The Middle Gila Basin: An Archaeological and Historical Overview

Author(s): Claudia F. Berry; William S. Marmaduke

Year: 1982

Summary

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) , Indian Distribution Division (IDD) is designed to deliver allocated CAP water to Indian users. The Middle Gila Basin Overview is the initial cultural resources planning study for the system. It summarizes and evaluates the extant data in an area 3,570 square miles (9,139 sq km) large, centered on the Gila River.

The data suggests that archaeological sites in this area are numerous and varied, but most of all poorly-studied despite 100 years of research. A defensible culture history and chronology exists for only 35 percent of the 12,000 years of human history in the Basin. Given this, an assumption that basic interpretive frameworks are available to support sophisticated processural arguments is inaccurate. Further data analysis shows that site distributions correspond to physical and biotic zones in only the most general sense. Sites tend to be large and densely-clustered on the second terraces of major rivers; large sites, less-closely spaced are also in higher interior valleys. Sites on upper bajadas slopes appear to be specialized activity areas, while valley bottom sites contain material suggestive of encampments and villages. Most important, the patterns of previous field investigdtions more than anything else are responsible for apparent clusterings of sites. Large areas of the Middle Gila Basin remain unexplored. CAP-IDD systems are likely to encounter substantial archaeological remains along almost any intended, gravity- flow canal alignment, and in many field areas proposed for agricultural development. Of these remains, the majority can qualify, probably, for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Place because, in reality, we know so little about them.

See the appendices for a full site list.

Cite this Record

The Middle Gila Basin: An Archaeological and Historical Overview. Claudia F. Berry, William S. Marmaduke. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Research, Inc. 1982 ( tDAR id: 56713) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8FN183H

Keywords

Culture
Anglo Archaic Chiricahua Cochise Cochise Euroamerican Historic Historic Native American Hohokam Mexican-American PaleoIndian Pima San Pedro Cochise Yuman

Material
Adobe Building Materials Ceramic Chipped Stone Ground Stone Jacal Masonry Stone

Site Name
Adams School Adamsville Site Andre Building Arizona State Capitol Building Butte-Cochrane Charcoal Ovens C. H. Cook Memorial Church Casa Grande Ruins National Monument Casa Grande Stone Church Casa Grande Women's Club Cashion Site Dr. Roland Rossen House Evans House Farmer-Goodwin House First Florence Courthouse Grace Court School Ha-ak Va-ak Intaglio Library Park Mesa Grande Monroe School Neils Peterson House Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church Park of the Four Waters Phoenix Carnegie Library Phoenix Townsite Pinal County Courthouse Show More

Site Type
Administrative Site Adobe Structure Adobe Wall Agricultural or Herding Ancient Structure Archaeological Feature Artifact Scatter Bakery Ball Court Battleground Bedrock Grinding Feature Bedrock Mortar Boarding House Brick Courthouse Burial Business Building Camp Canal Canal or Canal Feature Capitol Building Catholic Church Cave Cemetery Ceremonial Cave Check Dam Show More

Investigation Types
Archaeological Overview

General
A. L. Schroeder Adolf Bandelier Ak-Chin Farm Project Archaeological Institute of America Arizona State University Cap Central Arizona Project Conoco Flor Project Cosmos Mindeleff E. E. Snyder E. F. Schmidt Early Queen Anne Style Emil Haury Frank H. Cushing Gila River Farm Project Harold Gladden Heal Lakeshore Project Hemenway Expedition I. Hayden IDD Indian Distribution Division Jackrabbit Mine Project Jesse Fewkes Julian Hayden Kaka-Stoa Pitk Water Project Show More

Geographic Keywords
04999 (Fips Code) Ak Chin Indian Reservation Arizona (State / Territory) Basin and Range Geological Province Casa Grande, AZ Chandler, AZ Coolidge, AZ Eloy, AZ Florence, AZ Fort McDowell Indian Reservation Gila River Gila River Indian Reservation Maricopa, AZ Maricopa (County) Mesa, AZ Mexican Highland Middle Gila Basin Papago Indian Reservation Papagueria Phoenix, AZ Pinal (County) Queen Creek Sacaton Mountains Salt River Salt River Indian Reservation Show More

Temporal Keywords
1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 19th Century 20th Century Civano Phase Classic Period Colonial Period Gila Butte Phase Historic Pioneer Period Prehistoric Santa Cruz Phase Sedentary Period Soho Phase

Spatial Coverage

min long: -113.687; min lat: 32.473 ; max long: -110.325; max lat: 34.298 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contact(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

Sponsor(s): Bureau of Reclamation

Prepared By(s): Northland Research

Record Identifiers

NADB Citation ID No.(s): 000000166328

NADB Document ID No.(s): 2202224

Notes

General Note: The copy of this document from which the NADB citation was made is located at the Bureau of Reclamation, Box 25007, Denver CO 80255.

File Information

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Contact(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office