Settlement, Subsistence, and Specialization In the Northern Periphery: The Waddell Project. Vols. 1 and 2

Editor(s): Margerie Green

Year: 1989


Under the sponsorship of the Bureau of Reclamation, the New Waddell Dam Borrow Areas Mitigative Data Recovery Project, more simply known as the Waddell Project, performed data recovery at 17 sites in the vicinity of Lake Pleasant, Arizona. Supplemental surveys conducted under the same contract added two sites to the inventory slated for investigation. The project area, composed of multiple survey areas, was spread across two drainages, the Agua Fria and New River, in what is considered the northern periphery of the prehistoric Hohokam culture. The sites studied included large agricultural fields, sometimes with associated surface masonry field houses; farmsteads with small numbers of pithouses; resource procurement and processing sites; and a single special-purpose crematory site.

Research efforts were organized into three broad topic areas so that all project researchers, including specialists, could gear their investigations along the same lines. At the intra-drainage level, the focus was on the individual sites and their locations with respect to the physical environment and each other. Terminology employed for agricultural features and systems in the literature was reviewed and it was proposed that the use of terms be standardized. The topographic situation, source of water (e.g., river. wash, and/or runoff), and soil conditions were identified for the different agricultural systems investigated. The functions of the various agricultural feature types were assessed. It was found, for example, that linear rock alignments tend to slow the flow of water across the fields and/or direct the flow from one portion of a field to another. A model of the development of an agricultural system was employed that helps account for the functions of certain enigmatic features (i.e., field stones) and aspects of features (i.e., gaps between rocks in alignments). Contemporaneity of sites was difficult to establish as dating was less than satisfactory, but it was possible to discern differences between one early site (primarily Colonial period) and several later sites that appeared to form a late Sacaton-Soho phase community.

At the inter-drainage level, a comparison of patterns at project sites in the two drainages was made to assess whether the drainages had been used by the same or different populations and whether specialization in subsistence resources had occurred as suggested by survey evidence. Results of ceramic and ground stone petrographic analyses as well as ethnobotanical analyses suggested the areas had been used by distinct populations and that although corn cultivation was universal, agave cultivation took place in the Agua Fria, but not the New River, drainage. Evidence also suggested that the New River study area had been used seasonally, whereas a strong case could be made for year-round occupation of the Agua Fria study area during the later time periods.

At the inter-regional level, we studied how our sites fit with those surrounding them in the northern periphery and farther afield in both the Hohokam core area and northern Arizona. Differences found between the two study areas at the inter-drainage level were used to suggest that they had different focal sites. The Beardsley Canal site was identified as a prime candidate for the Agua Fria study area's focal site and AZ T:4:10 (ASM) was suggested as the hub for the New River study area. Little, if any, contact was indicated between sites in the New River study area investigated by ACS and those to the south examined earlier by Soil Systems Inc. Based on the decrease over time in the frequencies of artifacts of Hohokam derivation (i.e., buff ware ceramics, schist palettes, and shell artifacts), it was obvious that ties with the Hohokam core area decreased concomitant with an increase in exchange with northern Arizona populations. probably those in the Prescott area.

Note that the volumes are included here as one file.

Cite this Record

Settlement, Subsistence, and Specialization In the Northern Periphery: The Waddell Project. Vols. 1 and 2. Margerie Green. Cultural Resources Report ,65. Tempe, AZ: Archaeological Consulting Services, Ltd. 1989 ( tDAR id: 77111) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8833TX1

This Resource is Part of the Following Collections


Archaic Historic Hohokam

Abies sp. Agave Agave sp. Alder Alnus sp. Amaranthaceae Amphibia Amphibian Amsinckia sp. Antelope Jackrabbit Antilocapridae Antler Aphanitic Basalt Arboreal Pollen Archaeomagnetic Sample Argillite Argopecten circularis Artemisia sp. Artiodactyla Aves Badger Basalt Bedstraw Bighorn Sheep Bird Show More

Site Name
AZ T:3:10 (ASM) AZ T:3:13 (ASM) AZ T:3:14 (ASM) AZ T:3:15 (ASM) AZ T:3:16 (ASM) AZ T:3:17 (ASM) AZ T:3:18 (ASM) AZ T:3:19 (ASM) AZ T:3:20 (ASM) AZ T:3:21 (ASM) AZ T:3:24 (ASM) AZ T:3:35 (ASM) AZ T:3:37 (SIU) AZ T:3:56 (ASU) AZ T:3:9 (ASM) AZ T:4:25 (ASM) AZ T:4:38 (ASM) AZ T:4:40 (ASM) AZ T:4:42 (ASM) AZ T:4:43 (ASM) AZ T:4:44 (ASM) AZ T:4:46 (ASM) AZ T:4:51 (ASM) AZ T:4:52 (ASM) AZ T:4:53 (ASM)

Site Type
Activity Surface Adult Burial Agricultural Field or Field Feature Agricultural or Herding Ancient Structure Andesite Structure Archaeological Feature Artifact Scatter Ash Deposit Ash Lens Ashpit Basalt Structure Boulder Burial Campground Canal Canal or Canal Feature Charcoal Stain Check Dam Chipped Stone Scatter Cobble Structure Cremation Crematory Crematory Site Domestic Structure or Architectural Complex Show More

Investigation Types
Data Recovery / Excavation

Agave Heart Andesite Biface Andesite Core Andesite Hammerstone Andesite Mano Anodonta californiensis Argillite Bead Awl Bailing Wire Barrel Hoop Basalt Axe Basalt Biface Basalt Core Basalt Flake Basalt Grinding Slab Basalt Hammerstone Basalt Mano Basalt Mortar Basalt Projectile Point Basalt Shatter Bead Biface Bone (Ammospermophilus harrisii) Bone (Amphibia) Bone (Amphibian) Show More

Geographic Keywords
04999 (Fips Code) Agua Fria River Arizona (State / Territory) Cave Creek Heiroglyphic Mountains Lake Pleasant, AZ Morgan City Wash New River Skunk Creek Table Mesa

Temporal Keywords
20th Century Colonial Period Historic Prehistoric Sacaton Phase Soho Phase

Spatial Coverage

min long: -112.333; min lat: 33.624 ; max long: -112.156; max lat: 33.911 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contact(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

Contributor(s): James Burton; Linda Scott Cummings; Richard W. Effland, Jr.; Jeffrey L. Eighmy; Elizabeth R. Elstein; Dale M. Fournier; Mark R. Hackbarth; Christine L. Hanson; Ann Valdo Howard; Johna Hutira; Steven R. James; Keith L. Katzer; Adrianne G. Rankin; M. Steven Shackley; David M. Schaller; Alfred E. Dittert; Carl Phagan; M. Steven Shackley; Christopher Adams; Robert Gasser; William Doelle; William Doolittle; Paul Fish; Suzanne Fish; Gary Nabhan; Gene Rogge; Dave Doyel; Kathy Pedrick; Monique Sawyer-Lang; Cindy Dongoske; Kurt Dongsoke; Quincie Hamby; Chris Hardaker; Greg Haynes; Donald Irwin; Phillip Lopez; Barbara Macnider; Mark Mittels; Jane Pike; Eric Rhodes; Richard Ryan; Clay Starr; Michael Sullivan; James Tyler; Mark Zyniecki; David Brajtbord; Michael Neeley; Leslie Rankin; Jeffrey Ray; Jane Ryan; Pamela Stewart; C. Marshall Hoffman; Jean Baker; Richard Effland; Denise Ryan; Yvonne Welter; John Sheppard; Garman Harbottle; Susan Shaffer; Lisa MacCollum

Field Director(s): Scott Fedick

Lab Director(s): Ann Howard

Principal Investigator(s): Margerie Green

Landowner(s): State of Arizona; Bureau of Land Management

Sponsor(s): USDI, Bureau of Reclamation

Repository(s): National Park Service Western Archaeological Conservation Center

Prepared By(s): Archaeological Consulting Services, Ltd.

Record Identifiers

NADB Citation ID No.(s): 000000167044

Project Specific Permit No.(s): 86-40

NADB Document ID No.(s): 2202940

Contract No.(s): 6-CS-30-04250


General Note: The copy of this report from which the NADB citation was made can be found at Bureau of Reclamation, Box 25007, Denver CO 80255.

File Information

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Contact(s): Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office