterization of the nature of the food types represented, and their preparation, provides insights into past culinary...

  • A-Maize-ing: Phytolith evidence for an early introduction of maize in the Upper Great Lakes diet (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    There is no recorded maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) at Laurel or North Bay Initial/Middle Woodland sites in the northern Lake Michigan-Huron or Superior basins of the western Great Lakes, despite the presence of maize microbotanicals in Michigan, New York, and Quebec as early as 400 BC. To evaluate the potential for an early maize presence in this region, samples of carbonized food residues adhering to sixteen ceramic vessels from the Laurel/North Bay Winter site (20DE17) were processed and...

  • Abalone in the Archaeological Record of Barkley Sound (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This report focuses on the northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) recovered in the 2016 excavation of Hup’kisakuu7a (Site 93T) in Pacific Rim National Park. This study combines an analysis of the data recovered through archaeological excavation and column sampling at 93T, a review of neighbouring archaeological site reports, and the collection and measurement of a modern assemblage of abalone shells. The aim was to answer three research questions: first, how ubiquitous is the presence of...

  • Abnormalies of Horse Vertebrae from Xigou Site and Shirenzigou Site in Xinjiang (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This research examines seven horse skeletons unearthed from the burials and sacrificial pits of the late Warring States Period to the early Western Han Dynasty at the Shirenzigou and Xigou sites in Xinjiang. Vertebrae were observed for lesions such as hyperostosis, asymmetry, spinal fusion, horizontal fractures on epiphyses, and dorsal inter-pressing or joining of the vertebrae. Because the abnormalities are similar to those identified as the result of horseback riding in archaeological research...

  • About Face: A Head-On Examination of Pre-Columbian Social Identity (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    A desire for art to reflect social identity is made apparent through prolific representations of human faces in Pre-Columbian ceramics. The ceramic art of Greater Nicoya and the surrounding regions demonstrates an intrinsic drive to communicate distinct group characteristics and illustrates the importance of individuals’ bodies as instruments of both personal expression and social relationships. Physical expressions of collective identity foster a sense of belonging and satisfy the human desire...

  • Above and Below the Waves: Advances in the Search for a Late Pleistocene Colonization of California’s Islands (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Methodological advances are reshaping our understanding of island colonization. Refinements in dating methods, paleoenvironmental reconstructions, and search techniques have resulted in discoveries that challenge outdated theories of islands as marginal to human migration, settlement, and subsistence. This is particularly true for research related to the initial peopling of the New World via a Pacific Coast route. Once considered irrelevant to the story of New World colonization, California’s...

  • Absorbed Residue Evidence of Datura Use in Mississippian Contexts (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    We recently identified residues indicative of the preparation of Datura in ceramic and shell vessels dating to the Mississippian period (900-1600 CE) of the southeastern United States in the collections of the Gilcrease Museum. Datura is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds and flowers contain tropane alkaloids that produce hallucinogenic effects when consumed by people. The use of Datura for a variety of medicinal ritual practices is well established among Native Americans today and in the...

  • An Abundance of Data: The Opportunities and Constraints of Digital Media Utilization at Fort Snelling National Historic Landmark (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Intensively recorded, researched, and utilized historic and archaeological sites present many unique opportunities and issues in their study and interpretation. One such site is Fort Snelling National Historic Landmark. The large amounts of historic map and archival data available throughout the history of Fort Snelling allows for both more complete, and more complex understandings of the site. The use of georeferenced archival maps can highlight and visualize a timeline for the progression of...

  • Accelerating History and Bayesian Models: The Rapid Emergence of Agropastoralism and the Tiwanaku State in the Lake Titicaca Basin, South America (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Long-term cultural change can be non-linear and punctuated by brief episodes of accelerating history. Such episodes, or emergent phenomena, have been described by a diverse set of theoretical approaches such as complexity theory, complex adaptive systems, panarchy, resilience theory, "eventful" sociology and archaeology, and the Annales School of History. These episodes can result in profound, lasting changes for large groups of people, but can happen too fast to be clearly documented without...

  • Accelerating the "Maddeningly Slow Work of Archaeology" in the Forested Maya Lowlands (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Investigations in the thickly forested Peten region is complicated by lack of roads, water, communications, visibility and other things we often take for granted even in archaeology. In most cases the time it takes for results of such field work to reach a general audience can be measured in years. Many of us have turned to technology to alleviate this situation but the gains can be less than what is expected. The advent of GPS handheld devices have been useful to locate sites (and ourselves)...

  • Acheulean Hominin Ecology: Organic Residue on Lithics as Evidence of Plant Processing (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Several compendia have illustrated the reach of conventional approaches to exploring the origin of omnivorous diets. Included are the cost of developing large brains and bodies; tooth size/shape, enamel thickness, wear; and the chemical signal from diet on bones/teeth. Over the last decade, new interpretations of human origins have proposed a long history of fire dependence, suggesting humans are biologically adapted to cooked food. However, these studies have not provided direct indication of...

  • Acorn Oil Rendering in the Upper Great Lakes (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Recent research in the Upper Great Lakes region has demonstrated the importance of acorns as a dietary staple. As a plentiful and easily storable source of carbohydrates and fats, acorns provide an excellent dietary complement. Organic residue analysis of pottery sherds and fire-cracked rock from Grand Island, Michigan yielded lipid profiles consistent with nut oil, suggesting that the vessels may have been used to process acorns through boiling or simmering. In order to make many species of...

  • Activist Archaeology and Queer Feminist Critiques in Mesoamerican Archaeology (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    One of the strengths of prehistoric archaeology is its ability to document the full range of human variation. For Latin America, activist archaeology has the potential to inform postcolonial and Third World feminist critiques that challenge white supremacist legal systems that marginalize women of color and indigenous peoples. The false universalisms and cultural essentialisms found in human rights debates ignore the diverse experiences of women’s oppression, especially the indigenous, poor,...

  • Activity Area Analysis of Elite and Commoner Spaces in the Ancient Maya City of Actuncan, Belize (2016)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This report describes the results of a geochemical analysis of nearly 1,000 samples from earthen and plaster surfaces at Actuncan, a prehispanic Maya city in western Belize. Studies of the social, political, and economic relationships between elites and commoners demonstrate that the lived experiences of both groups were dramatically different. However, we know little about how social roles and relationships impacted the organization and daily use of domestic and public spaces. Multivariate...

  • Adapting to harsh environment resulting changes in culture that led towards a new perception of the outer world: The birth of the Central European Neolithic (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    In the 6th millennium BC, first farmers reached the area between south east and central Europe, soon spreading into central Europe. About the character and identity of these first farmers at the boundary area, a series of new research results is available. At the boundary, harsh environmental conditions made their long well-working subsistence system unstable, as the ‘package’ of farming and mainly sheep and shifted to cattle keeping. Yet, it has hardly been investigated, what reflections of...

  • Adaptive Dietary Response to Long-Term Drought: Diachronic Stable Isotope Evidence from the Central Sierra Nevada, California (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This study examines human dietary responses to the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA), an extended period of warmer and drier environmental conditions from AD 900-1300, in the Central Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Stable isotope and radiocarbon analyses of human remains attributable to the Tuolumne Me-Wuk reveal individual-level dietary behaviors. Results show a region-specific "Central Sierran" pattern of resource use in the form of a distinctive isotopic signature relative to other areas...

  • Additional statistical and graphical methods for analyzing artifact orientations and site formation processes from total station proveniences (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The orientations in three dimensions of clasts within a deposit are known to be informative on processes that formed that deposit. In archaeological sites, a portion of the clasts in the deposit are introduced by non-geological processes and these are typically systematically recorded with total stations during excavations. By recording a second point on elongated clasts it is possible to quickly and precisely capture their orientation. The statistical and graphical techniques for analyzing...

  • Adolf Bandelier’s 1892-1894 Expedition to the Central Coast of Peru (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Adolf Francis Alphonse Bandelier (1840-1914) was an ethnologist and archaeologist best known for his work in the American Southwest. What is less well-known is Bandelier’s later years studying the ancient Andes, such as his 1892-1894 expedition on the central coast of Peru. Due to an unstable political environment, he moved his expedition to the Bolivian highlands and instead wrote about highland myths. Shortly thereafter, he passed away while pursuing historical sources in Seville, Spain to...

  • Advanced Imaging of Saudi Arabian Petroglyphs: How Science Informs Art. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    How petroglyph images are recorded in the field is instrumental for analysis, archiving and publishing data. Being prepared to implement multiple advanced imaging techniques provides numerous advantages. Because lighting conditions, preservation and manufacturing techniques vary from one petroglyph locality to the next, having the flexibility to apply different imaging options as appropriate greatly facilitates data retrieval. Many archaeological projects require that the bulk of the image...

  • Advancing the analysis of complex stratigraphy and house life histories at Keatley Creek on the Northwestern Canadian Plateau (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Digital methods have led to a new research paradigm in archaeology and have transformed the way in which archaeologists can engage with archaeological contexts or materials and ultimately understand the past. This paper discusses a few highlights resulting from implementing digital oriented methods and combined new conceptual approaches in the research at Keatley Creek on the Northwestern Canadian Plateau. Two primary objectives for digital methods have included improving resolution and...

  • Advertising the Empire: Purépecha Strategies in the Imperial Heartland at Angamuco, Michoacán (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Regime change is a social process that has occurred throughout human history and yet much is still unknown about how political developments shape local communities. This paper examines the impacts of the Late Postclassic (1350-1530 CE) Purépecha Empire on residents at Angamuco, an ancient city within the Lake Pátzcuaro Basin imperial heartland in Michoacán, Mexico. Imperial narratives in ethnohistoric texts emphasize that authorities controlled craft production, tribute, and social practices....

  • Advocating for the Morrow Jones Cabin: Archaeological Investigations at a Historic Homestead (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) manages over two million acres of state land. Forbes State Forest, located in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, is home to numerous cultural resources, including the Morrow Jones cabin. Given its location on state-owned property, neglect and natural decay are greater threats to this historic house than development, yet DCNR has limited funding and a finite amount of time to devote to such resources. Detailed study of this house...

  • Aeolian Geoforming at a Preceramic Mound in Coastal Peru (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Los Morteros is a preceramic mound located on the North Coast of Peru composed of anthropogenic structures interlayered with aeolian deposits. A study combing multidisciplinary approaches and methodologies was used to evaluate the hypothesis of mound construction through intentional aeolian sand deposition via manipulation of strong winds across the desert environment. Wind velocities were measured across the site and in the surrounding valley. A complex wind model was created utilizing these...

  • African Ancestry or Neanderthal-Human Genetic Admixture in Eurasians? African Diversity Matters. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Neanderthal and Denisovan genetic admixture with Eurasian modern humans, and a "signature" of Neanderthal admixture in African populations, are widely accepted "facts". Inferences of admixture are based mainly on the assumption that Yoruba, San and/or Pygmy populations contain all African genetic variation. Variants shared among Neanderthals and modern Eurasians, but not present in these Africans, are assumed to reflect 2-4% admixture. However, genetic diversity and geographic structure are...

  • After the War: An Analysis of the Mortality of American Soldiers from the Last Century (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This historical archaeological analysis examines differences in the age of mortality for US Army personnel who fought for America in the last 100 years. This study centers on the historical data gathered from historic mortuary monuments and compare that data with contemporary mortuary monuments. Specifically, I focus on the timing of death for returning veterans and the increased occurrence over time and by war, as reported by Veterans Affairs (2016). The data are separated by years of service,...

  • The Afterlife in Exile: Butterfly Imagery on Teotihuacan-style Censers from the Pacific Coast of Guatemala (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The Teotihuacan-style censers from Guatemala have received relatively little attention since the 1980s. Following upon earlier suggestions for a merchant-warrior presence in the Escuintla region, this study examines the butterfly imagery on a group of Teotihuacan-style censers in the national collections of Guatemala. This group of unprovenanced artifacts has research value because (1) its original imagery is intact, and (2) all have been sampled for paste analysis (instrumental neutron...

  • The Afterlife of the Charnel Chapel at Rothwell (Northamptonshire, UK) (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The practice of charnelling human remains has recently been revealed to have been widespread in medieval England, with chapels specially built for this purpose. However, this practice ceased at the time of the early sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation, and the charnel chapels were emptied and in some cases demolished. A rare exception is at Rothwell (Northamptonshire, UK), which survived the Reformation intact, apparently because it was closed up at this time with the charnel in situ. The...

  • Age-at-Death Estimations from Helton Mound 20 (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The original age at death estimations of the adult individuals excavated from Helton Mound 20 (Middle to Late Woodland) in the Lower Illinois Valley were re-evaluated using Transition Analysis. In addition, a taphonomic evaluation of each individual was undertaken to determine the ways in which the bones would have been modified during their interment. The goal is to understand how the current recognition of taphonomic processes differs from the original estimations from the 1970s and how that...

  • Agelah and the Powershot: Digital Possibilities for Alternate Ways of Knowing in Archaeology (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Digital recording methods offer a range of new means of collecting, organizing, and presenting archaeological information, which lead to new ways of thinking about the past. Capitalizing on the intuitive design of digital technologies additionally creates the potential for communities whose voices have been missing from the archaeological record to contribute their perspectives. In this paper, I draw upon my experiences experimenting with multimedia recording strategies at Petra, Jordan and at...

  • Agency, Structure and the Neo-Liberal Turn (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Recent theoretical over-emphasis on human agency and denial of the significance of socio-cultural structure presents a radical challenge to a century of research. It implies that Durkheim, Boas, Weber, etc., are irrelevant, and that long-standing structures of inequality (e.g., of gender or race) somehow do not exist or are not important. Examination of recent human-agency studies illustrates that, instead of studying human agency as action, interpretations are based on the kinds of structures...

  • Aging Mandibular Bison Teeth with ArcGIS (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This talk presents a new, non-destructive, empirical, and replicable method for aging bison teeth with mandibular tooth photos and ArcGIS digital mapping. Tooth eruption, growth, and attrition can document age-at-death, which informs on hunting strategies, occupation seasonality, environmental conditions, and herd health. Previous dentition studies utilize numerous tooth metrics that commonly require specimen-destructive research methods. Also, occlusal wear age estimates rely on subjective wear...

  • Agouti commensalism? An open question in the prehistoric Lesser Antilles, West Indies (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Light isotope data for bone collagen, bone apatite, and tooth enamel apatite have been collected for prehistoric agouti (Dasyprocta sp.) recovered from secure archaeological contexts on Carriacou (Sabazan and Grand Bay) and Nevis (Coconut Walk) in the Lesser Antilles, West Indies. Stable carbon isotope ratios of individual specimens exhibit a wide range of values for both bone collagen (-20.0‰ to -11.5‰; avg = -17.8‰) and bone apatite (-13.6 to -6.5‰), with apatite-collagen spacing also quite...

  • Agrarian Landscapes of coastal Croatia: a view from Nadin-Gradina (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Generalized models of Mediterranean agroecosystems often elide the specific historical and political contexts in which food production necessarily takes place. This paper presents new historical-ecological research currently underway at the multi-period settlement site of Nadin-Gradina near the Adriatic coast of southern Croatia, a typically "Mediterranean" landscape that has hosted a dynamic social-political history of repeated invasion, migration, and colonization by a variety of human actors....

  • Agricultural Diversification, Perennials and Complex Societies in Mesopotamia and the Yellow River (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Mesopotamia and the Yellow River of China had long trajectories from early farming through to primary urbanisation, but to what extent do the archaeobotanical records indicate parallel developments in terms of agriculture? In both areas agriculture diversifies during the later Neolithic, with an increasing range of annual field crops as well as evidence for the cultivation of some perennials (tree fruits or vines). However, diversity was much higher in western Asia, from both a highly diverse...

  • Agricultural History of the Horn of Africa: New Archaeobotanical Evidence from Mezber (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Archaeobotanical analysis of samples from the site of Mezber are underway with the goal of investigating the early agricultural history of northern highland Ethiopia. Mezber is a Pre-Aksumite site excavated by the Eastern Tigrai Archaeological Project (ETAP) with cultural deposits dating from 1600 BCE to CE 1, and occupied over four phases. In 2014-16, a total of 59 soil samples ranging in size from 1.8 to 7.5 liters was processed by manual flotation. Macrobotanical remains from light fractions...

  • An Agricultural Landscape on the Northern Mimbres Frontier, South-Central New Mexico, USA (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The Cañada Alamosa is the northernmost frontier of the ancestral Pueblo Mimbres people of the U.S. Southwest. Intensive survey of a side canyon has defined a distinct agricultural landscape composed of small pueblos, farmsteads, field houses, shrines, and other features. Occupation was centered around alluvial fans located on the first terrace above the drainage, fed by runoff from upper terraces, rather than the floodwaters of the drainage bottom itself. While the Cañada Alamosa has significant...

  • Agricultural Productivity of Four Different Physiographic Zones in the Lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico: Using the Current Landscape as a Means to Facilitate an Understanding of Past Productivity (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    As part of the larger Río Verde Settlement Project (RVSP), soil sampling of different physiographic zones was conducted during the spring of 2016 in the lower Río Verde Valley. The major goal of this sampling program was to assess variation in soil fertility across the region, as related specifically to maize agriculture. The lower Verde Valley was broadly divided into four physiographic zones (floodplain, coastal plain, piedmont, and secondary valleys). Previous studies identified the...

  • Agriculture development in the Bronze Age Hexi Corridor-archaeobtanic evidence from Xichengyi site (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The combination of crops and weeds found in the site reflects a typical rainfed agriculture dominated by foxtail millet and broomcorn millet. Under the external cultural influences, wheat and barley started to be cultivated. Since late Machang culture and, through the agricultural development during the "Transitional type" period, were widely cultivated during the period of Siba culture, when marijuna appeared in the crop assemblages. The integrated study of archaeobotanical and...

  • Aknah and the moon spiners: gender relations and rituals in caves. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Mensabak Lake, in the Lacandon Rainforest, is surrounded by caves that were used as pilgrimage destinations and for different rituals in the Protohistoric period. The role of Maya women in the rituals and ceremonies has been delimited to fertility and dependency stereotypes not only in the historical documents but in the archaeological research. This presentation discusses Maya women’s participation in a multi-regional pilgrimage network having Mensabak as the epicentre.

  • Alaskan Game Drives: An Architectural Assessment (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Ethnographic accounts of communal hunting activities in Alaska are abundant, yet archaeological evidence of this practice is scarce. The inuksuit--elaborate stacked rock cairns--that demarcate many game drives in Alaska provide evidence of these important traditional subsistence strategies. Improved documentation of these features will facilitate a better understanding of not only their function but their meaning to the original builders and implementers of game drive systems. Comprehensive...

  • All the Gods of the World: Modern Maya Agricultural and Rain Ritual in Yucatan, Mexico (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The modern residents of Yucatán, Mexico blend traditional Maya beliefs in a pantheon of ancient gods and other supernatural forces with more recent Catholic traditions flowing from centuries of Spanish colonial influence. This paper compares and contrasts modern rituals from the Yucatec Maya village of Telchaquillo, Yucatán. Each rite was associated with a local cenote, limestone sinkholes that along with caves serve as accesses to the Maya underworld and homes to the gods themselves. My...

  • An Alpine Archaeological Landscape in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Wyoming (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The alpine archaeological record above 3000m of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem has received much less research attention than the adjacent plains, basins, and foothills. We have been working in an area of NW Wyoming where dense surface stone tool scatters, stone features (including some of the highest elevation habitation stone circles in the region) are associated with dwindling ice patches that have yielded both perishable artifactual material and an array of wood and bone that provides...

  • Alterations in South American Oral Health Through the Colonial Period: The Story of Ancient DNA Trapped Within Dental Calculus (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Interpreting the evolutionary history of bacterial communities within the human body (microbiota) is key to understanding the origin of many modern diseases. The link between humans and their microbiota can also be exploited to examine and track the extent and severity of human adaptation to the environment and impacts on health. Here, we utilize a shotgun sequencing approach to examine ancient DNA preserved within dental calculus from a wide range of ancient South Americans (n=162)....

  • Altica and the Role of Middlemen in Formative Obsidian Exchange (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Altica’s location, in the Patlachique Range 10 km away from the Otumba obsidian source, suggests a potentially significant role in the distribution of Otumba obsidian. Altica may have served as an important middleman and processing site in Formative obsidian exchange, but a greater understanding of the nature of these exchange relationships is required to define this role. This paper combines geochemical sourcing and technological data from obsidian from nine Early and Middle Formative sites,...

  • Altica ceramics and figurines: Stylistic and chronological analyses (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Craft specialization and exchange feature prominently in explanations for the development of the first complex societies in Mesoamerica. It is clear from analyses of surface collections at Altica that during the Early and early Middle Formative periods (c. 1300-850 B.C.) its inhabitants exported obsidian tools and imported pottery from long distances, including the southern Gulf Coast. Altica is one of the few early agricultural settlements located in the northern Basin of Mexico from which we...

  • The Altica Project: Reframing the Formative Basin of Mexico (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The Altica Project, that began in 2014, is an important step in addressing the limited problem-oriented research at Formative sites in the Basin of Mexico for over two decades. Altica is the earliest-known settled village in the Teotihuacan Valley and one of the only first-farming village sites in the Basin of Mexico that has not been engulfed by the urban sprawl of Mexico City. Despite its small size and remote location, Altica was an important piece in Early and Middle Formative exchange...

  • The ambivalence of caves and rockshelters in medieval Norway (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Caves and rockshelters occur frequently in Norway and they were extensively used as dwelling-sites for humans in most periods of the prehistory. During the transition to the medieval period (AD 550 – 1500), however, archaeological excavations show that their use changed significantly. From then on, they mainly served as offering sites, burial sites and as workshops for metal smiths and stone masons. This change may have been related to a change in the perceptions of caves and rockshelters. One...

  • American Pompeii: Old evidence on Late Classic ties between the Pacific Coast and the Antigua valley (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    An archaeological collection from finca Pompeya in the Antigua Guatemala valley provides significant information about Late Classic interaction with the adjacent Pacific coast. Excavated in 1893, the collection was eventually scattered to several museums in Germany, the United States, and Guatemala. However, it can be reconstructed from a photograph made not long after the discovery, and from newspaper reports that provide rough descriptions of the excavations. The objects themselves are still...

  • The anahuatl pectorals from the offerings of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The anahuatl pectoral is one of the shell ornaments that have been found in the offerings of the great temple of Tenochtitlan. In paintings and sculptures, it is worn by Tezcatlipoca and deities that are stars and warriors, as Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli and Mixcoatl. Inside the offerings, the anahuatl are associated to items related to the underworld, sacrifice and war. This has led to propose that these pectorals represented the stars, which were the warriors during the night. The presence of the...

  • Analysis of a late Archaic hearth feature at the Debra L. Friedkin Site in central Texas (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The Debra L. Friedkin Site (41BL1239) near Salado, Texas, is the oldest known, continually occupied site in North America. While the previous focus of excavations and analyses at the Friedkin Site has been on Paleoindian strata, this site also has extensive early and late Archaic components, and recent excavations in 2015 and 2016 uncovered a 3 m x 5 m series of five overlapping hearth features in the late Archaic strata (14C 4,000-1,250 B.P.). Projectile points, tools and organic materials...

  • Analysis of an Obsidian Source from the Cougar Pass Region of the Absaroka Mountain Range (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Obsidian samples from a variety of sites across Northwest Wyoming have been sourced using X-ray fluorescence and analyzed in order to determine the importance of a relatively unheard of source from the Cougar Pass region of the Absaroka Mountain Range. Artifacts manufactured with obsidian nodules from Cougar Pass have been found in archaeological contexts across Northwest Wyoming, extending as far as a presently unknown kilometer range from their source. The wide range of specimens from a...

  • Analysis of Ancient Chinese Pottery Utilizing X-Ray Fluorescence and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Field studies were performed at the Yangguanzhai Neolithic site near Xi’an, China, using an Olympus Delta Premium portable XRF spectrometer and an Agilent ExoScan FTIR spectrometer. 932 ceramic sherds collected from nine locations across the site were selected and classified based on color (red, tan and brown), decorations (painted, rope impression - cord or thread, and plain), and time period (Miaodigou and Banpo IV). Each sherd was broken, so that the analysis could be performed on a clean...

  • Analysis of bones and objects from the Viking Age site of Hrísbrú, Iceland (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    At the Hrísbrú site, located in the Mosfell valley just a few kilometers outside Iceland’s capital Reykjavik, the Mosfell Archaeological Project has excavated a 10th-11th century farmstead including a traditional Viking Age longhouse, a farm church with an associated cemetery, and a pagan cremation site. At the cemetery and the cremation site human remains in varying degrees of preservation have been unearthed, while in the longhouse a rich material record has been uncovered consisting of e.g....

  • An Analysis of Calluna Hill (59-73): Pequot Cultural Entanglement and Complex Consumption During the Pequot War (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This paper includes an overview of the Calluna Hill site (59-73) in Mystic, Connecticut, a 1637 Pequot village burned down immediately after the English siege of Mystic Fort. The site offers the opportunity to explore important methodological and theoretical questions. Here I focus on the village as the location of intense intercultural exchange and cultural entanglement. Calluna Hill offers insights into the complex ways that the Pequot consumed European-made goods and participated in...

  • Analysis of Culturally Derived Speleothem ny INAA: An Analytic Approach to Sourcing (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The occurrence of "foreign" ceramic materials as well as the breakage and transport of speleothems during ancient Maya cave visitations have become an increasingly well-documented phenomenon (Brady et al. 1997). This phenomenon has raised several questions such as the spatial and temporal extent of these interactions, practices, meaning and specifically what does all this tell us about the relationship between Maya polities and proximal or distant caves. Geochemical analysis of geological...

  • Analysis of elasmobranches from offerings 126, 141 and 165 found at the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Numerous fish from diverse species have been found inside the Great Temple offerings. These were transported from the coast to Tenochtitlan. During the seventh field season of the Templo Mayor Project, five sawfish rostra were found inside three offerings. By analyzing macro and microscopic structures, and through the comparison with modern specimens from the Ichthyology Collection of the Institute of Marine Sciences and Limnology, at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, these animals...

  • An Analysis of Funerary Food Offerings and Imagery in Theban Tombs from New Kingdom, Egypt (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Food played an important role in ancient Egyptian funerary practices, but there has not been an examination of the types of food offered. I examined food offerings and their corresponding imagery in Theban tombs from New Kingdom, Egypt (1550- 1070 BCE) in order to analyze how food in funerary rituals changed over time. Through museum records, excavation reports, and examinations of artifacts in the British Museum, the Petrie Museum and the Museo Egizio in Turin, I determined the most common food...

  • Analysis of ground stones found at a west-central Mojave Desert rock shelter site (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    CA-SBR-14 is a rock shelter site located in the South Range of Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), China Lake in the west central Mojave Desert. Subsurface investigation of the site has provided important contextual data that challenges previous interpretations of prehistoric use of the area. Artifacts collected include milling slabs on the surface of the site, fire-affected fragments that were recovered from subsurface test units, and three handstones that appear to have been deliberately placed...

  • An Analysis of Historic Glass Containers from St. George’s Caye, Belize (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    From 2009 to the present, an abundance of whole and partial glass bottle remains of various types have been recovered throughout excavations on St. George’s Caye, Belize. Much of the glass collection has been found within the island’s cemetery among an assemblage of various other historic artifacts. The majority of the bottles and bottle fragments have been identified as eighteenth and nineteenth century English cylindrical bottles. In 2016, analysis of this assemblage commenced in order to...

  • Analysis of Human Hair Bands from Old Man Cave, Utah (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    In the early 1990s, excavations conducted at Old Man Cave in southeastern Utah unearthed various Basketmaker II materials, including an incredibly well-preserved bundle of burden bands made from human hair, dog hair, and yucca cordage. Radiocarbon dating places the manufacture of these textiles between 170 BC and AD 135. The bundle, when unfolded, contained a complex set of artifacts, including two smaller fragments that appear to be carrying bands, and another far more unique woven artifact....

  • Analysis of Marine Sediment of Ancient Maya Saltworks in Paynes Creek National Park, Southern Belize. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    In this paper we present the results of archaeological research at two Classic period Maya salt works currently submerged in a shallow salt-water lagoon in Paynes Creek National Park, Southern Belize. These two contexts are part of the more than 100 locations so far identified in the area where salt was produced by boiling brine over fires near wooden structures. Through the study of marine sediment recovered at excavations from sites 24 and 35, we were able to document environmental and...

  • Analysis of Marine Sediment to Explain Sea-level Rise in Paynes Creek National Park, Belize (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Archaeological research in Paynes Creek National Park, Belize provides insight into environmental changes over time. Sea-level rise has affected coastal Maya settlements during both the Classic and Postclassic Periods. Marine sediment samples from five submerged Classic Period Maya sites were exported under permit to the Archaeology lab at Louisiana State University where the samples were analyzed using loss-on ignition and microscopic sorting. The results from loss-on ignition as well as...

  • Analysis of microbotanical remains from dental calculus: a new approach for ancient diet studies. (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Paleodiet analysis from individuals found inside the Great Temple ritual deposits have been succesfully conducted by analyzing carbon and nitrogen isotopes, with the aim of distinguishing between marine and terrestrial diets. Recently, we incorporated microbotanical analysis of dental calculus to these studies in order to search for plants remains, with the goal of having a broad picture of ancient diet and paramasticatory use of the oral cavity. For this purpose we selected individuals with...

  • Analysis of Perishable Artifacts from Conejo Shelter, Texas (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Conejo Shelter (41VV162) is a perennially dry rockshelter in the Lower Pecos region of southwest Texas. This shelter was excavated in the late 1960s by the Texas Archeological Salvage Project, an offshoot of the joint Smithsonian and National Park Service River Basin Survey program, as part of mitigation efforts during construction and inundation of Amistad Reservoir. As is common among the rockshelter habitation sites in this region, the artifact assemblage from Conejo Shelter is largely...

  • Analysis of spatial characteristics and traditional knowledge of freshwater springs as a foundation for predictive settlement modeling and identification of submarine groundwater discharge (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Modeling of late Pleistocene and early Holocene coastal regions in the northern Channel Islands and globally has provided important foundations for understanding impacts of sea level rise on the archaeological record, near coastal communities and environments during the past 20,000 years. A complex, effective model of suitable coastal locations for human settlement and habitation takes into account myriad variables, including resources such as water and less-quantifiable, cultural causes. The...

  • Analysis of the Faunal Remains at Shangjing city site, Inner Mongolia (2013 excavation) (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The Shangjing city site is located on the boundary between agricultural and herding subsistence economies in the Western Liao River Basin, eastern Inner Mongolia. The site was used as the Upper capital in the Liao Dynasty (A.D 916 - A.D. 1125) and the Northern capital city in the Jin Dynasty (A.D. 1115 - A.D. 1234). In 2013, several burials in the Liao and Jin Periods were unearthed, and more than 36,000 faunal remains, including bones and teeth, were collected systematically. Although Liao and...

  • An analysis of the Jamestown diet (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Our current knowledge of the historic fort of Jamestown in Virginia has developed through interpretation of the archaeological record and historical documents. The success of all colonies in the New World depended on the integral ability to produce food. Prior to developing a stable food source, the colonists at Jamestown relied heavily on those provisions they brought with them from England. We can learn about these provisions from ship manifests, colonists’ diaries, and inventory lists....

  • Analysis of XAD as a Pre-Treatment Method for Radiocarbon Dating Bone (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The presence of exogenous organic carbon is a major concern when radiocarbon dating bone. A particular source of error and frustration in the field of radiocarbon dating has been the analysis of bone that has undergone humification. Humification occurs during burial and results from a combination of two distinct processes: Maillard reactions involving indigenous organic carbon, and the complexation of collagen with soil humic substances. Soil humic substances—composed of fulvic acids, humic...

  • Analytical Approaches for Identifying Ritual Contexts (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Paleoethnobotanists continue to push plants into the realm of social archaeology, particularly in terms of examining how plants articulated with ancient ritual practices. The examination of the connection between plants and ritual, however, is not a straightforward process—researchers must first appropriately identify special contexts and/or foods, after which they must attribute meaning to the contexts and events they have identified. This presentation focuses on the first step – identification...

  • Analytical Challenges Posed by the Early Holocene / Late Paleoindian Activity Areas at the Water Canyon Site, West-Central New Mexico: How Do We Know What We Think We Know? (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Accuracy in the identification of Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene open activity areas and the subsequent inference of human behavior requires that non-behavioral causes for differential spatial patterning be considered before approaching the question of how patterning reflects human activities. Such challenges in the interpretation of behavioral patterning are exemplified at the Water Canyon Paleoindian site. In this paper, we initially describe the lithic and bone assemblages recovered from the...

  • Analyzing Wood-use Behavior at Wupatki Pueblo (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Wupatki Pueblo is one of the best known pre-Hispanic settlements in northern Arizona. Unfortunately, very few excavation reports exist and only a couple of successful dendrochronological analyses have been published. Through a reexamination of wooden construction elements, legacy data from previous publications, and unpublished field notes, stored at the Laboratory of Tree-ring Research, this paper presents the results of the first wood-use behavior analysis at Wupatki Pueblo. The use of a...

  • Ancestors, Agency, and Formation Processes: Interpreting Problematical "Smash and Trash Deposits" at Ka’Kabish, Belize (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Maya archaeologists commonly discover "smash-and-trash" deposits, collections consisting of large quantities of broken sherds, lithics, faunal materials, and other remains, in varying contexts on Maya sites. Interpretations of these deposits vary from simple trash or midden deposits, to remains of feasting, to termination and other rituals. These interpretations are often strongly influenced by the theoretical and analytical approaches taken by the excavators. At Ka’Kabish, Belize, a series of...

  • Ancestral Landscapes of the Salish Sea: Exploring Inland Shell Middens, Social Memory and Coast Salish Narratives (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This paper will explore indigenous and archaeological ways of understanding "inland shell middens" in the Salish Sea on the Northwest Coast, British Columbia, Canada. Archaeological evidence suggests inland shell middens represent depositional practices that may have embodied new strategies of social memory and ritual practice beginning in the Marpole Phase (2400 to 1200/1000 calBP). To move beyond the deeply-plumbed Northwest Coast ethnographic literature to interpret the archaeological past,...

  • Ancestral Ties During a Period of Social Upheaval, An Example from the Early Classic Period in the Tucson Basin (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The transition to the early Classic Period (ca. A.D. 1100-1300) in the Tucson Basin has its roots in the disintegration of long-lived pre-Classic Period (ca. A.D. 500-1100) villages in the 11th century. The break-up of these villages engendered a variety of responses among the constituent social groups including the use of ancestral ties to place, real or constructed, to stake claims to land. Early Classic period settlement at the site of AA:12:46 begins during the fluid period immediately...

  • ANCIENT CACAO GROVES IN YUCATAN: A PALYNOLOGICAL APPROACH (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Cacao had a transcendental role in the life of prehistoric people of Mesoamerica, becoming part of their economic, ideological and social system. Due to the morphological and environmental characteristics necessary for the growth of cacao tree, the main producers were concentrated in places like southern Mexico and Central America. However, written sources of the first colonizers in Yucatan disclose that the indigenous nobility of that time had at their disposal cacao orchards in different...

  • The Ancient City of Dos Hombres: Material Expressions of Power (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Investigations at the ancient Maya city of Dos Hombres have been guided by an interest in social, political and economic organization, based on architecture and material culture remains. Excavations in the civic ceremonial center of Dos Hombres have been focused in the northern plaza, a very public space that likely was a place of commerce, public ritual and sacred space, thereby the prime backdrop for publicly legitimizing authority. Newly excavated data, especially architectural exposures as...

  • Ancient Clam Gardens and Ecological Enhancement on Northern Quadra Island, BC (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Clam gardens, anthropogenic rock-walled terraces built at the lowest intertidal, are part of an ancient system of mariculture of the Indigenous people of the Northwest Coast of North America. The construction of clam gardens increased shellfish production by increasing ideal clam habitat and creating substrate preferred for clam growth. On Northern Quadra Island, where there is a dense concentration of clam gardens, we assess bivalve productivity of clam gardens by 1) calculating how much clam...

  • Ancient Clam Gardens: Exploring Cultural and Ecological Mechanisms that Enhanced Clam Production (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Emerging evidence suggests that Northwest Coast First Nations sustained and enhanced shellfish production through features known as clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces, built in the late Holocene. Experiments and surveys have revealed that clam gardens are 2-4 times more productive than non-modified clam beaches, supporting greater densities, biomass, and higher growth rates of important clam species. While heightened productivity within clam gardens is partly attributable to the...

  • Ancient Crops, Modern Possibilities: A Study on the Potential for Millet Agriculture in the United States (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Millets are among the world’s oldest crops. Unique characteristics such as their adaptation to high temperatures, drought conditions, marginal environments and low-input farming systems, make millets promising rotational in diverse agro-environments across the U.S. Millets could play a vital role in the diversification of cropping systems and provides a regionally available source of highly nutritious cereal grain. Despite being a very early domesticated cereal crop, and a major food source in...

  • Ancient DNA analysis and the Indo-European dispersal (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    New methods for analyzing ancient human DNA are introducing a new "molecular archaeology". aDNA permits us to detect mating networks, to see ancestry evolve across generations as populations expanded or died out, to track migrants and their genes across geographic space, and to say whether and with what frequency migrants and the indigenous population mated at the destination. aDNA analysis is an unprecedented tool for the study of ancient migrations, kinship, and biological adaptation. This...

  • Ancient DNA analysis of early Neolithic cattle from Houtaomuga site, Northern China (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The Houtaomuga site is located on the east bank of Xinhuangpao Lake, in Da'an County, Jilin Province, Northeast China. According to the archaeological excavations, the Houtaomuga site can be divided into seven phases from the early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age (8000-2050 BP). Although many Bos skeletal remains were found in the phases Houtaomuga III (6300-5500 cal. BP) and Houtaomuga IV (5000 cal. BP), it was very difficult to identify to the species level. In this study, ancient DNA...

  • Ancient DNA Analysis of Fish Remains from Charlie Lake Cave (HbRf-39), British Columbia, Canada (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Excavations of Charlie Lake Cave (HbRf-39) in northeastern British Columbia, Canada, have recovered well-preserved faunal remains from stratified deposits that span the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These remains represent a variety of taxa, including amphibians, birds, fish, mammals, and reptiles. A previous morphological analysis of the fish remains from the site (n=1,235) identified the majority of the fish remains as sucker (Catostomus sp.) (n=669). Due to bone fragmentation and other...

  • Ancient DNA and Historical Ecology: An Innovative Approach to Environmental Conservation (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    It is now generally accepted that humans are the primary drivers of environmental change; virtually no ecosystem has escaped our influence. With increasing awareness of the impact of humanity on the biosphere, researchers have begun to focus on understanding, protecting and perpetuating biological diversity at all scales and levels of biological organization. One of the best ways to understand current and future anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity is by studying their effects in the past....

  • Ancient DNA from Stone Tools (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Proteins and DNA can be trapped in the microcracks on the surface of stone tools, which can then be extracted and analyzed to aid in inferring the use of the tool (Shanks et al. 2001; 2005). This nondestructive method involves the use of sonication to release DNA from the microcracks, then amplification of regions of mitochondrial DNA that are species specific. This technique was applied to ground and chipped stone from the Bridge River site in British Columbia. Focus on groundstone was of...

  • Ancient DNA of a nomadic population provides evidence of the genetic structure of the royal ancient Mongols (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    The genetic diversity of the ancient Mongols, especially the Gold family of Genghis Khan remains unclear. Gangga site was a nomadic site dated to the 8th to 10th centuries AD in the HulunBuir grassland, northeast China. This site belonged to the Shiwei population, believed to be the direct ancestors of the ancient Mongols. Nine graves at the Gangga site were excavated with log coffins, which were considered the characteristic burial custom of the royal ancient Mongols, included the Gold family...

  • Ancient DNA Studies in Tropical Environments: A Study into the Genetics of the Pre-Columbian Indigenous Population of Puerto Rico (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    Studies into ancient DNA have advanced significantly in the last few years, but these have largely been absent in tropical environments. In the Caribbean, a number of questions still pertain as to the bioarchaeology of the indigenous pre-Columbian populations and the exact origin of these early inhabitants. Focusing on the skeletal remains of a late Saladoid population from Punta Candelero site (AD 640-1200), three correlated and simultaneous studies have been coordinated with the aim to...

  • Ancient DNA Studies of Domesticated Cattle in Northern China (2017)
    Citation DOCUMENT

    This study aims to use ancient DNA techniques to characterize the genetic features of ancient domesticated cattle in order to trace the origin and spread of cattle in ancient China from eight Late Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in Northern China. DNA was successfully extracted from ancient cattle bone or tooth samples in dedicated ancient DNA labs following vigorous protocols for contamination controls. This study was focused on amplifying mitochondrial D-loop using standard PCR techniques....

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Arizona State University The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities Society for American Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America