Settlement, Subsistence, and Specialization In the Northern Periphery: The Waddell Project. Vols. 1 and 2

Editor(s): Margerie Green

Year: 1989


Under the sponsorship of the Bureau of Reclamation, the New Waddell Dam Borrow Areas Mitigative Data Recovery Project, more simply known as the Waddell Project, performed data recovery at 17 sites in the vicinity of Lake Pleasant, Arizona. Supplemental surveys conducted under the same contract added two sites to the inventory slated for investigation. The project area, composed of multiple survey areas, was spread across two drainages, the Agua Fria and New River, in what is considered the northern periphery of the prehistoric Hohokam culture. The sites studied included large agricultural fields, sometimes with associated surface masonry field houses; farmsteads with small numbers of pithouses; resource procurement and processing sites; and a single special-purpose crematory site.

Research efforts were organized into three broad topic areas so that all project researchers, including specialists, could gear their investigations along the same lines. At the intra-drainage level, the focus was on the individual sites and their locations with respect to the physical environment and each other. Terminology employed for agricultural features and systems in the literature was reviewed and it was proposed that the use of terms be standardized. The topographic situation, source of water (e.g., river. wash, and/or runoff), and soil conditions were identified for the different agricultural systems investigated. The functions of the various agricultural feature types were assessed. It was found, for example, that linear rock alignments tend to slow the flow of water across the fields and/or direct the flow from one portion of a field to another. A model of the development of an agricultural system was employed that helps account for the functions of certain enigmatic features (i.e., field stones) and aspects of features (i.e., gaps between rocks in alignments). Contemporaneity of sites was difficult to establish as dating was less than satisfactory, but it was possible to discern differences between one early site (primarily Colonial period) and several later sites that appeared to form a late Sacaton-Soho phase community.

At the inter-drainage level, a comparison of patterns at project sites in the two drainages was made to assess whether the drainages had been used by the same or different populations and whether specialization in subsistence resources had occurred as suggested by survey evidence. Results of ceramic and ground stone petrographic analyses as well as ethnobotanical analyses suggested the areas had been used by distinct populations and that although corn cultivation was universal, agave cultivation took place in the Agua Fria, but not the New River, drainage. Evidence also suggested that the New River study area had been used seasonally, whereas a strong case could be made for year-round occupation of the Agua Fria study area during the later time periods.

At the inter-regional level, we studied how our sites fit with those surrounding them in the northern periphery and farther afield in both the Hohokam core area and northern Arizona. Differences found between the two study areas at the inter-drainage level were used to suggest that they had different focal sites. The Beardsley Canal site was identified as a prime candidate for the Agua Fria study area's focal site and AZ T:4:10 (ASM) was suggested as the hub for the New River study area. Little, if any, contact was indicated between sites in the New River study area investigated by ACS and those to the south examined earlier by Soil Systems Inc. Based on the decrease over time in the frequencies of artifacts of Hohokam derivation (i.e., buff ware ceramics, schist palettes, and shell artifacts), it was obvious that ties with the Hohokam core area decreased concomitant with an increase in exchange with northern Arizona populations. probably those in the Prescott area.

Note that the volumes are included here as one file.

Cite this Record

Settlement, Subsistence, and Specialization In the Northern Periphery: The Waddell Project. Vols. 1 and 2. Margerie Green. Cultural Resources Report ,65. Tempe, AZ: Archaeological Consulting Services, Ltd. 1989 ( tDAR id: 77111) ; doi:10.6067/XCV8833TX1


Archaic Historic Hohokam

Abies sp. Agave Agave sp. Alder Alnus sp. Amaranthaceae Amphibia Amphibian Amsinckia sp. Antelope Jackrabbit Antilocapridae Antler Aphanitic Basalt Arboreal Pollen Archaeomagnetic Sample Argillite Argopecten circularis Artemisia sp. Artiodactyla Aves Badger Basalt Bedstraw Bighorn Sheep Bird Bivalve Black-on-Grayware Black-on-Redware Black-on-Whiteware Black-tailed Jackrabbit Bobcat Boerhaavia sp. Bone Bos taurus Botta's Pocket Gopher Bovid Bovidae Buckthorn Buffaloberry Buffware Building Materials Callipepla gambelii Canidae Carnivora Carnivore Carya sp Caryophyllaceae Casa Grande Buffware Cat Cattail Celtis pallida Celtis sp. Ceramic Cercidium sp. Cereus giganteus Cereus sp. Cervid Cervidae Chalcedony Cheno-Am Chenopodiaceae Chert Chipped Stone Cholla Chuckwalla Collomia sp. Colubrid Colubridae Compositae Corn Course Sandstone Creosotebush Cricetidae Crotalus sp. Croton Croton sp. Cruciferae Cucurbita sp. Cylindropuntia sp. Cyperaceae Dacite Dating Sample Datura sp. Deadmans Black-on-Redware Deer Descurainia sp. Desert Cottontail Desert Hackberry Desert Kangaroo Rat Desert Tortoise Desert Woodrat Diorite Dipodomys cf. deserti Dipodomys sp. Dock Domestic Cattle Domestic Horse Dosinia sp. Dropseed Grass Echinocereus sp. Elm Ephedra sp. Equidae Equus caballus Erigonum sp. Erodium sp. Euphorbia sp. Even-Toed Ungulate Fauna Felidae Felis rufus Fine Sandstone Fir Fire Cracked Rock Fledspar Floyd Black-on-Grayware Fouqueria sp. Four o'Clock Freshwater Gastropod Freshwater Pelecypod Freshwater Shell Gabbro Galena Galium sp. Galliformes Gallinaceous Bird Gambel's Quail Gaura sp. Geomyidae Gila Butte Buffware Gila Plainware Gila Plainware, Gila Variety Gila Plainware, Salt Variety Gila Redware Glass Globe Mallow Glycymeris gigantea Glycymeris sp. Goosefoot Gopher Snake Gopherus agassizi Granite Granitic Rock Grass Grayware Greaswood Greenstone Ground Squirrel Ground Stone Guara Hackberry Hare Hedgehog Cactus Heliosoma sp. Hematite Hematite Ochre Heron Bill Heteromyidae High-Spine Compositae Holbrook Black-on-Whiteware Human Remains Igneous Rock Iguanidae Ironstone Ironwood Jasper Jimson Weed Jojoba Juglans sp. Juniper Juniperus sp. Kallstroemia sp. Kana'a Black-on-Whiteware Kangaroo Rat Kinosternidae Kinosternon sonoriense Kit Fox Knotweed Labiatae Laevicardium elatum Lagomorpha Land Tortoise Large Mammal Larrea sp. Leguminosae Leporidae Leptodactylon sp. Lepus californicus Lepus cf. alleni Lepus sp. Liguliflorae Liliaceae Lily Limestone Limonite Little Colorado Whiteware Lizard Low-Spine Compositae Lycium sp. Macrobotanical Maize Mammal Mammalia Mammillaria sp. Marine Gastropod Marine Pelecypod Marine Shell Masonry Medium Mammal Mesquite Metabasalt Metal Mica Micaceous Schist Mineral Mint Mirabilis sp. Mormon Tea Mud Turtle Mule Deer Muscovite Mustard Mustelidae Neotoma sp. Neritina luteofasciata Nettle Non-Arboreal Pollen Nyctaginaceae Oak Obsidian Ocotillo Odocoileus hemionus Odoileus sp. Olivella dama Olneya sp. Onagraceae Opuntia sp. Ovis canadensis Ovis sp. Painted Ware Palo Verde Pecan Pecten sp. Perissodactyl Perissodactyla Perognathus sp. Phacelia sp. Phasianidae Phlox sp. Phyllite Phyllite Schist Picea sp. Pigweed Pinctada sp. Pincushion Cactus Pine Pink Pinus sp. Pituophis melanoleucus Plainware Plantago sp. Plantain Plastic Poaceae Pocket Gopher Pocket Mouse Polemoniaceae Pollen Polychrome Ware Shell Wood Show More

Site Name
AZ T:3:10 (ASM) AZ T:3:13 (ASM) AZ T:3:14 (ASM) AZ T:3:15 (ASM) AZ T:3:16 (ASM) AZ T:3:17 (ASM) AZ T:3:18 (ASM) AZ T:3:19 (ASM) AZ T:3:20 (ASM) AZ T:3:21 (ASM) AZ T:3:24 (ASM) AZ T:3:35 (ASM) AZ T:3:37 (SIU) AZ T:3:56 (ASU) AZ T:3:9 (ASM) AZ T:4:25 (ASM) AZ T:4:38 (ASM) AZ T:4:40 (ASM) AZ T:4:42 (ASM) AZ T:4:43 (ASM) AZ T:4:44 (ASM) AZ T:4:46 (ASM) AZ T:4:51 (ASM) AZ T:4:52 (ASM) AZ T:4:53 (ASM)

Site Type
Activity Surface Adult Burial Agricultural Field or Field Feature Agricultural or Herding Ancient Structure Andesite Structure Archaeological Feature Artifact Scatter Ash Deposit Ash Lens Ashpit Basalt Structure Boulder Burial Campground Canal Canal or Canal Feature Charcoal Stain Check Dam Chipped Stone Scatter Cobble Structure Cremation Crematory Crematory Site Domestic Structure or Architectural Complex Domestic Structures Farmstead Feed Trough Field Field House Field Stone Fire-Cracked Rock Concentration Funerary and Burial Structures or Features Granite Structure Gridded Rock Alignment Ground Stone Scatter Historic Structure Horno Isolated Artifact Isolated Feature Linear Rock Alignment Lithic Scatter Living Surface Masonry Field House Midden Mixing Pit Parching Surface Petroglyph Pit Pit House Pit House / Earth Lodge Post Hole Post Hole / Post Mold Potbust Ramada Refuse Pit Resource Extraction / Production / Transportation Structure or Features Roasting Pit Roasting Pit / Oven / Horno Rock Alignment Rock Arc Rock Art Rock Cluster Rockpile Rock Scatter Semicircular Rock Alignment Settlements Shade Structure / Ramada Sherd Lens Sherd Scatter Storage Structure Structure Surface Trash Deposit Trash Midden Trash Mound Trash Pit Trough Water Control Feature Water trough Windbreak Wooden Trough Young Adult Burial Show More

Investigation Types
Data Recovery / Excavation

Agave Heart Andesite Biface Andesite Core Andesite Hammerstone Andesite Mano Anodonta californiensis Argillite Bead Awl Bailing Wire Barrel Hoop Basalt Axe Basalt Biface Basalt Core Basalt Flake Basalt Grinding Slab Basalt Hammerstone Basalt Mano Basalt Mortar Basalt Projectile Point Basalt Shatter Bead Biface Bone (Ammospermophilus harrisii) Bone (Amphibia) Bone (Amphibian) Bone (Animal) Bone (Antelope Jackrabbit) Bone (Antelope Squirrel) Bone (Antilocapra americana) Bone (Antilocapra sp.) Bone (Artiodactyla) Bone (Aves) Bone (Badger) Bone (Bighorn Sheep) Bone (Bird) Bone (Black-Tailed Jackrabbit) Bone (Bobcat) Bone (Bos taurus) Bone (Botta's Pocket Gopher) Bone (Bovid) Bone (Bovidae) Bone (Callipepla gambelii) Bone (Canidae) Bone (Canis familiaris) Bone (Canis latrans) Bone (Carnivora) Bone (Carnivore) Bone (Cat) Bone (Cervid) Bone (Cervidae) Bone (cf. Bos taurus) Bone (cf. Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Bone (cf. Kinosternon sp.) Bone (cf. Vulpes macrotis) Bone (Chuckwalla) Bone (Colubrid) Bone (Colubridae) Bone (Cricetidae) Bone (Crotalus sp.) Bone (Deer) Bone (Desert Cottontail) Bone (Desert Kangaroo Rat) Bone (Desert Tortoise) Bone (Desert Woodrat) Bone (Dipodomys sp.) Bone (Dipomomys cf. deserti) Bone (Domestic Cattle) Bone (Domestic Horse) Bone (Equidae) Bone (Equus caballus) Bone (Even-Toed Ungulate) Bone (Felis rufus) Bone (Fellidae) Bone (Galliformes) Bone (Gallinaceous Bird) Bone (Gambel's Quail) Bone (Geomyidae) Bone (Gopher Snake) Bone (Gopherus agassizi) Bone (Ground Squirrel) Bone (Hare) Bone (Heteromyidae) Bone (Human) Bone (Iguanidae) Bone (Kangaroo Rat) Bone (Kinosternidae) Bone (Kinosternon sonoreinse) Bone (Kit Fox) Bone (Lagomorpha) Bone (Land Tortoise) Bone (Large Mammal) Bone (Leporidae) Bone (Lepus californicus) Bone (Lepus cf. alleni) Bone (Lepus sp.) Bone (Lizard) Bone (Mammal) Bone (Mammalia) Bone (Medium Mammal) Bone (Mud Turtle) Bone (Mule Deer) Bone (Mustelidae) Bone (Neotoma sp.) Bone (Odocoileus hemionus) Bone (Odocoileus sp.) Bone (Ovis canadensis) Bone (Ovis sp.) Bone (Perissodactyl) Bone (Perissodactyla) Bone (Perognathus sp.) Bone (Phasianidae) Bone (Pituophis malenoleucus) Bone (Pocket Gopher) Bone (Pocket Mouse) Bone (Pronghorn) Bone (Rattlesnake) Bone (Reptile) Bone (Reptilia) Bone (Rodent) Bone (Rodentia) Bone (Salienta) Bone (Sauria) Bone (Sauromalus obesus) Bone (Sciuridae) Bone (Serpentes) Bone (Small Carnivora) Bone (Small Mammal) Bone (Snake) Bone (Sonora Mud Turtle) Bone (Spermophilus so.) Bone (Spermophilus tereticaudeus) Bone (Squamata) Bone (Squirrel) Bone (Sylvilagus audubonii) Bone (Taxidea taxus) Bone (Testudinata) Bone (Testudinidae) Bone (Thomomys bottae) Bone (Thomomys sp.) Bone (Turtle) Bone (Viper) Bone (Viperidae) Bone (Vulpes macrotis) Bone Awl Bone Hairpin Bone Human Bone Tube Bottle Bowl Bracelet Brick Bucket Calcaneus (Human) Can Cap Central Arizona Project Ceramic Bowl Ceramic Jar Ceramic Scoop Ceramic Spindle Whorl Ceramic Vessel Chalcedony Biface Chalcedony Core Chalcedony Flake Chalcedony Projectile Point Chalcedony Shatter Cheno-Am Chert Biface Chert Core Chert Drill Chert Flake Chert Projectile Point Chert Shatter Cholla Chopper Clay Spindle Whorl Core Cranial Bone (Human) Cranial Vault (Human) Cupule (Corn) Cut Long Bone Dacite Biface Dacite Core Dacite Flake Dacite Hammerstone Dacite Shatter Degenerative Joint Disease Diorite Core Diorite Hammerstone Diorite Mano Disk Drill Femur (Human) Femur (Kinosternon sp.) Femur (Mud Turtle) Fibula (Human) Flake Flotation Sample Glass Bottle Glass Insulator Glume (Corn) Granite Mano Grass Grinding Slab Hairpin Hammerstone Hoe Hole-In-Top Can Humerus (Human) Igenous Rock Mano Insulator Jar Jasper Biface Jasper Core Jasper Flake Jasper Projectile Point Jasper Shatter Knife Long Bone (Human) Lumbar Vertebra (Human) Mandible (Human) Mano Mastoid (Human) Maxilla (Human) Medicine Bottle Metabasalt Core Metabasalt Hammerstone Metal Barrel Hoop Metate Mortar Mosaic Piece Nail New Waddell Dam Borrow Areas Mitigative Data Recovery Project Obsidian Biface Obsidian Core Obsidian Flake Obsidian Projectile Point Obsidian Shatter Occipital (Human) Olla One-Hand Mano Osteoarthritis Osteophyte Painted Bone Palette Parietal (Human) Patella (Human) Pelvis (Human) Pendant Perforated Antler Perforated Disk Perforated Shell Phalange (Human) Phyllite Disk Phyllite-Schist Palette Phyllite-Schist Pendant Show More

Geographic Keywords
04999 (Fips Code) Agua Fria River Arizona (State / Territory) Cave Creek Heiroglyphic Mountains Lake Pleasant, AZ Morgan City Wash New River Skunk Creek Table Mesa

Temporal Keywords
20th Century Colonial Period Historic Prehistoric Sacaton Phase Soho Phase

Spatial Coverage

min long: -112.333; min lat: 33.624 ; max long: -112.156; max lat: 33.911 ;

Individual & Institutional Roles

Contact(s): USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office

Contributor(s): James Burton; Linda Scott Cummings; Richard W. Effland, Jr.; Jeffrey L. Eighmy; Elizabeth R. Elstein; Dale M. Fournier; Mark R. Hackbarth; Christine L. Hanson; Ann Valdo Howard; Johna Hutira; Steven R. James; Keith L. Katzer; Adrianne G. Rankin; M. Steven Shackley; David M. Schaller; Alfred E. Dittert; Carl Phagan; M. Steven Shackley; Christopher Adams; Robert Gasser; William Doelle; William Doolittle; Paul Fish; Suzanne Fish; Gary Nabhan; Gene Rogge; Dave Doyel; Kathy Pedrick; Monique Sawyer-Lang; Cindy Dongoske; Kurt Dongsoke; Quincie Hamby; Chris Hardaker; Greg Haynes; Donald Irwin; Phillip Lopez; Barbara Macnider; Mark Mittels; Jane Pike; Eric Rhodes; Richard Ryan; Clay Starr; Michael Sullivan; James Tyler; Mark Zyniecki; David Brajtbord; Michael Neeley; Leslie Rankin; Jeffrey Ray; Jane Ryan; Pamela Stewart; C. Marshall Hoffman; Jean Baker; Richard Effland; Denise Ryan; Yvonne Welter; John Sheppard; Garman Harbottle; Susan Shaffer; Lisa MacCollum

Field Director(s): Scott Fedick

Lab Director(s): Ann Howard

Principal Investigator(s): Margerie Green

Landowner(s): State of Arizona; Bureau of Land Management

Sponsor(s): USDI, Bureau of Reclamation

Repository(s): Huhugam Heritage Center

Prepared By(s): Archaeological Consulting Services, Ltd.

Record Identifiers

Project Specific Permit No.(s): 86-40

NADB Citation ID No.(s): 000000167044

NADB Document ID No.(s): 2202940

Contract No.(s): 6-CS-30-04250


General Note: The copy of this report from which the NADB citation was made can be found at Bureau of Reclamation, Box 25007, Denver CO 80255.

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Contact(s): USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office